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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437586/pathogenesis-of-vascular-leak-in-dengue-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Graham S Ogg
Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is the hallmark of severe dengue. Vascular leak typically becomes clinically evident during 3-6 days since the onset of illness, which is known as the critical phase. This critical phase follows the period of peak viraemia, and lasts for 24 to 48 hours and usually shows rapid and complete reversal, suggesting it is likely to occur as a result of inflammatory mediators, rather than infection of the endothelium. Cytokines such as TNFα, which are known to be elevated in the critical phase of dengue, are likely to be contributing factors...
April 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437481/firemaster%C3%A2-550-and-its-components-isopropylated-triphenyl-phosphate-and-triphenyl-phosphate-enhance-adipogenesis-and-transcriptional-activity-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar%C3%AE-on-the-adipocyte-protein-2-ap2-promoter
#2
Emily W Y Tung, Shaimaa Ahmed, Vian Peshdary, Ella Atlas
Firemaster® 550 (FM550) is a chemical mixture currently used as an additive flame retardant in commercial products, and is comprised of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tertrabromobenzoate (TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and isopropylated triphenyl phosphate (IPTP). Animal and in vitro studies suggest that FM550, TPP and IPTP may have adipogenic effects and may exert these effects through PPARγ activation. Using murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we investigated the detailed expression of transcription factors and adipogenic markers in response to FM550 and its components...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437167/the-fgvps39-fgvam7-fgsso1-complex-mediates-vesicle-trafficking-and-is-important-for-the-development-and-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#3
Bing Li, Luping Liu, Ying Li, Xin Dong, Haifeng Zhang, Huaigu Chen, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
Vesicle trafficking is an important event in eukaryotic organisms. Many proteins and lipids transported between different organelles or compartments are essential for survival. These processes are mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes such as class C core vacuole or endosome tethering and homotypic fusion or vacuole protein sorting (HOPS). Our previous study has demonstrated that FgVam7, which encodes a SNARE protein involving in vesicle trafficking, plays crucial roles in growth, asexual or sexual development, deoxynivalenol production, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436964/swell1-is-a-regulator-of-adipocyte-size-insulin-signalling-and-glucose-homeostasis
#4
Yanhui Zhang, Litao Xie, Susheel K Gunasekar, Dan Tong, Anil Mishra, William J Gibson, Chuansong Wang, Trevor Fidler, Brodie Marthaler, Aloysius Klingelhutz, E Dale Abel, Isaac Samuel, Jessica K Smith, Lei Cao, Rajan Sah
Adipocytes undergo considerable volumetric expansion in the setting of obesity. It has been proposed that such marked increases in adipocyte size may be sensed via adipocyte-autonomous mechanisms to mediate size-dependent intracellular signalling. Here, we show that SWELL1 (LRRC8a), a member of the Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing protein family, is an essential component of a volume-sensitive ion channel (VRAC) in adipocytes. We find that SWELL1-mediated VRAC is augmented in hypertrophic murine and human adipocytes in the setting of obesity...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436434/phosphatidylethanolamine-dynamics-are-required-for-osteoclast-fusion
#5
Atsushi Irie, Kei Yamamoto, Yoshimi Miki, Makoto Murakami
Osteoclasts, responsible for bone resorption, are multinucleated cells formed by cell-cell fusion of mononuclear pre-osteoclasts. Although osteoclast fusion is a pivotal step for osteoclastogenesis, little is known about the mechanism involved. To clarify the underlying process, we investigated dynamics of membrane phospholipids during osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We found that the cellular content of phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in particular, was increased during osteoclast differentiation...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435457/tumor-hypoxia-regulates-forkhead-box-c1-to-promote-lung-cancer-progression
#6
Yu-Jung Lin, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Chi-Wei Chang, Chi-Chung Wang, Chung-Pu Wu, Hsu-Tung Lee, Liang-Jwu Chen, Chia-Hung Hsieh
Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) is a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors that are characterized by a DNA-binding forkhead domain. Increasing evidence indicates that FOXC1 is involved in tumor progression. However, the role of tumor hypoxia in FOXC1 regulation and its impact on lung cancer progression are unclear. Here, we report that FOXC1 was upregulated in hypoxic areas of lung cancer tissues from rodents or humans. Hypoxic stresses significantly induced FOXC1 expression. Moreover, hypoxia activated FOXC1 transcription via direct binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) in the FOXC1 promoter...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434931/effect-of-size-and-pegylation-of-liposomes-and-peptide-based-synthetic-lipoproteins-on-tumor-targeting
#7
Jie Tang, Rui Kuai, Wenmin Yuan, Lindsey Drake, James J Moon, Anna Schwendeman
Synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles (sHDL) are a valuable class of nanomedicines with established animal safety profile, clinical tolerability and therapeutic efficacy for cardiovascular applications. In this study we examined how the scavenger receptor B-I-mediated (SR-BI) tumor-targeting ability of sHDL, long plasma circulation half-life, and small particle size (9.6±0.2nm) impacted sHDL accumulation in SR-BI positive colorectal carcinoma cells, 3D tumor spheroids, and in vivo xenografts. We compared tumor accumulation of sHDL with that of liposomes (LIP, 130...
April 18, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434137/cholesterol-hydroperoxide-generation-translocation-and-reductive-turnover-in-biological-systems
#8
Albert W Girotti, Witold Korytowski
Cholesterol is like other unsaturated lipids in being susceptible to peroxidative degradation upon exposure to strong oxidants like hydroxyl radical or peroxynitrite generated under conditions of oxidative stress. In the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane, where most of the cellular cholesterol resides, peroxidation leads to membrane structural and functional damage from which pathological states may arise. In low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and phospholipid peroxidation have long been associated with atherogenesis...
April 22, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433512/effect-of-1-2-3-triazole-salts-non-classical-bioisosteres-of-miltefosine-on-leishmania-amazonensis
#9
Pedro H F Stroppa, Luciana M R Antinarelli, Arturene M L Carmo, Jacy Gameiro, Elaine S Coimbra, Adilson D da Silva
Here, we report the effect of new non-classical bioisosteres of miltefosine on Leishmania amazonensis. Fifteen compounds were synthesized and the compound dhmtAc, containing an acetate anion, a side chain of 10 carbon atoms linked to N-1 and a methyl group linked to N-3, showed high and selective biological activity against L. amazonensis. On the intracellular amastigotes, stages of the parasite related to human disease, the IC50 values were near or similar to the 1.0μM (0.9, 0.8 and 1.0μM on L. amazonensis-WT, and two transgenic L...
March 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433363/the-molecular-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-hepatic-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-signaling
#10
George J Ventro, Yingkui Yang, Min Chen, Carroll M Harmon
PURPOSE: Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) develops in a subset of children receiving parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure. Omegaven™ is an omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3FA) lipid emulsion high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that can lessen PNALD. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-β) are elevated in PNALD and can decrease paraoxonase 1 protein expression (PON1). We sought to determine the effect of Omegaven™, EPA, and DHA on inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, and TGF-β via ERK1/2 and p-Smad2/3 signaling pathways as well as the changes in intracellular PON1 protein expression as a potential mechanism explaining the protective effects of Omegaven™ and Ω3FA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432138/inhibition-of-drp1-ameliorates-synaptic-depression-a%C3%AE-deposition-and-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#11
Seung-Hyun Baek, So Jung Park, Jae In Jeong, Sung Hyun Kim, Jihoon Han, Jae Won Kyung, Sang-Ha Baik, Yuri Choi, Bo-Youn Choi, Jinsu Park, Gahee Bahn, Ji Hyun Shin, Doo Sin Jo, Joo-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang, Thiruma V Arumugam, Jongpil Kim, Jeung-Whan Han, Jae-Young Koh, Dong-Hyung Cho, Dong-Gyu Jo
Excessive mitochondrial fission is a prominent early event, and contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic failure and neuronal cell death in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains to be determined whether inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission is beneficial in mammal models of AD. To determine whether dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a key regulator of mitochondrial fragmentation, can be a disease-modifying therapeutic target for AD, we examine the effects of Drp1 inhibitor on mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunctions induced by oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) in neurons, and neuropathology and cognitive functions in APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431330/gas-forming-liposomes-prepared-using-a-liposomal-magnetoporation-method
#12
Jae Min Lee, Dong Sup Kwag, Yu Seok Youn, Eun Seong Lee
In this study, we report a gas-forming drug carrier engineered using the liposomal magnetoporation method. The liposomes that were magnetoporated under a magnetic shear stress possessed an opened lipid bilayer hole. A photosensitizing model drug (chlorin e6: Ce6) and 1H-1H-2H-perfluoro-1-hexene (PFH, as a volatile gas-forming agent) were efficiently loaded into the opened holes of the magnetoporated liposomes. PFH in the liposomes is vaporized at 50°C and can initiate liposome destabilization. The experimental results demonstrated that the liposomes were destabilized at 50°C efficiently released Ce6 and enhanced Ce6-mediated phototoxicity against KB tumor cells...
April 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430962/ulk1-prevents-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity-through-autophagy-meditated-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#13
Minae An, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Jang Won Park, Ji Ha Choi, Eun-Mi Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Minna Woo, Minsuk Kim
Aims: Autophagy is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, particularly in long-lived cells such as cardiomyocytes. Whereas many studies support the importance of autophagy in the mechanisms underlying obesity-related cardiac dysfunction, the role of autophagy in cardiac lipid metabolism remains unclear. In the heart, lipotoxicity is exacerbated by cardiac lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which mediates accumulation of fatty acids to the heart through intravascular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430183/neuroprotectin-d1-upregulates-iduna-expression-and-provides-protection-in-cellular-uncompensated-oxidative-stress-and-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#14
Ludmila Belayev, Pranab K Mukherjee, Veronica Balaszczuk, Jorgelina M Calandria, Andre Obenaus, Larissa Khoutorova, Sung-Ha Hong, Nicolas G Bazan
Ring finger protein 146 (Iduna) facilitates DNA repair and protects against cell death induced by NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate excitotoxicity or by cerebral ischemia. Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived lipid mediator, promotes cell survival under uncompensated oxidative stress (UOS). Our data demonstrate that NPD1 potently upregulates Iduna expression and provides remarkable cell protection against UOS. Iduna, which was increased by the lipid mediator, requires the presence of the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) sites...
April 21, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430162/ameliorative-effects-and-possible-molecular-mechanism-of-action-of-black-ginseng-panax-ginseng-on-acetaminophen-mediated-liver-injury
#15
Jun-Nan Hu, Zhi Liu, Zi Wang, Xin-Dian Li, Lian-Xue Zhang, Wei Li, Ying-Ping Wang
Background: Frequent overdosing of acetaminophen (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of black ginseng (BG) on APAP-induced mice liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms of action were further investigated for the first time. Methods: Mice were treated with BG (300, 600 mg/kg) by oral gavage once a day for seven days. On the 7th day, all mice were treated with 250 mg/kg APAP which caused severe liver injury after 24 h and hepatotoxicity was assessed...
April 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429463/global-mapping-of-protein-lipid-interactions-by-using-modified-choline-containing-phospholipids-metabolically-synthesized-in-live-cells
#16
Danyang Wang, Shubo Du, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Jingyan Ge, Jun-Seok Lee, Markus R Wenk, Shao Q Yao
The protein-lipid interaction is an essential metabolic process that mediates cellular signaling and functions. Existing strategies for large-scale mapping studies of the protein-lipid interaction fall short in their incompatibility with metabolic incorporation or inability to remove unwanted interferences from lipidated proteins. By incorporating an alkyne-containing choline head group and a diazirine-modified fatty acid simultaneously into choline-containing phospholipids synthesized from live mammalian cells, protein-phospholipid interactions have been successfully imaged in live cells...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428350/targeted-inactivation-of-copper-transporter-atp7b-in-hepatocytes-causes-liver-steatosis-and-obesity-in-mice
#17
Abigael Muchenditsi, Haojun Yang, James P Hamilton, Lahari Koganti, Franck Housseau, Lisa Aronov, Hongni Fan, Hannah Pierson, Ashima Bhattacharjee, Robert C Murphy, Cynthia L Sears, James J Potter, Clavia Ruth Wooton-Kee, Svetlana Lutsenko
The copper transporter ATP7B is essential for mammalian copper homeostasis. Mutations in ATP7B result in copper accumulation, especially in the liver, and cause Wilson disease (WD). The major role of hepatocytes in WD pathology is firmly established. It is less certain whether the excess Cu in hepatocytes is solely responsible for development of WD. To address this issue, we generated a mouse strain for Cre-mediated deletion of Atp7b and inactivated Atp7b selectively in hepatocytes. Atp7bΔ(Hep) mice accumulate copper in the liver, have elevated urinary copper, lack holo-ceruloplasmin, but show no liver disease for up to 30 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428090/preparation-and-characterization-of-lipid-nanoparticle-pdna-complexes-for-stat3-downregulation-and-overcoming-chemotherapy-resistance-in-lung-cancer-cells
#18
Mustafa Kotmakçı, Vildan Bozok Çetintaş, A Gülten Kantarcı
Developments in the field of molecular oncology have revealed that resistance to chemotherapeutics is acqured through several mechanisms including overexpression of common oncogenic proteins. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of these oncogenes that is overexpressed in many cancer types. RNA interference (RNAi) is proven powerful tool for downregulating STAT3, allowing re-sensitization of resistant cancer cells. However, delivery of RNA interference-mediating molecules for STAT3 downregulation in lung cancer cells is limited to a small number of studies most of which employ commercially available transfection kits...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427888/dopamine-elevates-intracellular-zinc-concentration-in-cultured-rat-embryonic-cortical-neurons-through-the-camp-nitric-oxide-signaling-cascade
#19
Hui-Hsing Hung, Lung-Sen Kao, Pei-Shan Liu, Chien-Chang Huang, De-Ming Yang, Chien-Yuan Pan
Zinc ion (Zn(2+)), the second most abundant transition metal after iron in the body, is essential for neuronal activity and also induces toxicity if the concentration is abnormally high. Our previous results show that exposure of cultured cortical neurons to dopamine elevates intracellular Zn(2+) concentrations ([Zn(2+)]i) and induces autophagosome formation but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we characterized the signaling pathway responsible for the dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn(2+)]i and the effect of [Zn(2+)]i in modulating the autophagy in cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427419/tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-mouse-astrocytes-through-glutaminase
#20
Kaizhe Wang, Ling Ye, Hongfang Lu, Huili Chen, Yanyan Zhang, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expression and the functionality of glutaminase in astrocytes during neuroinflammation remain unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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