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Treatment, cure, breakthrough

Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Jonas Kottmann, Julien M Rey, Markus W Sigrist
Diabetes mellitus is a widespread metabolic disease without cure. Great efforts are being made to develop a non-invasive monitoring of the blood glucose level. Various attempts have been made, including a number of non-optical approaches as well as optical techniques involving visible, near- and mid-infrared light. However, no true breakthrough has been achieved so far, i.e., there is no fully non-invasive monitoring device available. Here we present a new study based on mid-infrared spectroscopy and photoacoustic detection...
October 10, 2016: Sensors
Pavel Lavitas, Mark Tesell, Tasmina Hydery, Bonnie C Greenwood, Mylissa Price, Kimberly Lenz, Paul Jeffrey
BACKGROUND: Breakthrough direct-acting antivirals set a new standard in the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with regard to cure rates and improved tolerability; however, the health care system is challenged by the cost of these medications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of a comprehensive HCV medication management program on optimized regimen use, prior authorization (PA) modifications, and medication cost avoidance in a state Medicaid program. METHODS: This program consists of a 2-tiered prescriber outreach: (1) regimen outreach to promote optimized regimen selection and (2) refill outreach to support medication adherence...
October 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Zhen-Yong Keck, Yong Wang, Patrick Lau, Garry Lund, Sneha Rangarajan, Catherine Fauvelle, Grant C Liao, Frederick W Holtsberg, Kelly L Warfield, M Javad Aman, Brian G Pierce, Thomas R Fuerst, Justin R Bailey, Thomas F Baumert, Roy A Mariuzza, Norman M Kneteman, Steven K H Foung
: Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have led to a high cure rate in treated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but this still leaves a large number of treatment failures secondary to the emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs). To increase the barrier to resistance, a complementary strategy is to employ neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) to prevent acute infection. However, earlier efforts with the selected antibodies led to RAVs in animal and clinical studies...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Dan Ding, Chengzhu Zheng
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have already become one of the most serious society-facing problems. Since the first report in the 1950s, gastrointestinal surgery has greatly developed as the golden standard in obesity treatment. With the convincing research and evidence, it is found that gastrointestinal surgery not only can cause weight loss, but can relieve, even cure many metabolic diseases associated with obesity, especially for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The operational manners, including adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, mini gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, etc...
August 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Shinsuke Kojima, Masanori Fukushima
We are living in an era characterized by an unprecedented scientific and technological revolution, which is also affecting both the health and medical fields. The revolution surrounding the cancer field is drastically changing not only the research and development sector, but also the manner in which malignancies are diagnosed and treated. This is due to achievements in genome, molecular immunology, and stem cell research. Here are some examples of molecular targeted therapy drugs. The targeted drug crizotinib, developed after the discovery of driver genes and genotype identification, opened up a newera of genome clinical sequencing...
August 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Bernard Okere, Laura Lucaccioni, Massimo Dominici, Lorenzo Iughetti
The current treatment approach for type 1 diabetes is based on daily insulin injections, combined with blood glucose monitoring. However, administration of exogenous insulin fails to mimic the physiological activity of the islet, therefore diabetes often progresses with the development of serious complications such as kidney failure, retinopathy and vascular disease. Whole pancreas transplantation is associated with risks of major invasive surgery along with side effects of immunosuppressive therapy to avoid organ rejection...
2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Maria Francisca Coutinho, Juliana Inês Santos, Sandra Alves
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of rare, life-threatening genetic disorders, usually caused by a dysfunction in one of the many enzymes responsible for intralysosomal digestion. Even though no cure is available for any LSD, a few treatment strategies do exist. Traditionally, efforts have been mainly targeting the functional loss of the enzyme, by injection of a recombinant formulation, in a process called enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), with no impact on neuropathology. This ineffectiveness, together with its high cost and lifelong dependence is amongst the main reasons why additional therapeutic approaches are being (and have to be) investigated: chaperone therapy; gene enhancement; gene therapy; and, alternatively, substrate reduction therapy (SRT), whose aim is to prevent storage not by correcting the original enzymatic defect but, instead, by decreasing the levels of biosynthesis of the accumulating substrate(s)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bin Xu, Jihua Wang, Xuping Xiao
Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has developed more than 40 years in the treatment of laryngeal cancer. TLM is especially important in the minimally invasive surgery of laryngeal carcinoma. Compared with the traditional open surgery, it is a major breakthrough, which has the significant advantages such as safety, effectiveness, low rate of local recurrence and high rate of larynx preservation. Not only can cure early laryngeal cancer, but also more and more the use of TLM in advanced supraglottic and glottic laryngeal cancer were reported...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Guillaume Lettre, Daniel E Bauer
Sickle-cell disease affects millions of individuals worldwide, but the global incidence is concentrated in Africa. The burden of sickle-cell disease is expected to continue to rise over the coming decades, adding to stress on the health infrastructures of many countries. Although the molecular cause of sickle-cell disease has been known for more than half a century, treatment options remain greatly limited. Allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the only existing cure but is limited to specialised clinical centres and remains inaccessible for most patients...
June 18, 2016: Lancet
Ana Arias, Antonio Aguilera, Vicente Soriano, Laura Benítez-Gutiérrez, Gemma Lledó, Daniel Navarro, Ana Treviño, Esteban Otero, José M Peña, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Carmen de Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Cure rates above 90% have been reported in most phase 3 clinical trials using distinct all-oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in chronic hepatitis C patients. Preliminary results in real world patients have confirmed these good news, although efficacy tends to be lower. METHODS: All consecutive chronic hepatitis C patients treated with all-oral DAA regimens at three hepatitis clinics in Spain were retrospectively examined. Host and viral factors were tested as predictors of treatment failure...
June 24, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Seetha Lakshmi, Maria Alcaide, Ana M Palacio, Mohammed Shaikhomer, Abigail L Alexander, Genevieve Gill-Wiehl, Aman Pandey, Kunal Patel, Dushyantha Jayaweera, Maria Del Pilar Hernandez
OBJECTIVES: To study rates and predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, and then to evaluate the effect of attendance at clinic visits on HCV cure. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of adult HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who initiated and completed treatment for HCV with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015. RESULTS: Eighty-four participants reported completing treatment...
May 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
Ryuta Kamekura, Keiji Yamashita, Sumito Jitsukawa, Tomonori Nagaya, Fumie Ito, Shingo Ichimiya, Tetsuo Himi
Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis has been dramatically increasing worldwide. As conventional therapies for allergic rhinitis, such as antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, nasal sprays and allergen immunotherapy, have limitations, the development of new drugs is required. Recent studies have revealed that epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, are able to control immune cells, such as dendritic cells and T cells, thereby acting as 'master switches' in allergic disease...
2016: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Graça Almeida-Porada, Anthony Atala, Christopher D Porada
Recent advances in high-throughput molecular testing have made it possible to diagnose most genetic disorders relatively early in gestation with minimal risk to the fetus. These advances should soon allow widespread prenatal screening for the majority of human genetic diseases, opening the door to the possibility of treatment/correction prior to birth. In addition to the obvious psychological and financial benefits of curing a disease in utero, and thereby enabling the birth of a healthy infant, there are multiple biological advantages unique to fetal development, which provide compelling rationale for performing potentially curative treatments, such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy, prior to birth...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Olga Vornicova, Gil Bar-Sela
INTRODUCTION: Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are a group of aggressive diseases, characterized histologically by small, round, blue cells and genetically by translocation involving EWS and ETS partner genes. The current treatment of localized Ewing sarcoma (ES) requires a multi-disciplinary approach, including multidrug chemotherapy, administrated before and after local treatment, surgery and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the cure rate of metastatic or refractory/recurrent disease is still very poor...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
A K Mainjot, N M Dupont, J C Oudkerk, T Y Dewael, M J Sadoun
Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites...
May 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Silvia Pellegrini, Elisa Cantarelli, Valeria Sordi, Rita Nano, Lorenzo Piemonti
In patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), pancreatic β cells are destroyed by a selective autoimmune attack and their replacement with functional insulin-producing cells is the only possible cure for this disease. The field of islet transplantation has evolved significantly from the breakthrough of the Edmonton Protocol in 2000, since significant advances in islet isolation and engraftment, together with improved immunosuppressive strategies, have been reported. The main limitations, however, remain the insufficient supply of human tissue and the need for lifelong immunosuppression therapy...
October 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Barbara Dhooghe, Jérémy Boris Haaf, Sabrina Noel, Teresinha Leal
INTRODUCTION: Twenty-six years after the identification of the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), controversies still surround the pathogenesis of the disease that continues to burden and shorten lives. Therefore, finding effective therapeutic strategies that target the basic defect of CF is crucially needed. AREAS COVERED: This review offers a comprehensive survey of fundamental therapies in early stages of development for the treatment of CF. The first part describes recent strategies targeting the basic defect either at the gene or at the transcript level...
2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Judith E Fradkin, Julie A Wallace, Beena Akolkar, Griffin P Rodgers
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) precipitated a major research effort to develop new approaches to achieve near-normal glycemic control in real-world settings in people with type 1 diabetes. Toward that end, a unique funding stream from the U.S. Congress-the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research-has provided nearly $2.5 billion for research into the prevention, cure, and treatment of type 1 diabetes since 1998. This funding generated a targeted, sustained investment in type 1 diabetes research with six specific goals: identifying new therapeutic targets through the understanding of disease etiology and pathogenesis, preventing or reversing the disease, developing cell replacement therapy, improving management and care, preventing or reducing the complications, and attracting new talent and applying new technologies to type 1 diabetes research...
February 2016: Diabetes
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