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Lipid mediators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054476/extracellular-vesicles-as-emerging-targets-in-cancer-recent-development-from-bench-to-bedside
#1
REVIEW
Kerui Wu, Fei Xing, Shih-Ying Wu, Kounosuke Watabe
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important players of cancer initiation and progression through cell-cell communication. They have been recognized as critical mediators of extracellular communications, which promote transformation, growth invasion, and drug-resistance of cancer cells. Interestingly, the secretion and uptake of EVs are regulated in a more controlled manner than previously anticipated. EVs are classified into three groups, (i) exosomes, (ii) microvesicles (MVs), and (iii) apoptotic bodies (ABs), based on their sizes and origins, and novel technologies to isolate and distinguish these EVs are evolving...
October 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054153/colorimetric-analysis-of-lipopolysaccharides-based-on-its-self-assembly-to-inhibit-ion-transport
#2
Defeng Li, Tuanwei Sun, Wenjun Zhang, Zhongming Shen, Juan Zhang
A new strategy is proposed based on inhibition of ion transport by lipid bilayer derived from spontaneous assembly of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), thereby a colorimetric method is established for analysis of LPS. At acidic pH values, LPS can specially bind with aminophenylboronic acid modified assembled magnetic nanospheres (APBA/AMNSs), resulting in formation of lipid bilayer around APBA/AMNSs. Under acidic condition, the lipid bilayer can inhibit the release of iron ions from AMNSs into the solution so as to decrease the oxidized extent of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt mediated by hydrogen peroxide...
November 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054131/detection-of-h2o2-with-fluorescent-dyes
#3
Flavia Rezende, Ralph P Brandes, Katrin Schröder
SIGNIFICANCE: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a powerful effector of redox signaling. It is able to oxidize cysteine residues, metal ion centers and lipids. Understanding H2O2-mediated signaling requires, to some extent, measurement of H2O2 level. Recent Advances: Chemically and genetically encoded fluorescent probes for the detection of H2O2 are currently the most sensitive and popular. Novel probes are constantly being developed; with the latest progress particular with boronates and genetically encoded probes...
October 20, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053142/resolution-of-inflammation-and-sepsis-survival-are-improved-by-dietary-%C3%AE-3-fatty-acids
#4
Andreas Körner, Martin Schlegel, Julia Theurer, Hannes Frohnmeyer, Michael Adolph, Marieke Heijink, Martin Giera, Peter Rosenberger, Valbona Mirakaj
Critical conditions such as sepsis following infection or traumatic injury disturb the complex state of homeostasis that may lead to uncontrolled inflammation resulting in organ failure, shock and death. They are associated with endogenous mediators that control the onset of acute inflammatory response, but the central problem remains the complete resolution of inflammation. Omega-3 enriched lipid emulsions (Ω-3(+) LEs) were used in experimental studies and clinical trials to establish homeostasis, yet with little understanding about their role on the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration...
October 20, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052471/a-review-about-lycopene-induced-nuclear-hormone-receptor-signalling-in-inflammation-and-lipid-metabolism-via-still-unknown-endogenous-apo-10%C3%A2-lycopenoids
#5
Catherine Caris-Veyrat, Ada L Garcia, Eric Reynaud, Renata Lucas, Gamze Aydemir, Ralph Rühl
Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and tomato products and is an important dietary carotenoid found in the human organism. Lycopene-isomers, oxidative lycopene metabolites and apo-lycopenoids are found in the food matrix. Lycopene intake derived from tomato consumption is associated with alteration of lipid metabolism and a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Lycopene is mainly described as a potent antioxidant but novel studies are shifting towards its metabolites and their capacity to mediate nuclear receptor signalling...
October 20, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052145/cell-death-pathways-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-neuroscientists
#6
REVIEW
G Morris, A J Walker, M Berk, M Maes, B K Puri
In the first part, the following mechanisms involved in different forms of cell death are considered, with a view to identifying potential therapeutic targets: tumour necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) and their engagement by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP)-1 cleavage; the apoptosis signalling kinase (ASK)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) axis; lysosomal permeability; activation of programmed necrotic cell death; oxidative stress, caspase-3 inhibition and parthanatos; activation of inflammasomes by reactive oxygen species and the development of pyroptosis; oxidative stress, calcium dyshomeostasis and iron in the development of lysosomal-mediated necrosis and lysosomal membrane permeability; and oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, iron dyshomeostasis and ferroptosis...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051536/feasibility-and-physiological-relevance-of-designing-highly-potent-aminopeptidase-sparing-leukotriene-a4-hydrolase-inhibitors
#7
Shin Numao, Franziska Hasler, Claire Laguerre, Honnappa Srinivas, Nathalie Wack, Petra Jäger, Andres Schmid, Arnaud Osmont, Patrik Röthlisberger, Jeremy Houguenade, Christian Bergsdorf, Janet Dawson, Nathalie Carte, Andreas Hofmann, Christian Markert, Liz Hardaker, Andreas Billich, Romain M Wolf, Carlos A Penno, Birgit Bollbuck, Wolfgang Miltz, Till A Röhn
Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that comprises both epoxide hydrolase and aminopeptidase activity, exerted by two overlapping catalytic sites. The epoxide hydrolase function of the enzyme catalyzes the biosynthesis of the pro-inflammatory lipid mediator leukotriene (LT) B4. Recent literature suggests that the aminopeptidase function of LTA4H is responsible for degradation of the tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) for which neutrophil chemotactic activity has been postulated. It has been speculated that the design of epoxide hydrolase selective LTA4H inhibitors that spare the aminopeptidase pocket may therefore lead to more efficacious anti-inflammatory drugs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051196/mechanisms-of-phosphorus-acquisition-and-lipid-class-remodelling-under-p-limitation-in-a-marine-microalga
#8
Alice Mühlroth, Per Winge, Aimen El Assimi, Juliette Jouhet, Eric Marechal, Martin F Hohmann-Marriott, Olav Vadstein, Atle M Bones
Molecular mechanisms of phosphorus (P) limitation are of great interest for understanding algal production in aquatic ecosystems. Previous studies point to P limitation induced changes in lipid composition. As in microalgae the molecular mechanisms of this specific P-stress adaptation remain unresolved, we reveal a detailed phospholipid-recycling scheme in Nannochloropsis oceanica and described important P acquisition genes based on highly corresponding transcriptome and lipidome data. Initial responses to P limitation showed increased expression of genes involved in P uptake and an expansion of P substrate spectrum based on purple acid phosphatases...
October 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051083/lysophosphatidic-acid-propagates-post-injury-schwann-cell-dedifferentiation-through-lpa1-signaling
#9
Fabian Szepanowski, Leon-Phillip Szepanowski, Anne K Mausberg, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Bernd C Kieseier, Mark Stettner
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pleiotropic signaling lipid that acts as ligand for at least six specific G-protein coupled receptors. Schwann cells (SC) are known to mainly express the LPA1 receptor subtype. An emerging body of evidence has linked LPA with injury-induced peripheral nerve demyelination as well as neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its demyelinating effect have not been conclusively elucidated. We aimed to decipher the demyelinating effect in vitro as well as in vivo by studying markers of SC differentiation and dedifferentiation: Myelinated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures were treated either with LPA, LPA plus AM095 (LPA1 antagonist) or vehicle...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050472/peptide-mediated-membrane-transport-of-macromolecular-cargo-driven-by-membrane-asymmetry
#10
Xin Li, Jing Huang, Matthew A Holden, Min Chen
Pep-1 is a cell-penetrating peptide that represents a powerful strategy for delivering large, hydrophilic therapeutic molecules into cells. Model membranes, such as lipid vesicles and planar bilayers, have been useful for investigating the direct translocation of cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we present a droplet interface bilayer-based approach to quantify pep-1-mediated β-galactosidase translocation. We found that β-galactosidase translocation is driven only by the negative transmembrane potential resulting from the asymmetric bilayers...
October 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049116/basic-translational-development-of-forthcoming-opioid-and-nonopioid-targeted-pain-therapeutics
#11
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Ajay Yekkirala, Tony L Yaksh
Opioids represent an efficacious therapeutic modality for some, but not all pain states. Singular reliance on opioid therapy for pain management has limitations, and abuse potential has deleterious consequences for patient and society. Our understanding of pain biology has yielded insights and opportunities for alternatives to conventional opioid agonists. The aim is to have efficacious therapies, with acceptable side effect profiles and minimal abuse potential, which is to say an absence of reinforcing activity in the absence of a pain state...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048372/%C3%AE-synuclein-regulates-neuronal-cholesterol-efflux
#12
Jen-Hsiang T Hsiao, Glenda M Halliday, Woojin Scott Kim
α-Synuclein is a neuronal protein that is at the center of focus in understanding the etiology of a group of neurodegenerative diseases called α-synucleinopathies, which includes Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite much research, the exact physiological function of α-synuclein is still unclear. α-Synuclein has similar biophysical properties as apolipoproteins and other lipid-binding proteins and has a high affinity for cholesterol. These properties suggest a possible role for α-synuclein as a lipid acceptor mediating cholesterol efflux (the process of removing cholesterol out of cells)...
October 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047078/role-of-transcription-factors-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-an-important-link-to-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
Annarita Di Mise, Yong-Xiao Wang, Yun-Min Zheng
Hypoxia, namely a lack of oxygen in the blood, induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and vasoremodeling, which serve as essential pathologic factors leading to pulmonary hypertension (PH). The underlying molecular mechanisms are uncertain; however, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an essential role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction, vasoremodeling, and PH. Hypoxia causes oxidative damage to DNAs, proteins, and lipids. This damage (oxidative stress) modulates the activity of ion channels and elevates the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i, Ca(2+) signaling) of PASMCs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047044/exosomes-for-the-enhanced-tissue-bioavailability-and-efficacy-of-curcumin
#14
Farrukh Aqil, Radha Munagala, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Ashish Kumar Agrawal, Ramesh Gupta
Exosomes are extracellular microvesicles with a particle size of 30-100 nm and carry a cargo of proteins, lipids, RNA, and DNA. Their properties of shuttling in-and-out of the cells suggest that these particles can be exploited as a nano drug carrier. In this manuscript, we show that curcumin can be delivered effectively using milk-derived exosomes. Curcumin when mixed with exosomes in the presence of 10% ethanol:acetonitrile (1:1) provided a drug load of 18-24%, and the formulation stored at - 80°C was stable for 6 months as determined by particle size analysis, drug load, and antiproliferative activity...
October 18, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047036/the-falconoid-luteolin-mitigates-the-myocardial-inflammatory-response-induced-by-high-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-in-wistar-rats
#15
Nashwa Abu-Elsaad, Amr El-Karef
Luteolin is a major component of many medicinal plants and traditional medicines. The current study aims at testing its protective effect against high-carbohydrate/high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced cardiac dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: control group that received standard rat chow, group received HCHF diet (~ 30% carbohydrate and 42% fat) daily for 16 weeks, and four groups received HCHF diet concurrently with luteolin (10, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg; 10% w/v suspension in 0...
October 19, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046777/effect-of-palmitoylethanolamide-on-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#16
Tai-Kyung Seol, Wonho Lee, Sunah Park, Kyu Nam Kim, Tae Yeon Kim, You Na Oh, Jong Hun Jun
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which is characterized by infiltration of immune cells, activation of mast cells and glial cells, and production of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral and central nervous systems, plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which is a type of N-acylethanolamide and a lipid, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Relative to the anti-inflammatory effect, little is known about its analgesic effect in chronic pain...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046732/effect-of-a-diet-containing-folate-and-hazelnut-oil-capsule-on-the-methylation-level-of-the-adrb3-gene-lipid-profile-and-oxidative-stress-in-overweight-or-obese-women
#17
Raquel Patrícia Ataíde Lima, Rayner Anderson Ferreira do Nascimento, Rafaella Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Darlene Camati Persuhn, Alexandre Sérgio da Silva, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Alessio Tony Cavalcanti de Almeida, Ronei Marcos de Moraes, Eliseu Verly Junior, Emmanuelle Fouilloux-Meugnier, Hubert Vidal, Luciano Pirola, Marciane Magnani, Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira, Patrícia Oliveira Prada, Maria José de Carvalho Costa
BACKGROUND: Studies of genes that play an important role in the development of obesity are needed, especially studies focusing on genes that regulate food intake and affect nutrient metabolism. For example, the beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) responds to noradrenaline and mediates lipolysis in adipocytes. METHODS: This was a controlled intervention study involving 40 overweight and obese adult women in which food intake, anthropometric measurements, biochemical analyses, and methylation levels of the ADRB3 gene were evaluated before and after intervention...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046459/hepatitis-c-virus-replication-depends-on-endosomal-cholesterol-homeostasis
#18
Ina Karen Stoeck, Ji-Young Lee, Keisuke Tabata, Inés Romero-Brey, David Paul, Philipp Schult, Volker Lohmann, Lars Kaderali, Ralf Bartenschlager
Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes massive rearrangements of intracellular membranes, resulting in a membranous web (MW) composed of predominantly double membrane vesicles (DMVs), the presumed sites of RNA replication. DMVs are enriched for cholesterol, but mechanistic details on the source and recruitment of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle are only partially known. Here we focused on selected lipid transfer proteins implicated in direct lipid transfer at various endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - membrane contact sites...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046328/genetic-support-for-a-causal-role-of-insulin-resistance-on-circulating-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-inflammation
#19
Qin Wang, Michael V Holmes, George Davey Smith, Mika Ala-Korpela
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance has deleterious effects on cardiometabolic disease. We used Mendelian randomization analyses to clarify the causal relationships of insulin resistance (IR) on circulating blood-based metabolites to shed light on potential mediators of the IR to cardiometabolic disease relationship. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IR from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore their effects on circulating lipids and metabolites...
October 18, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045142/measuring-intracellular-secondary-structure-of-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-in-situ
#20
Frederik Fleissner, Sabine Pütz, Mischa Schwendy, Mischa Bonn, Sapun H Parekh
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptide sequences that can translocate across cellular plasma membranes and are thus potential delivery vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Many CPPs exhibit some sort structural polymorphism, where the secondary structure of the peptide is altered strongly by its local environment, which is believed to facilitate membrane translocation. However, the fate and structure of CPPs within cells is much less known due to measurement difficulty. Here we employ isotopic labelling combined with hyperspectral, quantitative coherent-Raman vibrational microscopy to localize a model CPP - deuterated Penetratin (d-Pen) - and determine its secondary structure in different cellular compartments...
October 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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