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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286924/treatment-of-relapsed-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#1
REVIEW
Prithviraj Bose, Pankit Vachhani, Jorge E Cortes
Approximately 40-45% of younger and 10-20% of older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) will be cured with current standard chemotherapy. The outlook is particularly gloomy for patients with relapsed and/or refractory disease (cure rates no higher than 10%). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the only realistic hope of cure for these patients, is an option for only a minority. In recent years, much has been learned about the genomic and epigenomic landscapes of AML, and the clonal architecture of both de novo and secondary AML has begun to be unraveled...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160756/receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like-orphan-receptor-1-ror-1-an-emerging-target-for-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Mahdi Shabani, Behzad Baradaran, Morteza Motallebnezhad, Jafar Majidi, Mehdi Yousefi
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by reposition of malignant B cells in the blood, bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes. It remains the most common leukemia in the Western world. Within the recent years, major breakthroughs have been made to prolong the survival and improve the health of patients. Despite these advances, CLL is still recognized as a disease without definitive cure. New treatment approaches, based on unique targets and novel drugs, are highly desired for CLL therapy. The Identification and subsequent targeting of molecules that are overexpressed uniquely in malignant cells not normal ones play critical roles in the success of anticancer therapeutic strategies...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114144/hepatitis-c-treatment-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-the-kidney-disease-improving-global-outcomes-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Michel Jadoul, Paul Martin
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a very common infection found among hemodialysis (HD) and kidney transplant patients. It is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have much better efficacy (sustained viral response (SVR)) and tolerance than interferon-based regimens. Very recent studies extend this breakthrough finding to chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations. SUMMARY: CKD patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 ml/min/1...
2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102734/fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-dependent-effector-molecules-as-a-critical-mediator-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-current-status-and-future-directions
#4
Ramamoorthi Ganesan, Mahaboobkhan Rasool
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic-autoimmune-mediated disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and progressive destruction of joint. Currently available biological agents and inhibitor therapy that specifically target tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, T cells, B cells, and subcellular molecules (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and janus kinase) cannot facilitate complete remission in all patients and are unable to cure the disease. Therefore, further potent therapeutic targets need to be identified for effective treatment and successful clinical outcomes in patients with RA...
January 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052637/future-anti-hbv-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Edward J Gane
Although current oral antivirals can maintain viral suppression and reduce the risk of liver-related complications, lifelong therapy is associated with high cost, risk of breakthrough and potential toxicity. There is a need to develop a finite course of treatment which can provide sustained off-treatment virological and clinical response. The likely marker of such a clinical HBV CURE would be HBsAg clearance, but in addition cccDNA elimination would be required to prevent future reactivation (ie complete HBV cure)...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052634/treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-2017
#6
REVIEW
Guo-Feng Chen, Cheng Wang, George Lau
Since the registration of the first effective nucleoside analogue against the hepatitis B virus almost two decades ago, major progress has been made in the management of chronic hepatitis B infection. However, hepatitis B-related morbidity and mortality remain a major global health threat. This is partly due to the escalating costs and the decrease in compliance related to the need for prolonged therapy for most patients who cannot be "cured". New biomarkers such as quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen might help to determine if hepatitis B e antigen negative patients can be taken off nucleos(t)ide analogues...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025979/driving-gene-engineered-t-cell-immunotherapy-of-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Laura A Johnson, Carl H June
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene-engineered T cell therapy holds the potential to make a meaningful difference in the lives of patients with terminal cancers. For decades, cancer therapy was based on biophysical parameters, with surgical resection to debulk, followed by radiation and chemotherapy to target the rapidly growing tumor cells, while mostly sparing quiescent normal tissues. One breakthrough occurred with allogeneic bone-marrow transplant for patients with leukemia, which provided a sometimes curative therapy...
January 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956056/chemokine-neutralization-as-an-innovative-therapeutic-strategy-for-atopic-dermatitis
#8
REVIEW
Dayana Abboud, Julien Hanson
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with no specific treatment, affecting 15-30% of children and 2-10% of adults in developed countries. Current therapies alleviate symptoms and include emollients, glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors. The limited efficiency and side-effects of these medicines call for better treatment, and a cure for atopic dermatitis represents an unmet medical need. The chemokine/chemokine-receptor network constitutes an attractive target for drugs in atopic dermatitis...
December 9, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935168/effectiveness-and-safety-of-sofosbuvir-based-regimens-plus-an-ns5a-inhibitor-for-patients-with-hcv-genotype-3-infection-and-cirrhosis-results-of-a-multicenter-real-life-cohort
#9
S Alonso, M Riveiro-Barciela, I Fernandez, D Rincón, Y Real, S Llerena, F Gea, A Olveira, C Fernandez-Carrillo, B Polo, J A Carrión, A Gómez, M J Devesa, C Baliellas, Á Castro, J Ampuero, R Granados, J M Pascasio, A Rubín, J Salmeron, E Badia, J M M Planas, S Lens, J Turnes, J L Montero, M Buti, R Esteban, C M Fernández-Rodríguez
Patients with HCV genotype 3 (GT3) infection and cirrhosis are currently the most difficult to cure. We report our experience with sofosbuvir+daclatasvir (SOF+DCV) or sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), with or without ribavirin (RBV) in clinical practice in this population. This was a multicenter observational study including cirrhotic patients infected by HCV GT3, treated with sofosbuvir plus an NS5A inhibitor (May 2014-October 2015). In total, 208 patients were included: 98 (47%) treatment-experienced, 42 (20%) decompensated and 55 (27%) MELD score >10...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904861/a-recent-advance-in-image-guided-locoregional-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Yaoping Shi, Bo Zhai
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Hepatic resection and liver transplantation are considered to be the preferred treatment for HCC. However, as novel therapeutic options such as image-guided locoregional therapies have emerged and been refined, the manner in which HCC is treated has changed dramatically compared with what it was considered just 2 decades earlier. SUMMARY: This study reviews the current results of various image-guided locoregional therapies for treating HCC, especially focusing on thermal ablative and transarterial techniques...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822264/hepatitis-b-and-its-relationship-with-oxidative-stress
#11
REVIEW
Seyed Moayed Alavian, Alireza Showraki
CONTEXT: Despite the great breakthroughs we have witnessed in the last 50 years in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis B, we are still far from eradicating or even curing the disease. Achieving further progress in controlling this disease will not be possible without discovering the exact pathogenesis behind it. One prime suspect in the pathogenesis of various diseases is oxidative stress. This review will exclusively explore hepatitis B in the context of oxidative stress to obtain a more comprehensive clinical perspective on its pathogenesis and eventual medical therapy...
September 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761936/epigenetic-treatment-of-persistent-viral-infections
#12
REVIEW
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761438/treatment-for-hepatitis-b-in-patients-with-drug-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735878/mid-infrared-photoacoustic-detection-of-glucose-in-human-skin-towards-non-invasive-diagnostics
#14
Jonas Kottmann, Julien M Rey, Markus W Sigrist
Diabetes mellitus is a widespread metabolic disease without cure. Great efforts are being made to develop a non-invasive monitoring of the blood glucose level. Various attempts have been made, including a number of non-optical approaches as well as optical techniques involving visible, near- and mid-infrared light. However, no true breakthrough has been achieved so far, i.e., there is no fully non-invasive monitoring device available. Here we present a new study based on mid-infrared spectroscopy and photoacoustic detection...
October 10, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668564/overview-of-comprehensive-hepatitis-c-virus-medication-management-in-a-state-medicaid-program
#15
Pavel Lavitas, Mark Tesell, Tasmina Hydery, Bonnie C Greenwood, Mylissa Price, Kimberly Lenz, Paul Jeffrey
BACKGROUND: Breakthrough direct-acting antivirals set a new standard in the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with regard to cure rates and improved tolerability; however, the health care system is challenged by the cost of these medications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of a comprehensive HCV medication management program on optimized regimen use, prior authorization (PA) modifications, and medication cost avoidance in a state Medicaid program. METHODS: This program consists of a 2-tiered prescriber outreach: (1) regimen outreach to promote optimized regimen selection and (2) refill outreach to support medication adherence...
October 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641232/affinity-maturation-of-a-broadly-neutralizing-human-monoclonal-antibody-that-prevents-acute-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-mice
#16
Zhen-Yong Keck, Yong Wang, Patrick Lau, Garry Lund, Sneha Rangarajan, Catherine Fauvelle, Grant C Liao, Frederick W Holtsberg, Kelly L Warfield, M Javad Aman, Brian G Pierce, Thomas R Fuerst, Justin R Bailey, Thomas F Baumert, Roy A Mariuzza, Norman M Kneteman, Steven K H Foung
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have led to a high cure rate in treated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but this still leaves a large number of treatment failures secondary to the emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs). To increase the barrier to resistance, a complementary strategy is to use neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) to prevent acute infection. However, earlier efforts with the selected antibodies led to RAVs in animal and clinical studies. Therefore, we identified an HMAb that is less likely to elicit RAVs for affinity maturation to increase potency and, more important, breadth of protection...
December 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545461/-history-and-development-trend-of-minimally-invasive-surgical-treatment-for-obesity-and-diabetes-in-china
#17
Dan Ding, Chengzhu Zheng
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have already become one of the most serious society-facing problems. Since the first report in the 1950s, gastrointestinal surgery has greatly developed as the golden standard in obesity treatment. With the convincing research and evidence, it is found that gastrointestinal surgery not only can cause weight loss, but can relieve, even cure many metabolic diseases associated with obesity, especially for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The operational manners, including adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, mini gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, etc...
August 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539033/-paradigm-transformation-of-cancer-research-and-development-treatment-and-clinical-trials-toward-total-cure-the-role-of-aro
#18
REVIEW
Shinsuke Kojima, Masanori Fukushima
We are living in an era characterized by an unprecedented scientific and technological revolution, which is also affecting both the health and medical fields. The revolution surrounding the cancer field is drastically changing not only the research and development sector, but also the manner in which malignancies are diagnosed and treated. This is due to achievements in genome, molecular immunology, and stem cell research. Here are some examples of molecular targeted therapy drugs. The targeted drug crizotinib, developed after the discovery of driver genes and genotype identification, opened up a newera of genome clinical sequencing...
August 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400873/cell-therapies-for-pancreatic-beta-cell-replenishment
#19
REVIEW
Bernard Okere, Laura Lucaccioni, Massimo Dominici, Lorenzo Iughetti
The current treatment approach for type 1 diabetes is based on daily insulin injections, combined with blood glucose monitoring. However, administration of exogenous insulin fails to mimic the physiological activity of the islet, therefore diabetes often progresses with the development of serious complications such as kidney failure, retinopathy and vascular disease. Whole pancreas transplantation is associated with risks of major invasive surgery along with side effects of immunosuppressive therapy to avoid organ rejection...
July 11, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384562/less-is-more-substrate-reduction-therapy-for-lysosomal-storage-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Maria Francisca Coutinho, Juliana Inês Santos, Sandra Alves
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of rare, life-threatening genetic disorders, usually caused by a dysfunction in one of the many enzymes responsible for intralysosomal digestion. Even though no cure is available for any LSD, a few treatment strategies do exist. Traditionally, efforts have been mainly targeting the functional loss of the enzyme, by injection of a recombinant formulation, in a process called enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), with no impact on neuropathology. This ineffectiveness, together with its high cost and lifelong dependence is amongst the main reasons why additional therapeutic approaches are being (and have to be) investigated: chaperone therapy; gene enhancement; gene therapy; and, alternatively, substrate reduction therapy (SRT), whose aim is to prevent storage not by correcting the original enzymatic defect but, instead, by decreasing the levels of biosynthesis of the accumulating substrate(s)...
July 4, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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