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Health economic modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029307/droplet-digital-pcr-diagnosis-of-human-schistosomiasis-parasite-cell-free-dna-detection-in-diverse-clinical-samples
#1
Kosala G Weerakoon, Catherine A Gordon, Gail M Williams, Pengfei Cai, Geoffrey N Gobert, Remigio M Olveda, Allen G Ross, David U Olveda, Donald P McManus
Background: Schistosomiasis japonica remains a major public health and socio-economic concern in Southeast-Asia. Sensitive and accurate diagnostics can play a pivotal role in achieving disease elimination goals. Methods: We previously reported a novel droplet digital-PCR (ddPCR) assay targeting the mitochondrial gene nad1 to diagnose schistosomiasis japonica. The tool identified both pre-patent and patent infections using Schistosoma japonicum DNA isolated from serum, urine, salivary glands and faeces in a murine model...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029222/the-scarring-effects-of-father-s-unemployment-job-security-satisfaction-and-mental-health-at-midlife
#2
Jack Lam, Christopher L Ambrey
Objectives: We investigate the association between early-life paternal unemployment and midlife mental health, examining whether the impact of father's unemployment may vary contingent on the broader economic context on which it occurred. We also investigate job-security satisfaction as a potential mediator of this association. Method: We utilize random-effects models, drawing on 15 waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, with 7,438 individuals and 42,309 individual-time observations...
September 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028824/the-association-between-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-a-cluster-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adolescents-the-champs-study-dk
#3
Natascha Holbæk Pedersen, Jakob Tarp, Lars Bo Andersen, Anne Kær Gejl, Tao Huang, Lone Peijs, Anna Bugge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028755/finding-resolution-for-the-responsible-transparency-of-economic-models-in-health-and-medicine
#4
William V Padula, Robert Brett McQueen, Peter J Pronovost
The Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine recommendations for conduct, methodological practices, and reporting of cost-effectiveness analyses has a number of questions unanswered with respect to the implementation of transparent, open source code interface for economic models. The possibility of making economic model source code could be positive and progressive for the field; however, several unintended consequences of this system should be first considered before complete implementation of this model...
November 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028754/can-economic-model-transparency-improve-provider-interpretation-of-cost-effectiveness-analysis-a-response
#5
Joshua T Cohen, John B Wong
To enhance the credibility and the value of health economic analyses, we argue that the computer model source code underlying these analyses should be made publicly available. Only with open publication is it possible for others to assess whether alternative assumptions, beyond those examined by the model authors, alter the model's findings. Because reproducibility is critical for scientific acceptance and because computation increasingly permeates scientific inquiry, other fields have moved toward open publication of computer models, and health economics should avoid falling behind...
November 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028753/can-economic-model-transparency-improve-provider-interpretation-of-cost-effectiveness-analysis-evaluating-tradeoffs-presented-by-the-second-panel-on-cost-effectiveness-in-health-and-medicine
#6
William V Padula, Robert Brett McQueen, Peter J Pronovost
The Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine convened on December 7, 2016 at the National Academy of Medicine to disseminate their recommendations for conduct, methodological practices, and reporting of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). Following its summary, panel proceedings included lengthy discussions including the field's struggle to disseminate findings efficiently through peer-reviewed literature to target audiences. With editors of several medical and outcomes research journals in attendance, there was consensus that findings of cost-effectiveness analyses do not effectively reach other researchers or health care providers...
November 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027946/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-indicators-of-mental-health-an-analysis-of-the-canadian-health-measures-survey
#7
Filmer Chu, Arto Ohinmaa, Scott Klarenbach, Zing-Wae Wong, Paul Veugelers
The main function of vitamin D is calcium homeostasis. However, emerging evidence has correlated adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with better mental health. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with indicators of mental health such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Associations of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with four indicators of mental health were examined using ordered logistic regression models with increasing specificity that account for demographics, socio-economic status, and health...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027324/circulating-microrna-132-levels-improve-risk-prediction-for-heart-failure-hospitalization-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#8
Serge Masson, Sandor Batkai, Julia Beermann, Christian Bär, Angelika Pfanne, Sabrina Thum, Michela Magnoli, Giovanna Balconi, Gian Luigi Nicolosi, Luigi Tavazzi, Roberto Latini, Thomas Thum
AIMS: Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are critically involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology. Since they are measurable in most body fluids, they have been proposed as circulating biomarkers. We examined the prognostic value of a specific candidate miRNA in a large cohort of patients with chronic heart failure (HF) enrolled in a multicentre clinical trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of miR-132 were measured using miRNA-specific PCR-based technologies at randomization in 953 patients with chronic, symptomatic HF from the GISSI-Heart Failure trial...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027109/scenarios-to-manage-the-hepatitis-c-disease-burden-and-associated-economic-impact-of-treatment-in-turkey
#9
Necati Örmeci, Simten Malhan, İsmail Balık, Gül Ergör, Homie Razavi, Sarah Robbins
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant health problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HCV treatment and estimate its economic burden in Turkey. METHODS: An Excel-based disease progression model was used to estimate the HCV-infected population for 2015-2030. Direct costs in US dollars (USD) including diagnostic, laboratory, and healthcare costs were provided by experts in the country. Indirect costs were estimated as lost productivity using the World Health Organization (WHO) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) metric from the Global Burden of Disease study...
October 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026378/contextual-determinants-of-adolescent-mortality-in-south-africa
#10
Nicole De Wet, Clifford Odimegwu
OBJECTIVES: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the effect of household and community factors on adolescent death. METHODS: The study used data from Census 2001. Multilevel modelling was used to study the impact of community and household factors on adolescent mortality...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025840/a-county-level-cross-sectional-analysis-of-positive-deviance-to-assess-multiple-population-health-outcomes-in-indiana
#11
Michael Hendryx, Lucia Guerra-Reyes, Benjamin D Holland, Michael Dean McGinnis, Emily Meanwell, Susan E Middlestadt, Karen M Yoder
OBJECTIVE: To test a positive deviance method to identify counties that are performing better than statistical expectations on a set of population health indicators. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional county-level secondary analysis of risk variables and outcomes in Indiana. Data are analysed using multiple linear regression to identify counties performing better or worse than expected given traditional risk indicators, with a focus on 'positive deviants' or counties performing better than expected...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024999/the-great-recession-and-inequalities-in-access-to-health-care-a-study-of-unemployment-and-unmet-medical-need-in-europe-in-the-economic-crisis
#12
Joana Madureira-Lima, Aaron Reeves, Amy Clair, David Stuckler
Background: Unmet medical need (UMN) had been declining steadily across Europe until the 2008 Recession, a period characterized by rising unemployment. We examined whether becoming unemployed increased the risk of UMN during the Great Recession and whether the extent of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) for health care and income replacement for the unemployed (IRU) moderated this relationship. Methods: We used the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) to construct a pseudo-panel ( n  = 135 529) across 25 countries to estimate the relationship between unemployment and UMN...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023472/geographic-variations-of-the-bird-borne-structural-risk-of-west-nile-virus-circulation-in-europe
#13
Benoit Durand, Annelise Tran, Gilles Balança, Véronique Chevalier
The structural risk of West Nile Disease results from the usual functioning of the socio-ecological system, which may favour the introduction of the pathogen, its circulation and the occurrence of disease cases. Its geographic variations result from the local interactions between three components: (i) reservoir hosts, (ii) vectors, both characterized by their diversity, abundance and competence, (iii) and the socio-economic context that impacts the exposure of human to infectious bites. We developed a model of bird-borne structural risk of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Europe, and analysed the association between the geographic variations of this risk and the occurrence of WND human cases between 2002 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021950/population-levels-of-and-inequalities-in-active-travel-a-national-cross-sectional-study-of-adults-in-scotland
#14
Jonathan R Olsen, Richard Mitchell, Nanette Mutrie, Louise Foley, David Ogilvie
This study aimed to describe active travel (walking or cycling) in Scotland and explore potential demographic, geographic, and socio-economic inequalities in active travel. We extracted data for the period 2012-13 (39,585 journey stages) from the Scottish Household Survey. Survey travel diaries recorded all journeys made on the previous day by sampled individuals aged 16 + living within Scotland, and the stages within each journey. Descriptive statistics were calculated for journey stages, mode, purpose and distance...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021816/determinants-of-early-initiation-of-breastfeeding-in-rural-niger-cross-sectional-study-of-community-based-child-healthcare-promotion
#15
Naoko Horii, James Allman, Yves Martin-Prével, Dominique Waltisperger
BACKGROUND: Most child deaths are preventable and caused by behaviorally modifiable factors. By promoting optimal breastfeeding, we can reduce neonatal and child mortality risks by 45%. This paper provides new family and community based perspectives to identify factors interfering with the program impact on promoting early initiation of breastfeeding among the most vulnerable populations in rural Niger. METHODS: A secondary analysis of a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated a UNICEF behavior change program on child healthcare...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020312/explaining-the-impact-of-poverty-on-old-age-frailty-in-europe-material-psychosocial-and-behavioural-factors
#16
Erwin Stolz, Hannes Mayerl, Anja Waxenegger, Wolfgang Freidl
Previous research found poverty to be associated with adverse health outcomes among older adults but the factors that translate low economic resources into poor physical health are not well understood. The goal of this analysis was to assess the impact of material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors as well as education in explaining the poverty-health link. In total, 28 360 observations from 11 390 community-dwelling respondents (65+) in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004-13, 10 countries) were analysed...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020041/how-will-climate-change-pathways-and-mitigation-options-alter-incidence-of-vector-borne-diseases-a-framework-for-leishmaniasis-in-south-and-meso-america
#17
Bethan V Purse, Dario Masante, Nicholas Golding, David Pigott, John C Day, Sergio Ibañez-Bernal, Melanie Kolb, Laurence Jones
The enormous global burden of vector-borne diseases disproportionately affects poor people in tropical, developing countries. Changes in vector-borne disease impacts are often linked to human modification of ecosystems as well as climate change. For tropical ecosystems, the health impacts of future environmental and developmental policy depend on how vector-borne disease risks trade off against other ecosystem services across heterogeneous landscapes. By linking future socio-economic and climate change pathways to dynamic land use models, this study is amongst the first to analyse and project impacts of both land use and climate change on continental-scale patterns in vector-borne diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019303/loneliness-sociodemographic-and-mental-health-variables-in-spanish-adults-over-65-years-old
#18
Berta Ausín, Manuel Muñoz, Miguel A Castellanos
Loneliness is a risk factor for morbidity as well as mortality. Older people are more vulnerable to feeling alone due to age-associated changes and losses they might experience. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic, psychosocial, and mental health variables related to loneliness in the elderly. A random sample of 419 people over 65 years old from the Community of Madrid was used. The UCLA Loneliness Scale, the CIDI65+ Diagnostic Interview, and the WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Measure were administered...
October 11, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019161/assessing-the-use-of-a-feedback-module-to-model-eq-5d-5l-health-states-values-in-hong-kong
#19
Eliza L Y Wong, Juan Manuel Ramos-Goñi, Annie W L Cheung, Amy Y K Wong, Oliver Rivero-Arias
BACKGROUND: An international valuation protocol exists for obtaining societal values for each of the 3125 health states of the five-level EuroQol-five dimensions (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire. A feedback module (FM) that can be related to theoretical models used in behavioral economics was recently included in this protocol. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the impact of using an FM to estimate an EQ-5D-5L value set in Hong Kong. METHODS: EQ-5D-5L health states were elicited using a composite time trade-off (C-TTO) and a discrete-choice (DC) experiment...
October 10, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017570/development-of-a-short-scale-for-assessing-economic-environmental-aspects-in-patients-with-spinal-diseases-using-rasch-analysis
#20
Judith Gecht, Verena Mainz, Maren Boecker, Hans Clusmann, Matthias Florian Geiger, Markus Tingart, Valentin Quack, Siegfried Gauggel, Allen W Heinemann, Christian-Andreas Müller
BACKGROUND: Economic environmental factors represent important barriers to participation and have deleterious effects on quality of life (QOL) in persons with spinal diseases (SpD). While economic factors are anchored in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, their influence on QOL and participation from patients' perspectives is an infrequent focus of research. The aim of the present research is to calibrate a culturally adapted Rasch-based questionnaire assessing economic QOL in patients with SpD...
October 10, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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