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Stearidonic acid

Marta K Zamroziewicz, Erick J Paul, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence indicates that cognitive decline depends not only upon changes in brain health, but critically, also upon nutritional status. Decline in fluid intelligence, one of the most debilitating aspects of cognitive aging, has been linked to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status; however, it is not known whether this phenomenon results from specific omega-3 PUFAs acting on particular aspects of brain health. Therefore, this study aims to explore whether particular patterns of omega-3 PUFAs influence fluid intelligence by supporting specific neural structures...
May 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
José Pedro Cañavate, Isabel Armada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
The use of fatty acids (FA) to infer structure of phytoplankton assemblages and as indicators of microalgae nutritional value is acquiring relevance in modern phytoplankton ecology and new advances concerning factors influencing FA variability among microalgae are demanded. In this regard, the relationship between phosphorus and FA remains particularly little studied in marine phytoplankton. In the present study, we focus on phosphate effects on FA from a diversified set of marine microalgae and provide new insights into the applicability of FA in phytoplankton trophic ecology...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Natalie Lefort, Rémi LeBlanc, Marc E Surette
Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil is a dietary oil rich in stearidonic acid (20% SDA; 18:4 n-3). The present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of three Ahiflower oil dosages on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of plasma and mononuclear cells (MCs) and of the highest Ahiflower dosage on stimulated cytokine production in blood. Healthy subjects (n = 88) consumed 9.7 mL per day for 28 days of 100% high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO); 30% Ahiflower oil (Ahi) + 70% HOSO; 60% Ahi + 40% HOSO; and 100% Ahi...
March 10, 2017: Nutrients
Pan Pan, Chad W Skaer, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Michael A Kreiser, Steven M Stirdivant, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Matthew R Young, Li-Shu Wang
INTRODUCTION: Freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) elicit chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer in humans and in rodents. The objective of this study was to investigate potential BRB-caused metabolite changes using wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: WT mice were fed either control diet or control diet supplemented with 5% BRBs for 8 wk. A nontargeted metabolomic analysis was conducted on colonic mucosa, liver, and fecal specimens collected from both diet groups...
February 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Heather L Mariash, Mathieu Cusson, Milla Rautio
Diapause, which occurs through the production of dormant eggs, is a strategy used by some zooplankton to avoid winter months of persistent low temperatures and low food availability. However, reports of active zooplankton under the ice indicate that other strategies also exist. This study was aimed at evaluating whether the composition of storage lipids in the fall differs between diapausing and active overwintering Daphnia. We assessed the quantity of storage lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition of Daphnia species, along with FA content of seston, in six boreal, alpine and subarctic lakes at the onset of winter, and evaluated the association between storage lipids and Daphnia overwintering strategy...
December 15, 2016: Lipids
Carolina de Los Reyes, María J Ortega, Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Elena Talero, Virginia Motilva, Eva Zubía
Isochrysis galbana is a marine microalga rich in PUFAs that is widely used as feed in aquaculture and more recently investigated for its potential in food applications and as source of bioactive compounds. In this study, the biomass obtained from cultures of I. galbana has been investigated to determine its content in glycosylglycerides and glycosylceramides. By using NMR, UPLC-MS/MS, and fatty acid profiles, the structures of ten monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs 1-10) and nine digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs 11-19) have been established...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
José Luis Guil-Guerrero, Francisco Gómez-Mercado, Rebeca Pilar Ramos-Bueno, María José González-Fernández, Miguel Urrestarazu, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera
The aim of this work was to establish the richness in γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n3) of several Sardinian Boraginaceae species. To this end, seeds of selected species were collected from their natural habitats and analysed. The highest GLA contents were found in the seed oils of two endemic Borago taxa, i.e. B. morisiana (24.4 and 24.6% GLA of total fatty acids for samples from San Pietro Island and Sardinia Island, respectively), and 22.9% GLA for B. pygmaea. Both Borago species contained more GLA than B...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Daniel Eugenio Gaytán-Luna, Ana Erika Ochoa-Alfaro, Alejandro Rocha-Uribe, Ana Silvia Pérez-Martínez, Ángel Gabriel Alpuche-Solís, Ruth Elena Soria-Guerra
Microalgae have the potential to accumulate triacylglycerols under different light spectra. In this work, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was grown under white (400-700 nm), red (650 nm), and green (550 nm) lights. According to our results, red light (650 nm) has a positive effect in the microalgae growth and chlorophyll concentration. About the lipid content, the control culture (white light-illuminated) reached a 4.4% of dry cell weight (dcw), whereas the culture grown at 550 nm showed an increase of 1.35-fold in the lipids accumulation (5...
November 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Ella J Baker, Elizabeth A Miles, Graham C Burdge, Parveen Yaqoob, Philip C Calder
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the substrate for the synthesis of longer-chain, more unsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA are associated with human health benefits. The primary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. There is a need for sustainable sources of biologically active ω-3 fatty acids. Certain plants contain high concentrations of ALA and stearidonic acid (SDA). Here we review the literature on the metabolism of ALA and SDA in humans, the impact of increased ALA and SDA consumption on concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood and cell lipid pools, and the extent to which ALA and SDA might have health benefits...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Hyunwoo Park, Steven Weier, Fareha Razvi, Pamela A Peña, Neil A Sims, Jennica Lowell, Cory Hungate, Karma Kissinger, Gavin Key, Paul Fraser, Johnathan A Napier, Edgar B Cahoon, Tom E Clemente
Soya bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sought after for both its oil and protein components. Genetic approaches to add value to either component are ongoing efforts in soya bean breeding and molecular biology programmes. The former is the primary vegetable oil consumed in the world. Hence, its primary usage is in direct human consumption. As a means to increase its utility in feed applications, thereby expanding the market of soya bean coproducts, we investigated the simultaneous displacement of marine ingredients in aquafeeds with soya bean-based protein and a high Omega-3 fatty acid soya bean oil, enriched with alpha-linolenic and stearidonic acids, in both steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Kampachi (Seriola rivoliana)...
February 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Bertrand Matthäus, Choijiljav Otgonbayar
Seeds of 25 members of the family Saxifragaceae, 1 × Astilbe, 1 × Darmera, 1 × Leptarrhena, 1 × Tellima, 3 × Mitella, and 18 × Saxifraga were investigated regarding oil content, as well as composition and content of fatty acids and vitamin E active compounds. The results were compared with results obtained from literature for members of the genus Ribes belonging to the closely related family Grossulariaceae to find chemometric differences between the different genera and between members of the family Saxifragaceae and Grossulariaceae, respectively...
November 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Tomáš Řezanka, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
Regioisomers and enantiomers of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing any combination of stearidonic (18:4n-3) and octadecapentaenoic (18:5n-3) acids were prepared by organic synthesis. Gradient polar organic liquid chromatography/high resolution atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (NARP-LC/HRMS(2)-APCI) and chiral liquid chromatography were used for the separation and identification of molecular species of these TAGs. Further, NARP-LC and chiral LC were used to separate natural mixtures of TAGs obtained from the haptophyte alga Coccolithophora sp...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
M P Aardsma, C M Parsons
The precision-fed rooster assay (PFRA) frequently yields TMEn values for fats and oils in excess of their gross energies. Six experiments were conducted to determine if the PFRA could be combined with a slope-ratio type assay to yield more useful lipid TMEn values. In experiment (EXP) 1, refined corn oil (RCO) was fed to conventional and cecectomized roosters at zero, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of a ground corn diet. In EXP 2 through 6, lipids were fed to conventional roosters at zero, 5, and 10% in a ground corn diet...
January 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Linda Nedbalová, Antonín Střížek, Karel Sigler, Tomáš Řezanka
Non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was used for separation of triacylglycerols from five strains of haptophyte algae (genera Coccolithophora, Isochrysis, and Prymnesium). This study describes the separation and identification of C18 polyunsaturated triacylglycerols containing stearidonic and octadecapentaenoic fatty acids, including their regioisomers. Salinity affects the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Aline de Piano-Ganen, Lila Missae Oyama, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato de Souza, Aline Dal'Olio Gomes, Renata Guimarães Moreira, Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Claudia Maria Oller do Nascimento, Lian Tock, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana R Dâmaso
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if interdisciplinary therapy can influence the cardiometabolic and serum free fatty acid profile. The second aim was to evaluate if there is an association between serum free fatty acids, inflammation and cardiometabolic biomarkers in obese adolescents with and without metabolic syndrome submitted to a long-term interdisciplinary therapy. The study involved 108 postpuberty obese adolescents, who were divided according to metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnosis: MetS (n=32) and Non-MetS (n=76)...
July 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Katrin Kuhnt, Stefanie Weiß, Michael Kiehntopf, Gerhard Jahreis
BACKGROUND: A plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) omega (n)-3 PUFA supply in humans involves dietary supplementation with oils containing α-linolenic acid (ALA) alone or in combination with stearidonic acid (SDA). The study aimed to compare the effects of echium oil (EO) and linseed oil (LO) on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and on clinical markers. METHODS: In two double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled studies, all volunteers started with 17 g/d run-in oil (2 weeks)...
February 18, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Manuela Renna, Carola Lussiana, Paolo Cornale, Luca Maria Battaglini, Riccardo Fortina, Antonio Mimosi
This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA)...
February 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Annette Jaya-Ram, Alexander Chong Shu-Chien, Meng-Kiat Kuah
Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion...
August 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Natalie Lefort, Rémi LeBlanc, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Marc E Surette
Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Ebenezer A Ifeduba, Casimir C Akoh
The antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction (MR)-modified gelatin (GE)-gum arabic (GA) coacervates was optimized to produce microcapsules with superior oxidative stability compared to the unmodified control. MR was used to crosslink GE and GA, with or without maltodextrin (MD), to produce anti-oxidative Maillard reaction products (MRP) which was used to encapsulate stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) by complex coacervation. Biopolymer blends (GE-GA [1:1, w/w] or GE-GA-MD [2:2:1, w/w/w]) were crosslinked by dry-heating at 80°C for 4, 8, or 16h...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
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