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Lipid mediators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674943/maresins-specialized-proresolving-lipid-mediators-and-their-potential-role-in-inflammatory-related-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Shi Tang, Ming Wan, Wei Huang, R C Stanton, Yong Xu
Acute inflammatory responses are host-protective and normally self-limited; these responses can maintain cell homeostasis and promote defense against various infections and damage factors. However, when improperly managed or inappropriately activated, acute inflammation can lead to persistent and uncontrolled chronic inflammation, which is associated with many other chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Recently, studies have shown that resolution of acute inflammation is a biosynthetically active process...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673706/lysophosphatidylcholine-acyltransferase-3-deficiency-impairs-3t3l1-cell-adipogenesis-through-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#2
Chunyan Feng, Bin Lou, Jibin Dong, Zhiqiang Li, Yunqin Chen, Yue Li, Xuemei Zhang, Xian-Cheng Jiang, Tingbo Ding
Levels of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) influence plasma membrane structure and function. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized de novo in the Kennedy pathway and then undergoes extensive deacylation/reacylation remodeling via Lands' cycle (non-Kennedy pathway). The reacylation is catalyzed by lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), which adds a polyunsaturated fatty acid at the sn-2 position. Four LPCAT isoforms have been described to date, among which we found LPCAT3 to be the major isoform in adipose tissue, but its exact role in adipogenesis is unclear...
April 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673358/contribution-of-tlr4-signaling-in-intermittent-hypoxia-mediated-atherosclerosis-progression
#3
Xianqin Zeng, Rong Guo, Mei Dong, Julia Zheng, Huili Lin, Huixia Lu
BACKGROUND: Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a typical character of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is related to atherogenesis. However, the role of IH on atherosclerosis (AS) progression and the mechanisms involved remains poorly understood. METHODS: In the present study, high-fat fed ApoE-/- mice were treated with recombinant shRNA-TLR4 lentivirus and exposed to IH. Atherosclerotic lesions on the en face aorta and cross-sections of aortic root were examined by Oil-Red O staining...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673037/sphingosine-1-phosphate-selectively-activates-vagal-afferent-c-fiber-subtype-in-guinea-pig-esophagus
#4
X Yu, M J Patil, M Yu, Y Liu, J Wang, B J Undem, S Yu
BACKGROUND: Activation and sensitization of visceral afferent nerves by inflammatory mediators play important roles in visceral nociception. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid with intracellular and extracellular functions. Extracellularly, it can act as an autacoid via interactions with S1P receptors. The present study aims to determine the effect of S1P on esophageal vagal afferent nerve functions. METHODS: Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in ex vivo guinea pig esophageal-vagal preparations...
April 19, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672271/anti-ulcerogenic-effect-of-the-methanol-extract-of-chasmanthera-dependens-hochst-stem-on-male-wistar-rats
#5
Stephanie Abiola Tijani, Samuel B Olaleye, Ebenezer O Farombi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and free radical-mediated processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. This study investigated the ability of the methanol extract of Chasmanthera dependens to protect the gastric mucosal from oxidative damage induced by oral administration of indomethacin in rats. METHODS: The C. dependens stems were chopped into pieces, air-dried, and pulverized into powder. One kilogram of the powder was macerated in 1 L of methanol for 72 h...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671361/liposomal-quercetin-potentiates-maxi-k-channel-openings-in-smooth-muscles-and-restores-its-activity-after-oxidative-stress
#6
Mariia I Melnyk, Dariia O Dryn, Lina T Al Kury, Alexander V Zholos, Anatoly I Soloviev
The effects of quercetin-loaded liposomes (PCL-Q) and their constituents, that is, free quercetin (Q) and 'empty' phosphatidylcholine vesicles (PCL), on maxi-K channel activity were studied in single mouse ileal myocytes before and after H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress. Macroscopic Maxi-K channel currents were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, while single BKCa channel currents were recorded in the cell-attached configuration. Bath application of PCL-Q (100 μg/ml of lipid and 3 μg/ml of quercetin) increased single Maxi-K channel activity more than threefold, from 0...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670679/damaging-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-the-kidney-and-the-protection-by-melatonin-emerging-evidences-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#7
Anongporn Kobroob, Wachirasek Peerapanyasut, Nipon Chattipakorn, Orawan Wongmekiat
This study investigates the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) contamination on the kidney and the possible protection by melatonin in experimental rats and isolated mitochondrial models. Rats exposed to BPA (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 weeks demonstrated renal damages as evident by increased serum urea and creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance, together with the presence of proteinuria and glomerular injuries in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant glutathione and superoxide dismutase...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670065/biophysical-investigations-elucidating-the-mechanisms-of-action-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-their-synergism
#8
REVIEW
Arnaud Marquette, Burkhard Bechinger
Biophysical and structural investigations are presented with a focus on the membrane lipid interactions of cationic linear antibiotic peptides such as magainin, PGLa, LL37, and melittin. Observations made with these peptides are distinct as seen from data obtained with the hydrophobic peptide alamethicin. The cationic amphipathic peptides predominantly adopt membrane alignments parallel to the bilayer surface; thus the distribution of polar and non-polar side chains of the amphipathic helices mirror the environmental changes at the membrane interface...
April 18, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670015/extracellular-vesicles-as-conveyors-of-membrane-derived-bioactive-lipids-in-immune-system
#9
REVIEW
Krizia Sagini, Eva Costanzi, Carla Emiliani, Sandra Buratta, Lorena Urbanelli
Over the last 20 years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been established as an additional way to transmit signals outside the cell. They are membrane-surrounded structures of nanometric size that can either originate from the membrane invagination of multivesicular bodies of the late endosomal compartment (exosomes) or bud from the plasma membrane (microvesicles). They contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids—namely miRNA, but also mRNA and lncRNA—which are derived from the parental cell, and have been retrieved in every fluid of the body...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669929/antigen-mediated-regulation-in-monoclonal-gammopathies-and-myeloma
#10
Shiny Nair, Joel Sng, Chandra Sekhar Boddupalli, Anja Seckinger, Marta Chesi, Mariateresa Fulciniti, Lin Zhang, Navin Rauniyar, Michael Lopez, Natalia Neparidze, Terri Parker, Nikhil C Munshi, Rachael Sexton, Bart Barlogie, Robert Orlowski, Leif Bergsagel, Dirk Hose, Richard A Flavell, Pramod K Mistry, Eric Meffre, Madhav V Dhodapkar
A role for antigen-driven stimulation has been proposed in the pathogenesis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) based largely on the binding properties of monoclonal Ig. However, insights into antigen binding to clonal B cell receptors and in vivo responsiveness of the malignant clone to antigen-mediated stimulation are needed to understand the role of antigenic stimulation in tumor growth. Lysolipid-reactive clonal Ig were detected in Gaucher disease (GD) and some sporadic gammopathies...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669880/transmembrane-domains-of-highly-pathogenic-viral-fusion-proteins-exhibit-trimeric-association-in-vitro
#11
Stacy R Webb, Stacy E Smith, Michael G Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch
Enveloped viruses require viral fusion proteins to promote fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. To drive fusion, these proteins undergo large conformational changes that must occur at the right place and at the right time. Understanding the elements which control the stability of the prefusion state and the initiation of conformational changes is key to understanding the function of these important proteins. The construction of mutations in the fusion protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) or the replacement of these domains with lipid anchors has implicated the TMD in the fusion process...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669516/a-recurrent-silent-mutation-implicates-feca-in-ethanol-tolerance-by-escherichia-coli
#12
Katherine M Lupino, Kymberleigh A Romano, Matthew J Simons, John T Gregg, Leanna Panepinto, Ghislaine M Cruz, Lauren Grajek, Gregory A Caputo, Mark J Hickman, Gregory B Hecht
BACKGROUND: An issue associated with efficient bioethanol production is the fact that the desired product is toxic to the biocatalyst. Among other effects, ethanol has previously been found to influence the membrane of E. coli in a dose-dependent manner and induce changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. We describe here the characterization of a collection of ethanol-tolerant strains derived from the ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain FBR5. RESULTS: Membrane permeability assays indicate that many of the strains in the collection have alterations in membrane permeability and/or responsiveness of the membrane to environmental changes such as temperature shifts or ethanol exposure...
April 18, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668262/visualization-of-mycobacterial-biomarkers-and-tuberculosis-drugs-in-infected-tissue-by-maldi-ms-imaging
#13
Landry Blanc, Anne J Lenaerts, Véronique Dartois, Brendan Prideaux
MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a technique capable of label-free identification and visualization of analytes in tissue sections. We have previously applied MALDI-MSI to study the spatial distribution of tuberculosis (TB) drugs in necrotic lung granulomas characteristic of pulmonary TB disease, revealing heterogeneous and often suboptimal drug distribution. To investigate the impact of differential drug distribution at the sites of infection, we sought to image mycobacterial biomarkers to co-register drugs and bacteria in lesion sections...
April 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668121/lipofection-of-plasmid-dna-into-human-mast-cell-lines-using-lipid-nanoparticles-generated-by-microfluidic-mixing
#14
Brett A Duguay, Kate Wei-Chen Huang, Marianna Kulka
Mast cells are important immune cells that have significant roles in mediating allergy and asthma. Therefore, studying the molecular mechanisms regulating these and other processes in mast cells is important to elucidate. Methods such as lipofection, transduction, and electroporation are often employed to dissect these mechanisms by disrupting gene expression in mast cell lines. However, as with other leukocytes, human mast cells (HMCs) are often refractory to the delivery of plasmids by lipofection. In this study, we investigated the utility of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing the ionizable cationic lipids 1,2-dioleoyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane, 1,2-dioleyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane, or 2,2-dilinoleyl-4-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-[1,3]-dioxolane for the delivery of plasmid DNA into HMC lines...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666642/positive-association-of-metabolic-syndrome-with-a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-syndecan-3-rs2282440-in-the-taiwanese-population
#15
Betty Chia-Chen Chang, Lee-Ching Hwang, Wei-Hsin Huang
Background/Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) poses a major public health burden on the general population worldwide. Syndecan-3 (SDC3), a heparin sulfate proteoglycan, had been found by previous studies to be linked with energy balance and obesity, but its association with MetS is not known. The objective of this study is to investigate whether SDC3 polymorphism (rs2282440) is associated with MetS in the Taiwanese population. Methods: Genotypes of SDC3 polymorphism (rs2282440) were analyzed in 545 Taiwanese adult subjects, of which 154 subjects had MetS...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666446/life-on-the-edge-active-microbial-communities-in-the-kryos-mgcl-2-brine-basin-at-very-low-water-activity
#16
Lea Steinle, Katrin Knittel, Nicole Felber, Claudia Casalino, Gert de Lange, Chiara Tessarolo, Alina Stadnitskaia, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Jakob Zopfi, Moritz F Lehmann, Tina Treude, Helge Niemann
The Kryos Basin is a deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) located in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (34.98°N 22.04°E). It is filled with brine of re-dissolved Messinian evaporites and is nearly saturated with MgCl2 -equivalents, which makes this habitat extremely challenging for life. The strong density difference between the anoxic brine and the overlying oxic Mediterranean seawater impedes mixing, giving rise to a narrow chemocline. Here, we investigate the microbial community structure and activities across the seawater-brine interface using a combined biogeochemical, next-generation sequencing, and lipid biomarker approach...
April 17, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666212/extracellular-vesicles-important-collaborators-in-cancer-progression
#17
REVIEW
Shinya Sato, Alissa M Weaver
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane vesicles that are released from cells and mediate cell-cell communication. EVs carry protein, lipid, and nucleic acid cargoes that interact with recipient cells to alter their phenotypes. Evidence is accumulating that tumor-derived EVs can play important roles in all steps of cancer progression. Here, we review recent studies reporting critical roles for EVs in four major areas of cancer progression: promotion of cancer invasiveness and motility, enhancement of angiogenesis and vessel permeability, conditioning premetastatic niches, and immune suppression...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666185/hepatocyte-nuclear-receptor-shp-suppresses-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
An Zou, Nancy Magee, Fengyan Deng, Sarah Lehn, Cuncong Zhong, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem worldwide, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis without hepatocellular injury) to the more aggressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, steatosis with ballooning, inflammation, or fibrosis). Although many studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of NAFLD pathogenesis, the disease progression from NAFL to NASH still remains incompletely understood. Nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (Nr0b2, SHP) is a transcriptional regulator critical for the regulation of bile acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666162/two-abscisic-acid-responsive-plastid-lipase-genes-involved-in-jasmonic-acid-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Kun Wang, Qiang Guo, John E Froehlich, Hope Lynn Hersh, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Gregg A Howe, Christoph Benning
Chloroplast membranes with their unique lipid composition are crucial for photosynthesis. Maintenance of the chloroplast membranes requires finely tuned lipid anabolic and catabolic reactions. Despite the presence of a large number of predicted lipid-degrading enzymes in the chloroplasts, their biological functions remain largely unknown. Recently, we described PLASTID LIPASE1 (PLIP1), a plastid phospholipase A1 that contributes to seed oil biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two putative PLIP1 paralogs, which we designated PLIP2 and PLIP3...
April 17, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665635/a-mechanism-study-on-toxicity-of-graphene-oxide-to-daphnia-magna-direct-link-between-bioaccumulation-and-oxidative-stress
#20
Xiaohui Lv, Yao Yang, Yi Tao, Yuelu Jiang, Baiyang Chen, Xiaoshan Zhu, Zhonghua Cai, Bing Li
Graphene oxide (GO) possesses versatile applicability and high hydrophilicity, thus may have frequent contact with aquatic organisms. However, the ecological risks of GO in aquatic ecosystems remain largely unexplored currently. This study evaluated the comprehensive toxicological effects of GO on Daphnia magna, a key species in fresh water ecosystem. The results revealed nonsevere acute toxicities, including immobility (72 h EC50 : 44.3 mg/L) and mortality (72 h LC50 : 45.4 mg/L), of GO on D. magna. To understand the underlying mechanism of GO exposure, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) of D...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
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