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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792516/budget-impact-of-adding-lesinurad-for-second-line-treatment-of-gout-a-us-health-plan-perspective
#1
Robert W Klein, Shaum Kabadi, Frank N Cinfio, Christopher A Bly, Douglas Ca Taylor, Keith A Szymanski
AIM: Estimate budget impact of adopting lesinurad as add-on to allopurinol for urate-lowering therapy in gout. METHODS: A budget impact model was developed for a US payer perspective, using a Markov model to estimate costs, survival and discontinuation in a one-million-member health plan. The population included patients failing first-line gout therapy, followed for 5 years. RESULTS: Incremental costs of adding lesinurad versus no lesinurad were US$241,907 and US$1,098,220 in first and fifth years, respectively...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791770/modeling-of-factors-influencing-the-effect-of-osmotic-solution-on-reduction-of-selected-microorganisms
#2
Ivana Filipović, Siniša Markov, Vladimir Filipović, Jelena Filipović, Ana Vidaković, Nebojša Novković, Vesna Rafajlovska
AIMS: The goal of this research is to model the effects of two osmotic solutions factors on reduction of selected microorganisms, and to assess the application in osmotic dehydration process of animal raw materials from the aspect of microbiological safety. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sugar beet molasses and aquatic osmotic solution were prepared and inoculated with E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. Varied factors of osmotic solutions were: time, temperature and concentration of osmotic solutions...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791443/traceability-reproducibility-and-wiki-exploration-for-%C3%A3-la-carte-reconstructions-of-genome-scale-metabolic-models
#3
Méziane Aite, Marie Chevallier, Clémence Frioux, Camille Trottier, Jeanne Got, María Paz Cortés, Sebastián N Mendoza, Grégory Carrier, Olivier Dameron, Nicolas Guillaudeux, Mauricio Latorre, Nicolás Loira, Gabriel V Markov, Alejandro Maass, Anne Siegel
Genome-scale metabolic models have become the tool of choice for the global analysis of microorganism metabolism, and their reconstruction has attained high standards of quality and reliability. Improvements in this area have been accompanied by the development of some major platforms and databases, and an explosion of individual bioinformatics methods. Consequently, many recent models result from "à la carte" pipelines, combining the use of platforms, individual tools and biological expertise to enhance the quality of the reconstruction...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791153/a-probabilistic-framework-for-constructing-temporal-relations-in-replica-exchange-molecular-trajectories
#4
Aditya Chattopadhyay, Min Zheng, Mark Paul Waller, U Deva Priyakumar
Knowledge of the structure and dynamics of biomolecules is essential for elucidating the underlying mechanisms of biological processes. Given the stochastic nature of many biological processes, like protein unfolding, it's almost impossible that two independent simulations will generate the exact same sequence of events, which makes direct analysis of simulations difficult. Statistical models like Markov Chains, transition networks etc. help in shedding some light on the mechanistic nature of such processes by predicting long-time dynamics of these systems from short simulations...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790020/can-we-accurately-predict-cost-effectiveness-without-access-to-overall-survival-data-the-case-study-of-nivolumab-in-combination-with-ipilimumab-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-in-england
#5
D Lee, A Amadi, J Sabater, J Ellis, H Johnson, S Kotapati, S McNamara, A Walker, M Cooper, K Patterson, N Roskell, Y Meng
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab with ipilimumab (the Regimen) is the first immuno-oncology combination treatment to demonstrate long-term clinical benefit for advanced melanoma patients. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of the Regimen in this population, with and without the availability of overall survival (OS) data. METHODS: A partitioned survival model and a Markov state-transition model were developed to estimate the lifetime costs and benefits of the Regimen versus ipilimumab...
May 22, 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788398/inferring-diversification-rate-variation-from-phylogenies-with-fossils
#6
Jonathan S Mitchell, Rampal S Etienne, Daniel L Rabosky
Time-calibrated phylogenies of living species have been widely used to study the tempo and mode of species diversification. However, it is increasingly clear that inferences about species diversification - extinction rates in particular - can be unreliable in the absence of paleontological data. We introduce a general framework based on the fossilized birth-death process for studying speciation-extinction dynamics on phylogenies of extant and extinct species. The model assumes that phylogenies can be modeled as a mixture of distinct evolutionary rate regimes and that a hierarchical Poisson process governs the number of such rate regimes across a tree...
May 18, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788035/a-bayesian-hidden-potts-mixture-model-for-analyzing-lung-cancer-pathology-images
#7
Qiwei Li, Xinlei Wang, Faming Liang, Faliu Yi, Yang Xie, Adi Gazdar, Guanghua Xiao
Digital pathology imaging of tumor tissues, which captures histological details in high resolution, is fast becoming a routine clinical procedure. Recent developments in deep-learning methods have enabled the identification, characterization, and classification of individual cells from pathology images analysis at a large scale. This creates new opportunities to study the spatial patterns of and interactions among different types of cells. Reliable statistical approaches to modeling such spatial patterns and interactions can provide insight into tumor progression and shed light on the biological mechanisms of cancer...
May 18, 2018: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785802/bayesian-measurement-error-driven-hidden-markov-regression-model-for-calibrating-the-effect-of-covariates-on-multistate-outcomes-application-to-androgenetic-alopecia
#8
Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Hsiu-Hsi Chen
Multistate Markov regression models used for quantifying the effect size of state-specific covariates pertaining to the dynamics of multistate outcomes have gained popularity. However, the measurements of multistate outcome are prone to the errors of classification, particularly when a population-based survey/research is involved with proxy measurements of outcome due to cost consideration. Such a misclassification may affect the effect size of relevant covariates such as odds ratio used in the field of epidemiology...
May 21, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785071/identification-of-cis-regulatory-elements-associated-with-salinity-and-drought-stress-tolerance-in-rice-from-co-expressed-gene-interaction-networks
#9
Pragya Mishra, Nisha Singh, Ajay Jain, Neha Jain, Vagish Mishra, Pushplatha G, Kiran P Sandhya, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Vandna Rai
Rice, a staple food crop, is often subjected to drought and salinity stresses thereby limiting its yield potential. Since there is a cross talk between these abiotic stresses, identification of common and/or overlapping regulatory elements is pivotal for generating rice cultivars that showed tolerance towards them. Analysis of the gene interaction network (GIN) facilitates identifying the role of individual genes and their interactions with others that constitute important molecular determinants in sensing and signaling cascade governing drought and/or salinity stresses...
2018: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784928/statistical-machine-learning-of-sleep-and-physical-activity-phenotypes-from-sensor-data-in-96-220-uk-biobank-participants
#10
Matthew Willetts, Sven Hollowell, Louis Aslett, Chris Holmes, Aiden Doherty
Current public health guidelines on physical activity and sleep duration are limited by a reliance on subjective self-reported evidence. Using data from simple wrist-worn activity monitors, we developed a tailored machine learning model, using balanced random forests with Hidden Markov Models, to reliably detect a number of activity modes. We show that physical activity and sleep behaviours can be classified with 87% accuracy in 159,504 minutes of recorded free-living behaviours from 132 adults. These trained models can be used to infer fine resolution activity patterns at the population scale in 96,220 participants...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784784/uncovering-universal-rules-governing-the-selectivity-of-the-archetypal-dna-glycosylase-tdg
#11
Thomas Dodd, Chunli Yan, Bradley R Kossmann, Kurt Martin, Ivaylo Ivanov
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a pivotal enzyme with dual roles in both genome maintenance and epigenetic regulation. TDG is involved in cytosine demethylation at CpG sites in DNA. Here we have used molecular modeling to delineate the lesion search and DNA base interrogation mechanisms of TDG. First, we examined the capacity of TDG to interrogate not only DNA substrates with 5-carboxyl cytosine modifications but also G:T mismatches and nonmismatched (A:T) base pairs using classical and accelerated molecular dynamics...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780976/modeling-individual-cyclic-variation-in-human-behavior
#12
Emma Pierson, Tim Althoff, Jure Leskovec
Cycles are fundamental to human health and behavior. Examples include mood cycles, circadian rhythms, and the menstrual cycle. However, modeling cycles in time series data is challenging because in most cases the cycles are not labeled or directly observed and need to be inferred from multidimensional measurements taken over time. Here, we present Cyclic Hidden Markov Models (CyH-MMs) for detecting and modeling cycles in a collection of multidimensional heterogeneous time series data. In contrast to previous cycle modeling methods, CyHMMs deal with a number of challenges encountered in modeling real-world cycles: they can model multivariate data with both discrete and continuous dimensions; they explicitly model and are robust to missing data; and they can share information across individuals to accommodate variation both within and between individual time series...
April 2018: Proceedings of the International World-Wide Web Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778607/cost-effectiveness-of-gastric-cancer-screening-according-to-race-and-ethnicity
#13
Monica Saumoy, Yecheskel Schneider, Nicole Shen, Michel Kahaleh, Reem Z Sharaiha, Shailja C Shah
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are marked racial and ethnic differences in noncardia gastric cancer prevalence within the United States (US). Although gastric cancer screening is recommended in regions of high prevalence, screening is not routinely performed in the US. Our objective was to determine whether selected noncardia gastric cancer screening for high-risk races and ethnicities within the US is cost effective. METHODS: We developed a decision analytic Markov model with the base case of a 50-year-old person of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, or Asian race or ethnicity...
May 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776177/sampling-rare-fluctuations-of-discrete-time-markov-chains
#14
Stephen Whitelam
We describe a simple method that can be used to sample the rare fluctuations of discrete-time Markov chains. We focus on the case of Markov chains with well-defined steady-state measures, and derive expressions for the large-deviation rate functions (and upper bounds on such functions) for dynamical quantities extensive in the length of the Markov chain. We illustrate the method using a series of simple examples, and use it to study the fluctuations of a lattice-based model of active matter that can undergo motility-induced phase separation...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776042/modeling-long-correlation-times-using-additive-binary-markov-chains-applications-to-wind-generation-time-series
#15
Juliane Weber, Christopher Zachow, Dirk Witthaut
Wind power generation exhibits a strong temporal variability, which is crucial for system integration in highly renewable power systems. Different methods exist to simulate wind power generation but they often cannot represent the crucial temporal fluctuations properly. We apply the concept of additive binary Markov chains to model a wind generation time series consisting of two states: periods of high and low wind generation. The only input parameter for this model is the empirical autocorrelation function...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776034/derivation-of-markov-processes-that-violate-detailed-balance
#16
Julian Lee
Time-reversal symmetry of the microscopic laws dictates that the equilibrium distribution of a stochastic process must obey the condition of detailed balance. However, cyclic Markov processes that do not admit equilibrium distributions with detailed balance are often used to model systems driven out of equilibrium by external agents. I show that for a Markov model without detailed balance, an extended Markov model can be constructed, which explicitly includes the degrees of freedom for the driving agent and satisfies the detailed balance condition...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775455/atomic-resolution-mechanism-of-ligand-binding-to-a-solvent-inaccessible-cavity-in-t4-lysozyme
#17
Jagannath Mondal, Navjeet Ahalawat, Subhendu Pandit, Lewis E Kay, Pramodh Vallurupalli
Ligand binding sites in proteins are often localized to deeply buried cavities, inaccessible to bulk solvent. Yet, in many cases binding of cognate ligands occurs rapidly. An intriguing system is presented by the L99A cavity mutant of T4 Lysozyme (T4L L99A) that rapidly binds benzene (~106 M-1s-1). Although the protein has long served as a model system for protein thermodynamics and crystal structures of both free and benzene-bound T4L L99A are available, the kinetic pathways by which benzene reaches its solvent-inaccessible binding cavity remain elusive...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774392/cost-effectiveness-of-ventricular-assist-device-destination-therapy-for-advanced-heart-failure-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Defne A Magnetta, JaHyun Kang, Peter D Wearden, Kenneth J Smith, Brian Feingold
Destination ventricular assist device therapy (DT-VAD) is well accepted in select adults with medically refractory heart failure (HF) who are not transplant candidates; however, its use in younger patients with progressive diseases is unclear. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of DT-VAD in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with advanced HF. We created a Markov-state transition model (5-year horizon) to compare survival, costs, and quality of life (QOL) between medical management and DT-VAD in DMD with advanced HF...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773967/stochastic-contagion-models-without-immunity-their-long-term-behaviour-and-the-optimal-level-of-treatment
#19
Raimund M Kovacevic
In this paper we analyze two stochastic versions of one of the simplest classes of contagion models, namely so-called SIS models. Several formulations of such models, based on stochastic differential equations, have been recently discussed in literature, mainly with a focus on the existence and uniqueness of stationary distributions. With applicability in view, the present paper uses the Fokker-Planck equations related to SIS stochastic differential equations, not only in order to derive basic facts, but also to derive explicit expressions for stationary densities and further characteristics related to the asymptotic behaviour...
2018: Central European Journal of Operations Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771738/prediction-of-transfer-among-multiple-states-of-blood-pressure-based-on-markov-model-an-18-year-cohort-study
#20
Yunfeng Wang, Zhimin Ma, Chaonan Xu, ZiKun Wang, Xinghua Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the rules of transition between normotension, prehypertension and hypertension states and to establish a prediction model for the incidence of prehypertension and hypertension. METHODS: Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2009 were used as training data to develop the model. Data of the year 2011 were used for model validation. The multistate Markov model was developed using the msm package in R software...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
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