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Stearidonic acid

José Luis Guil-Guerrero, Francisco Gómez-Mercado, Rebeca Pilar Ramos-Bueno, María José González-Fernández, Miguel Urrestarazu, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera
The aim of this work was to establish the richness in γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n3) of several Sardinian Boraginaceae species. To this end, seeds of selected species were collected from their natural habitats and analysed. The highest GLA contents were found in the seed oils of two endemic Borago taxa, i.e. B. morisiana (24.4 and 24.6% GLA of total fatty acids for samples from San Pietro Island and Sardinia Island, respectively), and 22.9% GLA for B. pygmaea. Both Borago species contained more GLA than B...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Daniel Eugenio Gaytán Luna, Ana Erika Ochoa Alfaro, Alejandro Rocha-Uribe, Ana Silvia Pérez-Martínez, Ángel Gabriel Alpuche-Solís, Ruth Elena Soria-Guerra
Microalgae have the potential to accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) under different light spectra. In this work Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was grown under white (400-700 nm), red (650 nm) and green (550 nm) lights. According to our results, red light (650nm) has a positive effect in the microalgae growth and chlorophyll concentration. Regarding the lipid content, the control culture (white light-illuminated) reached a 4.4% of dry cell weight (dcw) while the culture grown at 550nm showed an increase in the lipids accumulation of 1...
September 27, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Ella J Baker, Elizabeth A Miles, Graham C Burdge, Parveen Yaqoob, Philip C Calder
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the substrate for the synthesis of longer-chain, more unsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA are associated with human health benefits. The primary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. There is a need for sustainable sources of biologically active ω-3 fatty acids. Certain plants contain high concentrations of ALA and stearidonic acid (SDA). Here we review the literature on the metabolism of ALA and SDA in humans, the impact of increased ALA and SDA consumption on concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood and cell lipid pools, and the extent to which ALA and SDA might have health benefits...
August 3, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Hyunwoo Park, Steven Weier, Fareha Razvi, Pamela A Peña, Neil A Sims, Jennica Lowell, Cory Hungate, Karma Kissinger, Gavin Key, Paul Fraser, Johnathan A Napier, Edgar B Cahoon, Tom E Clemente
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sought after for both its oil and protein components. Genetic approaches to add value to either component are ongoing efforts in soybean breeding and molecular biology programs. The former is the primary vegetable oil consumed in the world. Hence, its primary usage is in direct human consumption. As a means to increase its utility in feed applications, thereby expanding the market of soybean co-products, we investigated the simultaneous displacement of marine ingredients in aquafeeds with soybean-based protein and a high omega-3 fatty acid soybean oil, enriched with alpha-linolenic and stearidonic acids, in both steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Kampachi (Seriola rivoliana)...
August 6, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Bertrand Matthäus, Choijiljav Otgonbayar
Seeds of 25 members of the family Saxifragaceae, 1 x Astilbe, 1 x Darmera, 1 x Leptarrhena, 1 x Tellima, 3 x Mitella and 18 x Sagifraga were investigated regarding oil content, as well as composition and content of fatty acids and vitamin E active compounds. The results were compared with results obtained from literature for members of the genus Ribes belonging to the closely related family Grossulariaceae to find chemometric differences between the different genera and between members of the family Saxifragaceae and Grossulariaceae, respectively...
July 27, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Tomáš Řezanka, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
Regioisomers and enantiomers of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing any combination of stearidonic (18:4n-3) and octadecapentaenoic (18:5n-3) acids were prepared by organic synthesis. Gradient polar organic liquid chromatography/high resolution atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (NARP-LC/HRMS(2)-APCI) and chiral liquid chromatography were used for the separation and identification of molecular species of these TAGs. Further, NARP-LC and chiral LC were used to separate natural mixtures of TAGs obtained from the haptophyte alga Coccolithophora sp...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
M P Aardsma, C M Parsons
The precision-fed rooster assay (PFRA) frequently yields TMEn values for fats and oils in excess of their gross energies. Six experiments were conducted to determine if the PFRA could be combined with a slope-ratio type assay to yield more useful lipid TMEn values. In experiment (EXP) 1, refined corn oil (RCO) was fed to conventional and cecectomized roosters at zero, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of a ground corn diet. In EXP 2 through 6, lipids were fed to conventional roosters at zero, 5, and 10% in a ground corn diet...
June 22, 2016: Poultry Science
Linda Nedbalová, Antonín Střížek, Karel Sigler, Tomáš Řezanka
Non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was used for separation of triacylglycerols from five strains of haptophyte algae (genera Coccolithophora, Isochrysis, and Prymnesium). This study describes the separation and identification of C18 polyunsaturated triacylglycerols containing stearidonic and octadecapentaenoic fatty acids, including their regioisomers. Salinity affects the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Aline de Piano-Ganen, Lila Missae Oyama, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato de Souza, Aline Dal'Olio Gomes, Renata Guimarães Moreira, Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Claudia Maria Oller do Nascimento, Lian Tock, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana R Dâmaso
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if interdisciplinary therapy can influence the cardiometabolic and serum free fatty acid profile. The second aim was to evaluate if there is an association between serum free fatty acids, inflammation and cardiometabolic biomarkers in obese adolescents with and without metabolic syndrome submitted to a long-term interdisciplinary therapy. The study involved 108 postpuberty obese adolescents, who were divided according to metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnosis: MetS (n=32) and Non-MetS (n=76)...
July 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Katrin Kuhnt, Stefanie Weiß, Michael Kiehntopf, Gerhard Jahreis
BACKGROUND: A plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) omega (n)-3 PUFA supply in humans involves dietary supplementation with oils containing α-linolenic acid (ALA) alone or in combination with stearidonic acid (SDA). The study aimed to compare the effects of echium oil (EO) and linseed oil (LO) on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and on clinical markers. METHODS: In two double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled studies, all volunteers started with 17 g/d run-in oil (2 weeks)...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Manuela Renna, Carola Lussiana, Paolo Cornale, Luca Maria Battaglini, Riccardo Fortina, Antonio Mimosi
This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA)...
February 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Annette Jaya-Ram, Alexander Chong Shu-Chien, Meng-Kiat Kuah
Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion...
August 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Natalie Lefort, Rémi LeBlanc, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Marc E Surette
Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Ebenezer A Ifeduba, Casimir C Akoh
The antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction (MR)-modified gelatin (GE)-gum arabic (GA) coacervates was optimized to produce microcapsules with superior oxidative stability compared to the unmodified control. MR was used to crosslink GE and GA, with or without maltodextrin (MD), to produce anti-oxidative Maillard reaction products (MRP) which was used to encapsulate stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) by complex coacervation. Biopolymer blends (GE-GA [1:1, w/w] or GE-GA-MD [2:2:1, w/w/w]) were crosslinked by dry-heating at 80°C for 4, 8, or 16h...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Gema Flores, María Luisa Ruiz del Castillo
Black currant seeds are obtained as a residue during juice production. Black currant seed oil contains high amounts of nutritionally desirable constituents such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SA), as well as certain phenolic acids, which act as natural antioxidants. Fatty acids and phenolic acids of seeds from black currant cultivars after elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MJ) were examined. GLA contents around 25% with respect to total fatty acid content were measured in seeds after pre-harvest treatment of black currants with 0...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Sun Hee Kim, Kyung Hee Roh, Jong-Sug Park, Kwang-Soo Kim, Hyun Uk Kim, Kyeong-Ryeol Lee, Han-Chul Kang, Jong-Bum Kim
Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ(6)-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ(5)-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES) under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in Arabidopsis seeds...
2015: BioMed Research International
Gonçalo S Marinho, Susan L Holdt, Charlotte Jacobsen, Irini Angelidaki
This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013-2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%-0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3...
July 2015: Marine Drugs
Ji Yeon Baik, Nam Ho Kim, Se-Wook Oh, In-Hwan Kim
Stearidonic acid (SDA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), can be obtained from plant origin oils and it can be a good source of PUFA for vegetarians. SDA can be easily converted to longer PUFA such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Highly purified stearidonic acid (SDA) was prepared successfully from echium oil via an enzymatic method combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography. In the 1(st) step, SDA enrichment was accomplished using Candida rugosa lipase and 39...
2015: Journal of Oleo Science
Vijay J Gadkar, Martin Filion
Selection of a stably expressed reference gene (RG) is an important step for generating reliable and reproducible quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) gene expression data. We, in this study, have sought to validate RGs for Buglossoides arvensis, a high nutraceutical value plant whose refined seed oil is entering the market under the commercial trade name Ahiflower™. This weed plant has received attention for its natural ability to significantly accumulate the poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) stearidonic acid (SDA, C18:4n-3) in its seeds, which is uncommon for most plant species...
2015: SpringerPlus
Melissa L Bainbridge, Adam L Lock, Jana Kraft
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of feeding lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO) on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design with 14 day periods. Treatments were a control diet (no supplemental fat), 1.5% dry matter (DM) as EEO and 3.0% DM as EEO. Treatments had no negative effect on animal performance (dry matter intake, milk yield, and fat yield). The milk fat content of total n-3 fatty acids and stearidonic acid (SDA) increased with EEO supplementation (P < 0...
May 20, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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