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Epidemiological methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029132/general-practitioners-strategies-in-consultations-with-immigrants-in-norway-practice-based-shared-reflections-among-participants-in-focus-groups
#1
Stefán Hjörleifsson, Elise Hammer, Esperanza Díaz
Background: Immigrants comprise 16.8% of the population in Norway and meet General Practitioners (GPs) as their first point of contact with most health care services as do others in Norway. While Norwegian GPs are not trained in cultural competence, little is known about the extent to which they see good care for immigrants as relying on specific strategies. Objectives: To explore the thoughts of GPs in Norway about strategies they might use with immigrant patients...
September 28, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029012/heterogeneity-of-studies-in-anesthesiology-systematic-reviews-a-meta-epidemiological-review-and-proposal-for-evidence-mapping
#2
B Umberham, R Hedin, B Detweiler, L Kollmorgen, C Hicks, M Vassar
Heterogeneity among the primary studies included in a systematic review (SR) is one of the most challenging considerations for systematic reviewers. Current practices in anaesthesiology SRs have not been evaluated, but traditional methods may not provide sufficient information to evaluate the true nature of these differences. We address these issues by examining the practices for evaluating heterogeneity in anesthesiology reviews. Also, we propose a mapping method for presenting heterogeneous aspects of the primary studies in SRs...
September 27, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028986/a-new-haplotype-block-detection-method-for-dense-genome-sequencing-data-based-on-interval-graph-modeling-of-clusters-of-highly-correlated-snps
#3
Sun Ah Kim, Chang-Sung Cho, Suh-Ryung Kim, Shelley B Bull, Yun Joo Yoo
Motivation: Linkage disequilibrium (LD) block construction is required for research in population genetics and genetic epidemiology, including specification of sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for analysis of multi-SNP based association and identification of haplotype blocks in high density sequencing data. Existing methods based on a narrow sense definition do not allow intermediate regions of low LD between strongly associated SNP pairs and tend to split high density SNP data into small blocks having high between-block correlation...
September 29, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028899/phandango-an-interactive-viewer-for-bacterial-population-genomics
#4
James Hadfield, Nicholas J Croucher, Richard J Goater, Khalil Abudahab, David M Aanensen, Simon R Harris
Summary: Fully exploiting the wealth of data in current bacterial population genomics datasets requires synthesising and integrating different types of analysis across millions of base pairs in hundreds or thousands of isolates. Current approaches often use static representations of phylogenetic, epidemiological, statistical and evolutionary analysis results that are difficult to relate to one another. Phandango is an interactive application running in a web browser allowing fast exploration of large-scale population genomics datasets combining the output from multiple genomic analysis methods in an intuitive and interactive manner...
September 25, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028741/fundamental-epidemiology-terminology-and-measures-it-really-is-all-in-the-name
#5
Thomas R Vetter, Christine A Jesser
Epidemiology is the study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution. Clinical epidemiology denotes the application of epidemiologic methods to questions relevant to patient care and provides a highly useful set of principles and methods for the design and conduct of quantitative clinical research. Validly analyzing, correctly reporting, and successfully interpreting the findings of a clinical research study often require an understanding of the epidemiologic terms and measures that describe the patterns of association between the exposure of interest (treatment or intervention) and a health outcome (disease)...
October 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028516/pravastatin-to-treat-and-prevent-preeclampsia-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#6
Guillermina Girardi
Pre-eclampsia is a disease of pregnancy affecting 5%-8% of all pregnancies and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Despite improvements in the diagnosis, there is no effective method for prevention and treatment. While studies in women are of critical importance, investigation of pathological mechanisms in pregnant women is necessarily limited, and the ability to establish cause and effect relationships, difficult. Mouse models have been instrumental in defining pathogenic mechanisms in preeclampsia and in the identification of pravastatin as a potential treatment to prevent pregnancy complications associated with placental dysfunction...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028237/the-epidemiological-transition-in-eastern-and-western-europe-a-historic-natural-experiment
#7
Marina Karanikolos, Roza Adany, Martin McKee
Background: The continent of Europe has experienced remarkable changes in the past 25 years, providing scope for natural experiments that offer insight into the complex determinants of health. Methods: We analysed trends in life expectancy at birth in three parts of Europe, those countries that were members of the European Union (EU) prior to 2004, countries that joined the European Union since then, and the twelve countries that emerged from the Soviet Union to form the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027816/a-comparison-of-the-genetic-and-clinical-risk-factors-for-arterial-hypertension-between-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-people-of-the-shoria-mountain-region
#8
Tatyana Mulerova, Michael Ogarkov, Evgenya Uchasova, Michael Voevoda, Olga Barbarash
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for arterial hypertension (AH) in two ethnic groups living in the Mountain Shoria region: Shors and non-indigenous people. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological study of compactly living population in the remote areas of the Mountain Shoria (Orton, Ust-Kabyrza, Sheregesh settlements, Kemerovo region). 1178 residents of these settlements were surveyed with the help of continuous sampling method; the sample consisted of adults (18 years and older)...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026859/molecular-identification-of-leishmania-species-in-a-re-emerged-focus-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-varamin-district-iran
#9
Mahmoodreza Behravan, Vahideh Moin-Vaziri, Ali Haghighi, Nourina Rahbarian, Niloofar Taghipour, Alireza Abadi, Homa Hajjaran
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases and a major public health challenge in Iran caused by Leishmania spp and transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The number of CL cases has shown an increasing pattern all over the country, including the district of Varamin, southeast of Tehran, Iran. This study aimed to identify the Leishmania spp isolated from CL patients using molecular methods in Varamin during 2012-2013. METHODS: Exudate materials collected from the swollen edge of the skin lesions of 44 parasitological positive CL patients by disposable lancet...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025826/patient-characteristics-of-the-accident-and-emergency-department-of-kenyatta-national-hospital-nairobi-kenya-a-cross-sectional-prospective-analysis
#10
Justin Guy Myers, Katherine M Hunold, Karen Ekernas, Ali Wangara, Alice Maingi, Vincent Mutiso, Stephen Dunlop, Ian B K Martin
BACKGROUND: Resource-limited settings are increasingly experiencing a 'triple burden' of disease, composed of trauma, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and known communicable disease patterns. However, the epidemiology of acute and emergency care is not well characterised and this limits efforts to further develop emergency care capacity. OBJECTIVE: To define the burden of disease by describing the patient population presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Kenya...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025108/hdl-cholesterol-levels-and-risk-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-multiethnic-genetic-study-using-mendelian-randomization
#11
Qiao Fan, Joseph C Maranville, Lars Fritsche, Xueling Sim, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Li Jia Chen, Mathias Gorski, Kenji Yamashiro, Jeeyun Ahn, Augustinus Laude, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Tock Han Lim, Yik-Ying Teo, Robert O Blaustein, Nagahisa Yoshimura, Kyu-Hyung Park, Chi Pui Pang, E Shyong Tai, Chiea Chuen Khor, Tien Yin Wong, Heiko Runz, Ching-Yu Cheng
Background: Dyslipidemia, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss. However, epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results. Methods: We investigated the causal role of plasma lipid levels in AMD in multiethnic populations comprising 16 144 advanced AMD cases and 17 832 controls of European descent, together with 2219 cases and 5275 controls of Asian descent, using Mendelian randomization in three models...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024504/high-validity-of-cardiomyopathy-diagnoses-in-western-sweden-1989-2009
#12
Carmen Basic, Annika Rosengren, Sandra Lindström, Maria Schaufelberger
AIM: Hospital discharges with a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy have more than doubled in Sweden since 1987. We validated the cardiomyopathy diagnoses over this time period to investigate that the increase was real and not a result of improved recognition of the diagnosis and better diagnostic methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Every fifth year from 1989 to 2009, records for all patients with a cardiomyopathy diagnosis were identified by searching the local registers in three hospitals in Västra Götaland, Sweden...
October 11, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022859/a-community-based-study-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-and-molecular-characterization-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#13
Nina S Leung, Michelle L Vidoni, D Ashley Robinson, Paige Padgett, Eric L Brown
PURPOSE: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization, evaluate community-related behavioral risk factors, and utilize staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing for epidemiological surveillance among community-based men who have sex with men from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in Houston, Texas. METHODS: Descriptive methods and logistic analyses were used to determine associations with nasal colonization...
October 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022780/primary-urethral-reconstruction-results-in-penile-fracture
#14
R Barros, Mis Silva, V Antonucci, L Schulze, L Koifman, L A Favorito
Objective This study assessed primary urethral reconstruction results in patients with a penile fracture. Materials and methods Between January 2005 and April 2016, patients who underwent primary urethral reconstruction due to penile fracture were called for a follow-up. Epidemiological and clinical presentation data and operative findings were reviewed retrospectively. Partial urethral lesions were primarily treated with interrupted absorbable sutures over urethral catheter. In cases of complete urethral lesion, tension-free end-to-end anastomosis was performed...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022520/prevalence-of-suicidal-behaviour-and-associated-factors-in-a-large-sample-of-chinese-adolescents
#15
X C Liu, H Chen, Z Z Liu, J Y Wang, C X Jia
AIMS: Suicidal behaviour is prevalent among adolescents and is a significant predictor of future suicide attempts (SAs) and suicide death. Data on the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of suicidal behaviour in Chinese adolescents are limited. This study was aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of suicidal behaviour, including suicidal thought (ST), suicide plan (SP) and SA, in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. METHOD: This report represents the first wave data of an ongoing longitudinal study, Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort...
October 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021600/diagnosing-antimicrobial-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Carey-Ann D Burnham, Jennifer Leeds, Patrice Nordmann, Justin O'Grady, Jean Patel
Antimicrobial resistance constitutes a global burden and is one of the major threats to public health. Although the emergence of resistant microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, the overuse or inappropriate use of antimicrobials has had a great effect on resistance evolution. Rapid diagnostic tests that identify drug-resistant bacteria, determine antimicrobial susceptibility and distinguish viral from bacterial infections can guide effective treatment strategies. Moreover, rapid diagnostic tests could facilitate epidemiological surveillance, as emerging resistant infectious agents and transmission can be monitored...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021553/development-of-a-cell-based-assay-for-measuring-base-excision-repair-responses
#17
Tyler Golato, Boris Brenerman, Daniel R McNeill, Jianfeng Li, Robert W Sobol, David M Wilson
Base excision repair (BER) is the predominant pathway for coping with most forms of hydrolytic, oxidative or alkylative DNA damage. Measuring BER capacity in living cells is valuable for both basic science applications and epidemiological studies, since deficiencies in this pathway have been associated with cancer susceptibility and other adverse health outcomes. At present, there is an ongoing effort to develop methods to effectively quantify the rate of BER as a whole. We present a variation of a previously described "Oligonucleotide Retrieval Assay" designed to measure DNA excision repair that is capable of quantifying the rate of repair of thymine glycol in a variety of human cells with a high degree of sensitivity...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021302/development-of-a-high-throughput-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fluorescent-foci-based-microneutralization-assay
#18
Cindy Shambaugh, Sarieh Azshirvani, Li Yu, Jared Pache, Stacie L Lambert, Fengrong Zuo, Mark T Esser
Neutralizing antibodies specific for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represent a major protective mechanism against RSV infection as demonstrated by the efficacy of the immune-prophylactic monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, in preventing RSV associated lower respiratory tract infections in premature infants. Accordingly, the RSV neutralization assay has become a key functional method to assess the neutralizing activity of serum antibodies in pre-clinical animal models, epidemiology studies and clinical trials...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021131/participatory-disease-surveillance-engaging-communities-directly-in-reporting-monitoring-and-responding-to-health-threats
#19
Mark S Smolinski, Adam W Crawley, Jennifer M Olsen, Tanvi Jayaraman, Marlo Libel
BACKGROUND: Since 2012, the International Workshop on Participatory Surveillance (IWOPS) has served as an informal network to share best practices, consult on analytic methods, and catalyze innovation to advance the burgeoning method of direct engagement of populations in voluntary monitoring of disease. OBJECTIVE: This landscape provides an overview of participatory disease surveillance systems in the IWOPS network and orients readers to this growing field of practice...
October 11, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020966/methods-used-in-prevalence-studies-of-disrespect-and-abuse-during-facility-based-childbirth-lessons-learned
#20
REVIEW
David Sando, Timothy Abuya, Anteneh Asefa, Kathleen P Banks, Lynn P Freedman, Stephanie Kujawski, Amanda Markovitz, Charity Ndwiga, Kate Ramsey, Hannah Ratcliffe, Emmanuel O Ugwu, Charlotte E Warren, R Rima Jolivet
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse (D&A) of women during childbirth in health facilities. Variations in reported prevalence may be associated with differences in study instruments and data collection methods. This systematic review and comparative analysis of methods aims to aggregate and present lessons learned from published studies that quantified the prevalence of Disrespect and Abuse (D&A) during childbirth. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines...
October 11, 2017: Reproductive Health
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