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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328884/aggression-in-group-housed-laboratory-mice-why-can-t-we-solve-the-problem
#1
Elin M Weber, Jamie Ahloy Dallaire, Brianna N Gaskill, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning, Joseph P Garner
Group housing is highly important for social animals. However, it can also give rise to aggression, one of the most serious welfare concerns in laboratory mouse husbandry. Severe fighting can lead to pain, injury and even death. In addition, working with animals that are severely socially stressed, wounded or singly-housed as a result of aggression may compromise scientific validity. Some general recommendations on how to minimize aggression exist, but the problem persists. Thus far, studies attempting to find solutions have mainly focused on social dominance and territorial behavior, but many other aspects of routine housing and husbandry that might influence aggressive behavior have been overlooked...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328231/use-of-cell-phones-and-computers-for-health-promotion-and-tobacco-cessation-by-american-indian-college-students-in-montana
#2
Jo Ann W Dotson, Lonnie A Nelson, Sara L Young, Dedra Buchwald, John Roll
INTRODUCTION: Cell phones and personal computers have become popular mechanisms for delivering and monitoring health information and education, including the delivery of tobacco cessation education and support. Tobacco smoking is prevalent among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs), with 26% AI/AN adult men smoking compared to 19% of Caucasian adult males and 22% of African American adult males. Smoking is even more prevalent in Northern Plains AI populations, with 42% of men <i>and</i> women reporting current smoking...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327567/quantum-locality-in-game-strategy
#3
Carlos A Melo-Luna, Cristian E Susa, Andrés F Ducuara, Astrid Barreiro, John H Reina
Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327222/accuracy-bias-self-fulfilling-prophecies-and-scientific-self-correction
#4
Lee Jussim
In my Précis of Social Perception and Social Reality (Jussim 2012, henceforth abbreviated as SPSR), I argued that the social science scholarship on social perception and interpersonal expectancies was characterized by a tripartite pattern: (1) Errors, biases, and self-fulfilling prophecies in person perception were generally weak, fragile, and fleeting; (2) Social perceptions were often quite accurate; and (3) Conclusions appearing throughout the social psychology scientific literature routinely overstated the power and pervasiveness of expectancy effects, and ignored evidence of accuracy...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327213/are-stereotypes-accurate-a-perspective-from-the-cognitive-science-of-concepts
#5
Lin Bian, Andrei Cimpian
In his 2012 book, Jussim suggests that people's beliefs about various groups (i.e., their stereotypes) are largely accurate. We unpack this claim using the distinction between generic and statistical beliefs - a distinction supported by extensive evidence in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and philosophy. Regardless of whether one understands stereotypes as generic or statistical beliefs about groups, skepticism remains about the rationality of social judgments.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327186/clinical-behavioural-and-pharmacogenomic-factors-influencing-the-response-to-levothyroxine-therapy-in-patients-with-primary-hypothyroidism-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#6
Rosie Dew, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Colin Dayan, Vinay Eligar, Ishrat Khan, Salman Razvi, Simon Pearce, Scott Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal thyroid hormone therapy including under-replacement and over-replacement is common amongst patients with hypothyroidism. This is a significant health concern as affected patients are at risk of adverse cardiovascular or metabolic consequences. Despite a growing body of evidence on the effects of various factors on thyroid hormone replacement, a systematic appraisal of the evidence is lacking. This review aims to appraise and quantify the extent to which clinical, behavioural and pharmacogenomic factors affect levothyroxine therapy in patients with primary hypothyroidism...
March 21, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327141/the-first-nationwide-survey-of-md-phds-in-the-social-sciences-and-humanities-training-patterns-and-career-choices
#7
Seth M Holmes, Jennifer Karlin, Scott D Stonington, Diane L Gottheil
BACKGROUND: While several articles on MD-PhD trainees in the basic sciences have been published in the past several years, very little research exists on physician-investigators in the social sciences and humanities. However, the numbers of MD-PhDs training in these fields and the number of programs offering training in these fields are increasing, particularly within the US. In addition, accountability for the public funding for MD-PhD programs requires knowledge about this growing population of trainees and their career trajectories...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327120/where-s-the-evidence-a-systematic-review-of-economic-analyses-of-residential-aged-care-infrastructure
#8
Tiffany Easton, Rachel Milte, Maria Crotty, Julie Ratcliffe
BACKGROUND: Residential care infrastructure, in terms of the characteristics of the organisation (such as proprietary status, size, and location) and the physical environment, have been found to directly influence resident outcomes. This review aimed to summarise the existing literature of economic evaluations of residential care infrastructure. METHODS: A systematic review of English language articles using AgeLine, CINAHL, Econlit, Informit (databases in Health; Business and Law; Social Sciences), Medline, ProQuest, Scopus, and Web of Science with retrieval up to 14 December 2015...
March 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324806/social-networking-site-sns-use-by-adolescent-mothers-can-social-support-and-social-capital-be-enhanced-by-online-social-networks-a-structured-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Samantha Nolan, Joyce Hendricks, Sally Ferguson, Amanda Towell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. BACKGROUND: social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children...
March 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324134/-between-psyche-and-brain-state-of-the-art-in-psychiatry
#10
T Fuchs
Since its development around 1800 psychiatry has been oscillating between the poles of the sciences and the humanities, being directed towards subjective experience on the one hand and towards the neural substrate on the other hand. Today, this dualism seems to have been overcome by a naturalism, which identifies subjective experience with neural processes, according to Griesinger's frequently quoted statement "mental diseases are brain diseases". The progress achieved by the neurobiological paradigm on the level of a fundamental science is in contrast to the tendency to isolate mental illnesses from the patients' social relationships and to neglect subjectivity and intersubjectivity in their explanation...
March 21, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321174/children-s-behavioral-pain-cues-implicit-automaticity-and-control-dimensions-in-observational-measures
#11
Kamal Kaur Sekhon, Samantha R Fashler, Judith Versloot, Spencer Lee, Kenneth D Craig
Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4-12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children's observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320937/meta-assessment-of-bias-in-science
#12
Daniele Fanelli, Rodrigo Costas, John P A Ioannidis
Numerous biases are believed to affect the scientific literature, but their actual prevalence across disciplines is unknown. To gain a comprehensive picture of the potential imprint of bias in science, we probed for the most commonly postulated bias-related patterns and risk factors, in a large random sample of meta-analyses taken from all disciplines. The magnitude of these biases varied widely across fields and was overall relatively small. However, we consistently observed a significant risk of small, early, and highly cited studies to overestimate effects and of studies not published in peer-reviewed journals to underestimate them...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320774/3d-bioprint-me-a-socioethical-view-of-bioprinting-human-organs-and-tissues
#13
Niki Vermeulen, Gill Haddow, Tirion Seymour, Alan Faulkner-Jones, Wenmiao Shu
In this article, we review the extant social science and ethical literature on three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting has the potential to be a 'game-changer', printing human organs on demand, no longer necessitating the need for living or deceased human donation or animal transplantation. Although the technology is not yet at the level required to bioprint an entire organ, 3D bioprinting may have a variety of other mid-term and short-term benefits that also have positive ethical consequences, for example, creating alternatives to animal testing, filling a therapeutic need for minors and avoiding species boundary crossing...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320340/incorporating-nonlinearity-into-mediation-analyses
#14
George J Knafl, Kathleen A Knafl, Margaret Grey, Jane Dixon, Janet A Deatrick, Agatha M Gallo
BACKGROUND: Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318184/preventing-childhood-obesity-contributions-from-the-social-sciences-to-intervention
#15
Muriel Lamarque, Alicia Bibiana Orden
Programming and implementation of health policies for the prevention of overweight and obesity have traditionally focused on the dissemination of specific messages identifying healthy foods and pointing out the importance of physical activity. Despite recurrent efforts, the prevalence of obesity in both adult and children populations continues to rise. The configuration of preventive proposals seems to neglect the more complex reality of the eating phenomenon, whose nature goes beyond its biological basis. Behind the presence of overweight or obesity, there are factors that exceed individual behaviors, which are constituted as elements of social order...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316951/oral-health-knowledge-attitude-and-practices-among-dental-and-medical-students-in-eastern-india-a-comparative-study
#16
Harish Kumar, Shyam Sundar Behura, Sujatha Ramachandra, Roquaiya Nishat, Kailash C Dash, Gouse Mohiddin
OBJECTIVES: To compare oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices among dental and medical students in a Health care centre at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty BDS and MBBS students each from Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences and Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences of KIIT University, Bhubaneswar respectively, were invited to participate in this survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire in English comprising 27 questions, which was designed to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316950/the-effect-of-casting-ring-liner-length-and-prewetting-on-the-marginal-adaptation-and-dimensional-accuracy-of-full-crown-castings
#17
Satheesh B Haralur, Osama A Hamdi, Abdulaziz A Al-Shahrani, Sultan Alhasaniah
AIM: To evaluate the effect of varying cellulose casting ring liner length and its prewetting on the marginal adaptation and dimensional accuracy of full veneer metal castings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The master die was milled in stainless steel to fabricate the wax pattern. Sixty wax patterns were fabricated with a uniform thickness of 1.5 mm at an occlusal surface and 1 mm axial surface, cervical width at 13.5 mm, and 10 mm cuspal height. The samples were divided into six groups (n = 10)...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316948/denture-care-practices-and-perceived-denture-status-among-complete-denture-wearers
#18
Krishnam Raju V Kosuru, Ganji Devi, Vikram Grandhi, Kumar K Prasan, Manoj K Yasangi, Mannem Dhanalakshmi
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Considerable importance to oral health care was lacking in India, and oral health neglect continues to exist, which is evident in the low utilization rates and poor oral health status. Conventional dentures are the most common alternative in restoration of lost teeth. Without proper denture care practices, there is an increased risk of developing a multitude of problems. The aim of this study is to assess the denture care practices among complete denture wearers in East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316946/correlation-between-salivary-glucose-and-blood-glucose-and-the-implications-of-salivary-factors-on-the-oral-health-status-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#19
Kavitha A Puttaswamy, Jaishankar H Puttabudhi, Shashidara Raju
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30-60 years were included in the study...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314657/commitment-to-quality-of-the-spanish-scientific-societies
#20
J García-Alegría, S Vázquez-Fernández Del Pozo, F Salcedo-Fernández, J M García-Lechuz Moya, G Andrés Zaragoza-Gaynor, M López-Orive, S García-San Jose, P Casado-Durández
This article summarises the objectives, methodology and initial conclusions of the project "Commitment to Quality of the Spanish Scientific Societies", coordinated by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine and the Aragon Institute of Health Sciences, in which 48 scientific societies participate. This project's objectives are to decrease the use of unnecessary medical interventions, which are those that have shown no efficacy, have little or questionable effectiveness or are not cost-effective; decrease variability in clinical practice; promote the commitment among physicians and patients to properly use healthcare resources; and to promote clinical safety...
March 14, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
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