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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822127/in-vitro-analysis-of-metabolite-transport-proteins
#1
Marc-Sven Roell, Franziska Kuhnert, Shirin Zamani-Nour, Andreas P M Weber
The photorespiratory cycle is distributed over four cellular compartments, the chloroplast, peroxisomes, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Shuttling of photorespiratory intermediates between these compartments is essential to maintain the function of photorespiration. Specific transport proteins mediate the transport across biological membranes and represent important components of the cellular metabolism. Although significant progress was made in the last years on identifying and characterizing new transport proteins, the overall picture of intracellular metabolite transporters is still rather incomplete...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821724/atg4-proteolytic-activity-can-be-inhibited-by-atg1-phosphorylation
#2
Jana Sánchez-Wandelmer, Franziska Kriegenburg, Sabrina Rohringer, Martina Schuschnig, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Bettina Zens, Susana Abreu, Ralph Hardenberg, David Hollenstein, Jieqiong Gao, Christian Ungermann, Sascha Martens, Claudine Kraft, Fulvio Reggiori
The biogenesis of autophagosomes depends on the conjugation of Atg8-like proteins with phosphatidylethanolamine. Atg8 processing by the cysteine protease Atg4 is required for its covalent linkage to phosphatidylethanolamine, but it is also necessary for Atg8 deconjugation from this lipid to release it from membranes. How these two cleavage steps are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation by Atg1 inhibits Atg4 function, an event that appears to exclusively occur at the site of autophagosome biogenesis...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821708/a-reversible-phospho-switch-mediated-by-ulk1-regulates-the-activity-of-autophagy-protease-atg4b
#3
N Pengo, A Agrotis, K Prak, J Jones, R Ketteler
Upon induction of autophagy, the ubiquitin-like protein LC3 is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the inner and outer membrane of autophagosomes to allow cargo selection and autophagosome formation. LC3 undergoes two processing steps, the proteolytic cleavage of pro-LC3 and the de-lipidation of LC3-PE from autophagosomes, both executed by the same cysteine protease ATG4. How ATG4 activity is regulated to co-ordinate these events is currently unknown. Here we find that ULK1, a protein kinase activated at the autophagosome formation site, phosphorylates human ATG4B on serine 316...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821619/dsc-e3-ligase-localization-to-the-golgi-requires-the-atpase-cdc48-and-cofactor-ufd1-for-activation-of-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-in-fission-yeast
#4
Risa Burr, Diedre Ribbens, Sumana Raychaudhuri, Emerson V Stewart, Jason Ho, Peter J Espenshade
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe regulate lipid homeostasis and the hypoxic response under conditions of low sterol or oxygen availability. SREBPs are cleaved in the Golgi through the combined action of the Dsc E3 ligase complex, the rhomboid protease Rbd2, and the essential ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA+) ATPase Cdc48. The soluble SREBP N-terminal transcription factor domain is then released in the cytosol to enter the nucleus and regulate gene expression...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821440/apelin-protects-against-liver-x-receptor-mediated-steatosis-through-ampk-and-ppar%C3%AE-in-human-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#5
Jin Huang, Saeromi Kang, Soo-Jin Park, Dong-Soon Im
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most commonly occurring chronic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis, a condition defined as extensive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, is associated with liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases, such as, obesity and type II diabetes. Apelin is an adipokine that acts on a G protein-coupled receptor named APJ, and has been established to play pivotal roles in various physiological conditions. However, the function of apelin in hepatocytes has not been fully investigated...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820276/attenuation%C3%A2-of-sulfite-induced-testicular-injury-in-rats-by-zingiber-officinale-roscoe
#6
Akbar Afkhami Fathabad, Shahnaz Shekarforoush, Maryam Hoseini, Zahra Ebrahimi
Sulfite salts, including sodium metabisulfte, are widely used as preservatives in foods and pharmaceutical agents. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mediator of testicular injury. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of exposure to sodium metabisulfite by gavage without or with Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract on the rat testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ginger-treated (500 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite- (SMB-) treated (260 mg/kg/day), and SMB + ginger- (SZ-) treated groups...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820005/inhibition-of-endocannabinoid-metabolizing-enzymes-in-peripheral-tissues-following-developmental-chlorpyrifos-exposure-in-rats
#7
Robert W Buntyn, Navatha Alugubelly, Rachel L Hybart, Afzaal N Mohammed, Carole A Nail, Greta C Parker, Matthew K Ross, Russell L Carr
Repeated developmental exposure to the organophosphate (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) inhibits brain fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity at low levels, whereas at higher levels, it inhibits brain monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) activity. FAAH and MAGL hydrolyze the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), respectively. Peripherally, AEA and 2-AG have physiological roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and immune function, and altering the normal levels of these lipid mediators can negatively affect these processes...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819364/the-crosstalk-between-ovarian-cancer-stem-cell-niche-and-the-tumor-microenvironment
#8
REVIEW
Manuel Varas-Godoy, Gregory Rice, Sebastián E Illanes
Ovarian cancer is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death among women in the world. Despite advances in ovarian cancer treatment, 70-80% of women who initially respond to therapy eventually relapse and die. There is evidence that a small population of cells within the tumors called cancer stem cells (CSCs) could be responsible for treatment failure due to their enhanced chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. These cells reside in a niche that maintains the principal properties of CSCs. These properties are associated with the capacity of CSCs to interact with different cells of the tumor microenvironment including mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells, immune cells, and fibroblasts, promoting cancer progression...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819233/biology-physiology-and-gene-expression-of-grasshopper-oedaleus-asiaticus-exposed-to-diet-stress-from-plant-secondary-compounds
#9
Xunbing Huang, Jingchuan Ma, Xinghu Qin, Xiongbing Tu, Guangchun Cao, Guangjun Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Zehua Zhang
We studied the role of plant primary and secondary metabolites in mediating plant-insect interactions by conducting a no-choice single-plant species field experiment to compare the suitability, enzyme activities, and gene expression of Oedaleus asiaticus grasshoppers feeding on four host and non-host plants with different chemical traits. O. asiaticus growth showed a positive relationship to food nutrition content and a negative relationship to secondary compounds content. Grasshopper amylase, chymotrypsin, and lipase activities were positively related to food starch, crude protein, and lipid content, respectively...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819168/resistance-training-regulates-gene-expression-of-molecules-associated-with-intramyocellular-lipids-glucose-signaling-and-fiber-size-in-old-rats
#10
Manoel Benício Teixeira Ribeiro, Vinicius Guzzoni, Jeffrey M Hord, Gisele Nunes Lopes, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Rosângela Vieira de Andrade, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araujo, João Luiz Q Durigan
Sarcopenia is a complex multifactorial process, some of which involves fat infiltration. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation is postulated to play a role on sarcopenia during aging, which is believed to be due alterations in glucose homeostasis in the skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia, along with intramuscular lipids, is associated with physical inactivity. Resistance training (RT) has been indicated to minimize the age-induced muscle skeletal adaptations. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of RT on mRNA levels of regulatory components related to intramyocellular lipid, glucose metabolism and fiber size in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of aged rats...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818516/autoimmune-potential-of-perchloroethylene-role-of-lipid-derived-aldehydes
#11
Gangduo Wang, Jianling Wang, G A Shakeel Ansari, M Firoze Khan
Tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE), an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been implicated in inducing autoimmunity/autoimmune diseases (ADs), including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and scleroderma in humans. However, experimental evidence suggesting the potential of PCE in mediating autoimmunity is lacking. This study was, therefore, undertaken to explore PCE's potential in inducing/exacerbating an autoimmune response. Six-week old female MRL+/+ mice, in groups of 6 each, were treated with PCE (0...
August 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818208/catecholamine-dependent-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-a-pluripotent-stem-cell-model%C3%A2-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#12
Thomas Borchert, Daniela Hübscher, Celina I Guessoum, Tuan-Dinh D Lam, Jelena R Ghadri, Isabel N Schellinger, Malte Tiburcy, Norman Y Liaw, Yun Li, Jan Haas, Samuel Sossalla, Mia A Huber, Lukas Cyganek, Claudius Jacobshagen, Ralf Dressel, Uwe Raaz, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Kaomei Guan, Holger Thiele, Benjamin Meder, Bernd Wollnik, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Thomas F Lüscher, Gerd Hasenfuss, Christian Templin, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by an acute left ventricular dysfunction and is associated with life-threating complications in the acute phase. The underlying disease mechanism in TTS is still unknown. A genetic basis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of TTS, to test the hypothesis of altered β-adrenergic signaling in TTS iPSC-cardiomyocytes (CMs), and to explore whether genetic susceptibility underlies the pathophysiology of TTS...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817808/ppar%C3%AE-agonist-stimulated-angiogenesis-by-improving-endothelial-precursor-cell-function-via-a-nlrp3-inflammasome-pathway
#13
Yaping Deng, Xue Han, Zheng Yao, Yuannan Sun, Jiawen Yu, Jian Cai, Guofei Ren, Guojun Jiang, Feng Han
BACKGROUND: Impaired wound healing is a common complication of diabetes and is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation. Treatment with fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, was associated with a lower risk of amputations, particularly minor amputations without known large-vessel diseases, probably through non-lipid mechanisms. The current study aimed to test our hypothesis that fenofibrate stimulates angiogenesis and restores endothelial precursor cell (EPC) function via inhibiting Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
August 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817363/linking-positive-affect-to-blood-lipids-a-cultural-perspective
#14
Jiah Yoo, Yuri Miyamoto, Attilio Rigotti, Carol D Ryff
Higher levels of positive affect have been associated with better physical health. While positive affect is seen as highly desirable among Westerners, East Asians tend to deemphasize positive affect. Using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adult populations, the present study examined the relations of positive affect with serum lipid profiles, known to be strongly predictive of risk for cardiovascular disease, and tested whether their associations depend on cultural contexts. As predicted, positive affect was associated with healthier lipid profiles for Americans but not for Japanese...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817063/changes-in-lipids-and-inflammatory-markers-after-consuming-diets-high-in-red-meat-or-dairy-for-four-weeks
#15
Kirsty M Turner, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter J Meikle, Peter M Clifton
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816866/differences-in-tear-film-biochemistry-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-lens-wearers
#16
Simin Masoudi, Fiona J Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox
SIGNIFICANCE: The concentration of selected proteins and inflammatory mediators in tears of symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers were quantified. The level of leukotriene B4 was higher in the symptomatic group. This may suggest that inflammation can be the cause of discomfort sensation at the end of day. PURPOSE: The present study aims to quantify the concentration of selected tear lipids and proteins in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers...
August 14, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816559/the-role-of-the-lectin-like-oxldl-receptor-lox-1-in-traffic-generated-air-pollution-exposure-mediated-alteration-of-the-brain-microvasculature-in-apolipoprotein-apo-e-knockout-mice
#17
JoAnn Lucero, Usa Suwannasual, Lindsay M Herbert, Jacob D McDonald, Amie K Lund
Recent studies have shown a strong correlation between air pollution-exposure and detrimental outcomes in the central nervous system, including alterations in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms mediating these pathologies have not yet been fully elucidated. We have previously reported that exposure to traffic-generated air pollution results in increased circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), associated with alterations in BBB integrity, in atherosclerotic Apolipoprotein E null (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
August 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816419/tubulin-acetylation-accompanies-autophagy-development-induced-by-different-abiotic-stimuli-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Vira Olenieva, Dmytro Lytvyn, Alla Yemets, Catherine Bergounioux, Yaroslav Blume
Microtubules (MTs) play an important role in the regulation of autophagy development in yeast and animal as well as in plant cells. MTs participate in maturation and traffic of autophagosomes through their dynamic state changes and post-translational modifications of tubulin, namely acetylation. We subjected Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to metabolic-, salt-, osmotic stresses as well as irradiation of ultraviolet B and investigated the involvement of plant MTs in the development of stress-induced autophagy via tubulin acetylation...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816006/cd38-deficiency-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-in-adipose-tissues-through-activating-sirt1-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#19
Ling-Fang Wang, Lian-Jie Miao, Xiao-Nv Wang, Cong-Cong Huang, Yi-Song Qian, Xuan Huang, Xiao-Lei Wang, Wan-Zhu Jin, Guang-Ju Ji, Mingui Fu, Ke-Yu Deng, Hong-Bo Xin
It has been recently reported that CD38 was highly expressed in adipose tissues from obese people and CD38-deficient mice were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. However, the role of CD38 in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis is unknown. In this study, to explore the roles of CD38 in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in vivo and in vitro, obesity models were generated with male CD38(-/-) and WT mice fed with HFD. The adipocyte differentiations were induced with MEFs from WT and CD38(-/-) mice, 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 cells in vitro...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815534/alterations-in-ca-2-signalling-via-er-mitochondria-contact-site-remodelling-in-cancer
#20
Martijn Kerkhofs, Carlotta Giorgi, Saverio Marchi, Bruno Seitaj, Jan B Parys, Paolo Pinton, Geert Bultynck, Mart Bittremieux
Inter-organellar contact sites establish microdomains for localised Ca(2+)-signalling events. One of these microdomains is established between the ER and the mitochondria. Importantly, the so-called mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) contain, besides structural proteins and proteins involved in lipid exchange, several Ca(2+)-transport systems, mediating efficient Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. These Ca(2+) signals critically control several mitochondrial functions, thereby impacting cell metabolism, cell death and survival, proliferation and migration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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