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Lipid mediators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444432/surface-matrix-screening-identifies-semi-specific-interactions-that-improve-potency-of-a-near-pan-reactive-hiv-1-neutralizing-antibody
#1
Young D Kwon, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Baoshan Zhang, Robert T Bailer, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Tatyana S Gindin, Bob Lin, Mark K Louder, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Amarendra Pegu, Stephen D Schmidt, Mangaiarkarasi Asokan, Xuejun Chen, Misook Choe, Ivelin S Georgiev, Vivian Jin, Marie Pancera, Reda Rawi, Keyun Wang, Rajoshi Chaudhuri, Lisa A Kueltzo, Slobodanka D Manceva, John-Paul Todd, Diana G Scorpio, Mikyung Kim, Ellis L Reinherz, Kshitij Wagh, Bette M Korber, Mark Connors, Lawrence Shapiro, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
Highly effective HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies could have utility in the prevention or treatment of HIV-1 infection. To improve the potency of 10E8, an antibody capable of near pan-HIV-1 neutralization, we engineered 10E8-surface mutants and screened for improved neutralization. Variants with the largest functional enhancements involved the addition of hydrophobic or positively charged residues, which were positioned to interact with viral membrane lipids or viral glycan-sialic acids, respectively. In both cases, the site of improvement was spatially separated from the region of antibody mediating molecular contact with the protein component of the antigen, thereby improving peripheral semi-specific interactions while maintaining unmodified dominant contacts responsible for broad recognition...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444171/reduced-cognitive-function-increased-blood-brain-barrier-transport-and-inflammatory-responses-and-altered-brain-metabolites-in-ldlr-and-c57bl-6-mice-fed-a-western-diet
#2
Jennifer M Rutkowsky, Linda L Lee, Michelle Puchowicz, Mari S Golub, Douglas E Befroy, Dennis W Wilson, Steven Anderson, Gary Cline, Jason Bini, Kamil Borkowski, Trina A Knotts, John C Rutledge
Recent work suggests that diet affects brain metabolism thereby impacting cognitive function. Our objective was to determine if a western diet altered brain metabolism, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport and inflammation, and induced cognitive impairment in C57BL/6 (WT) mice and low-density lipoprotein receptor null (LDLr -/-) mice, a model of hyperlipidemia and cognitive decline. We show that a western diet and LDLr -/- moderately influence cognitive processes as assessed by Y-maze and radial arm water maze...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444114/childhood-obesity-treatment-effects-on-bmi-sds-body-composition-and-fasting-plasma-lipid-concentrations
#3
Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Maria Dahl, Pernille Maria Mollerup, Ulrik Lausten-Thomsen, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Jens-Christian Holm
OBJECTIVE: The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. METHODS: 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442267/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-stimulates-endogenous-apolipoprotein-a-i-expression-and-secretion-by-human-monocytes-and-macrophages-role-of-map-kinases-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nuclear-receptors-ppar%C3%AE-and-lxrs
#4
Vladimir S Shavva, Denis A Mogilenko, Ekaterina V Nekrasova, Andrey S Trulioff, Igor V Kudriavtsev, Ekaterina E Larionova, Anna V Babina, Ella B Dizhe, Boris V Missyul, Sergey V Orlov
Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the main structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoprotein. ApoA-I has been shown to regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation in macrophages. Recently, we found the moderate expression of endogenous apoA-I in human monocytes and macrophages and showed that pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) increases apoA-I mRNA and stimulates ApoA-I protein secretion by human monocytes and macrophages. Here, we present data about molecular mechanisms responsible for the TNFα-mediated activation of apoA-I gene in human monocytes and macrophages...
February 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442208/the-role-of-acyl-coa-thioesterase-acot8i-in-mediating-intracellular-lipid-metabolism-in-oleaginous-fungus-mortierella-alpina
#5
Jing Guo, Haiqin Chen, Bo Yang, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yong Q Chen
Thioesterases (TEs) play an essential role in the metabolism of fatty acids (FAs). To explore the role of TEs in mediating intracellular lipid metabolism in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, the acyl-CoA thioesterase ACOT8I was overexpressed. The contents of total fatty acids (TFAs) were the same in the recombinant strains as in the wild-type M. alpina, whilst the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) was enhanced from about 0.9% (wild-type) to 2.8% (recombinant), a roughly threefold increase. Linoleic acid content in FFA form constituted about 9% of the TFAs in the FFA fraction in the recombinant strains but only about 1...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442012/effects-of-the-oligostilbenes-from-iris-lactea-pall-var-chinensis-fisch-koidz-on-the-adipocytes-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-cells
#6
Fan-Fang Tie, Guang-Xiang Luan, Wen-Na Zhou, Zhen-Hua Wang, Xiao-Bing Shi, Gang Li, Hong-Lun Wang
The dried seeds of Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz, an important traditional Chinese medicine, are regarded to have effects of clearing heat, eliminating dampness and pharyngitis and so on. It has been used in the treatment of jaundice, diarrhea, leucorrhea and carbuncles. Previous phytochemical studies of Iris species showed the presence of flavones, isoflavones, triterpenes and stilbenes. In our previous research, we isolated five known oligostilbenes, vitisin A, vitisin B, vitisin C, vitisin D, and cis-vitisin A were successfully isolated from Iris lactea for the first time...
February 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441719/azd1208-a-pan-pim-kinase-inhibitor-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-induces-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#7
Yu-Kyoung Park, Brice Wilfried Obiang-Obounou, Kyung-Bok Lee, Jong-Soon Choi, Byeong-Churl Jang
The proviral integration moloney murine leukaemia virus (Pim) kinases, consisting of Pim-1, Pim-2 and Pim-3, are involved in the control of cell growth, metabolism and differentiation. Pim kinases are emerging as important mediators of adipocyte differentiation. AZD1208 is a pan-Pim kinase inhibitor and is known for its anti-cancer activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of AZD1208 on adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells, a murine preadipocyte cell line. AZD1208 markedly suppressed lipid accumulation and reduced triglyceride contents in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting the drug's anti-adipogenic effect...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441161/canakinumab-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-results-of-the-cantos-trial
#8
Syed Raza Shah, Zainab Abbasi, Mazia Fatima, Rohan Kumar Ochani, Waqas Shahnawaz, Muhammad Asim Khan, Syed Arbab Shah
IL-1 cytokines are mainly responsible for controlling a series of pro-inflammatory reactions induced in response to pathogen mediated tissue injury. Among the IL-1 cytokine family, IL-1 β results in upregulation of genes responsible for boosting immune system reactivity and inflammatory response. With growing pathophysiological relevance of IL-1β in a myriad of disease pathogenesis, new biological drugs have been developed in recent years. One such drug, Canakinumab, targeting IL-1β has been recently approved for clinical use...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440573/the-colm-family-polymorphic-toxins-breaching-the-bacterial-cell-wall
#9
Maarten G K Ghequire, Susan K Buchanan, René De Mot
Bacteria host an arsenal of antagonism-mediating molecules to combat for ecologic space. Bacteriocins represent a pivotal group of secreted antibacterial peptides and proteins assisting in this fight, mainly eliminating relatives. Colicin M, a model for peptidoglycan-interfering bacteriocins in Gram-negative bacteria, appears to be part of a set of polymorphic toxins equipped with such a catalytic domain (ColM) targeting lipid II. Diversifying recombination has enabled parasitism of different receptors and has also given rise to hybrid bacteriocins in which ColM is associated with another toxin module...
February 13, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440285/nutrient-intake-in-the-first-two-weeks-of-life-and-brain-growth-in-preterm-neonates
#10
Juliane Schneider, Céline J Fischer Fumeaux, Emma G Duerden, Ting Guo, Justin Foong, Myriam Bickle Graz, Patric Hagmann, M Mallar Chakravarty, Petra S Hüppi, Lydie Beauport, Anita C Truttmann, Steven P Miller
BACKGROUND: Optimizing early nutritional intake in preterm neonates may promote brain health and neurodevelopment through enhanced brain maturation. Our objectives were (1) to determine the association of energy and macronutrient intake in the first 2 weeks of life with regional and total brain growth and white matter (WM) maturation, assessed by 3 serial MRI scans in preterm neonates; (2) to examine how critical illness modifies this association; and (3) to investigate the relationship with neurodevelopmental outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440011/different-weight-histories-and-risk-of-incident-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-tehran-lipid-and-glucose-study
#11
Maryam Kabootari, Samaneh Asgari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Davood Khalili, Majid Valizadeh, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the association between different weight histories, including cumulative excess weight, cumulative excess waist circumference (WC), duration of general and central adiposity, current and maximum body mass index, and current and maximum WC, and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 4398 adults aged ≥40 years without CHD or stroke at baseline. Associations between different weight histories and CHD and stroke were determined by multivariable time-varying Cox regression models after adjustment for age, sex, and time-varying confounders...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439491/exogenous-melatonin-mitigates-acid-rain-stress-to-tomato-plants-through-modulation-of-leaf-ultrastructure-photosynthesis-and-antioxidant-potential
#12
Biswojit Debnath, Mubasher Hussain, Muhammad Irshad, Sangeeta Mitra, Min Li, Shuang Liu, Dongliang Qiu
Acid rain (AR) is a serious global environmental issue causing physio-morphological changes in plants. Melatonin, as an indoleamine molecule, has been known to mediate many physiological processes in plants under different kinds of environmental stress. However, the role of melatonin in acid rain stress tolerance remains inexpressible. This study investigated the possible role of melatonin on different physiological responses involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in tomato plants under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress...
February 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437870/cpt2-downregulation-adapts-hcc-to-lipid-rich-environment-and-promotes-carcinogenesis-via-acylcarnitine-accumulation-in-obesity
#13
Naoto Fujiwara, Hayato Nakagawa, Kenichiro Enooku, Yotaro Kudo, Yuki Hayata, Takuma Nakatsuka, Yasuo Tanaka, Ryosuke Tateishi, Yohko Hikiba, Kento Misumi, Mariko Tanaka, Akimasa Hayashi, Junji Shibahara, Masashi Fukayama, Junichi Arita, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Hadassa Hirschfield, Yujin Hoshida, Yoshihiro Hirata, Motoyuki Otsuka, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic reprogramming of tumour cells that allows for adaptation to their local environment is a hallmark of cancer. Interestingly, obesity-driven and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse models commonly exhibit strong steatosis in tumour cells as seen in human steatohepatitic HCC (SH-HCC), which may reflect a characteristic metabolic alteration. DESIGN: Non-tumour and HCC tissues obtained from diethylnitrosamine-injected mice fed either a normal or a high-fat diet (HFD) were subjected to comprehensive metabolome analysis, and the significance of obesity-mediated metabolic alteration in hepatocarcinogenesis was evaluated...
February 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437294/dynamin-s-helical-geometry-does-not-destabilize-membranes-during-fission
#14
Zachary A McDargh, Markus Deserno
It is now widely accepted that dynamin mediated fission is a fundamentally mechanical process: dynamin undergoes a GTP-dependent conformational change, constricting the neck between two compartments, somehow inducing their fission. However, the exact connection between dynamin's conformational change and the scission of the neck is still unclear. In this paper, we re-evaluate the suggestion that a change in the pitch or radius of dynamin's helical geometry drives the lipid bilayer through a mechanical instability, similar to a well-known phenomenon occurring in soap films...
February 13, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437261/different-effects-of-phospholipase-d%C3%AE-2-and-nonspecific-phospholipase-c4-on-lipid-remodeling-and-root-hair-growth-in-arabidopsis-response-to-phosphate-deficiency
#15
Yuan Su, Maoyin Li, Liang Guo, Xuemin Wang
Phosphate (Pi) deficiency in soils is a major limiting factor for plant growth. In response to Pi deprivation, one prominent metabolic adaptation in plants is the decrease in membrane phospholipids that consume approximately one third cellular Pi. The level of two phospholipid-hydrolyzing enzymes, phospholipase Dζ2 (PLDζ2) and nonspecific phospholipase C4 (NPC4), is highly induced in Pi-deprived Arabidopsis. To determine the role of PLDζ2 and NPC4 in plant growth under Pi limitation, Arabidopsis plants deficient in both PLDζ2 and NPC4 (npc4pldζ2) were generated and characterized...
February 13, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436650/toll%C3%A2-like-receptor-2-mediates-deposition-of-collagen-i-in-adipose-tissue-of-high-fat-diet%C3%A2-induced-obese-mice
#16
Bing Song, Haoqiang Zhang, Suping Zhang
Obesity is marked by deposition of collagen I in adipose tissue. Toll like receptor (TLR)2 is involved in lipid metabolism, however the association between TLR2 and collagen I remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of TLR2 knockout on collagen I in adipose tissue in obese mice. TLR2 knockout and C57BL/6J mice (aged 4 weeks) were fed normal chow or a high‑fat‑diet for 16 weeks. Compared with adipose tissue from lean controls, that from C57BL/6J mice fed a high‑fat diet had increased levels of collagen I, TIMP1 and TGFβ1 and lower levels of MMP1...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436614/arctigenin-inhibits-the-activation-of-the-mtor-pathway-resulting-in-autophagic-cell-death-and-decreased-er-expression-in-er-positive-human-breast-cancer-cells
#17
Thressi Maxwell, Kyu Shik Lee, Soyoung Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam
Arctigenin, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a biologically active lignan that is consumed worldwide due to its several health benefits. However, its use may pose a problem for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)α-positive breast cancer, since studies have shown that arctigenin is a phytoestrogen that exerts a proliferative effect by binding to the ER. Thus, in this study, we examined the effect of arctigenin on ERα-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to determine whether the consumption of arctigenin is safe for patients with breast cancer...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435490/c-terminal-farnesylation-of-uch-l1-plays-a-role-in-transport-of-epstein-barr-virus-primary-oncoprotein-lmp1-to-exosomes
#18
E Kobayashi, M Aga, S Kondo, C Whitehurst, T Yoshizaki, J S Pagano, J Shackelford
Increasing evidence shows that exosomes are key regulators in cancer cell-to-cell communication. Several reports on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related malignancies demonstrate that latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) secreted by exosomes derived from EBV- or LMP1-positive cells can promote cancer progression and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which LMP1 is loaded into exosomes is still poorly understood. Here, we examined whether the process of LMP1 loading into exosomes is linked to the multifunctional molecule of the ubiquitin system-ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1)...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435120/ampk-activation-by-tanshinone-iia-protects-neuronal-cells-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#19
Yingfeng Weng, Jixian Lin, Hui Liu, Hui Wu, Zhimin Yan, Jing Zhao
The current study tested the potential neuroprotective function of Tanshinone IIA (ThIIA) in neuronal cells with oxygen-glucose deprivation (ODG) and re-oxygenation (OGDR). In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and primary murine cortical neurons, ThIIA pre-treatment attenuated OGDR-induced viability reduction and apoptosis. Further, OGDR-induced mitochondrial depolarization, reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and DNA damages in neuronal cells were significantly attenuated by ThIIA. ThIIA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, which was essential for neuroprotection against OGDR...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434769/protective-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-activated-carbon-release-microcapsule-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#20
Zhaobin Cai, Tingting Shi, Rangxiao Zhuang, Hongying Fang, Xiaojie Jiang, Yidan Shao, Hongping Zhou
With the development of science and technology, and development of artery bypass, methods such as cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation have been practiced in recent years. Despite this, some methods fail to promote or recover the function of tissues and organs, and in some cases, may aggravate dysfunction and structural damage to tissues. The latter is typical of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is an important process of myocardial IR injury. Myocardial IR has been demonstrated to induce the formation of large numbers of free radicals in rats, which promotes the peroxidation of lipids within unsaturated fatty acids in the myocardial cell membrane...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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