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Epidemiological methods

Víctor Silva, Alicia Marcoleta, Viviana Silva, Dángelo Flores, Teresa Aparicio, Isabel Aburto, Cecilia Latrach, Naldy Febré
BACKGROUND: Chronic wounds are considered a public health problem that may be complicated by bacterial infections, mainly caused by resistant strains. AIM: To study the bacteria prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility in samples from adult patients with chronic wounds. METHODS: Patients treated at National Institute of Wounds Foundation between May and July 2014, with chronic ulcers in lower extremities with clinical inflammatory signs were recluted...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Lisa Belzak, Jessica Halverson
INTRODUCTION: This review provides a national summary of what is currently known about the Canadian opioid crisis with respect to opioid-related deaths and harms and potential risk factors as of December 2017. METHODS: We reviewed all public-facing opioid-related surveillance or epidemiological reports published by provincial and territorial ministries of health and chief coroners' or medical examiners' offices. In addition, we reviewed publications from federal partners and reports and articles published prior to December 2017...
June 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Elena Dragioti, Tobias Wiklund, Peter Alföldi, Björn Gerdle
Objective Insomnia is the most commonly diagnosed comorbidity disorder among patients with chronic pain. This circumstance requests brief and valid instruments for screening insomnia in epidemiological studies. The main object of this study was to assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Swedish version of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). The ISI is a short instrument designed to measure clinical insomnia and one of the most common used scales both in clinical and research practice. However there is no study in Sweden that guarantees neither its factor structure nor its feasibility in chronic pain patients...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Shuling Shang, Da Zhou, Jingyuan Ya, Sijie Li, Qi Yang, Yuchuan Ding, Xunming Ji, Ran Meng
Moyamoya disease is characterized by progressive stenosis or occlusion of the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery and their proximal branches, resulting in ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke with high rate of disability and even death. So far, available treatment strategies are quite limited, and novel intervention method is being explored. This review encapsulates current advances of moyamoya disease on the aspects of epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, imaging diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we also bring forward our conjecture, which needs to be testified by future research...
June 18, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Felipe Fernandes Gonçalves, Leonardo Dau, Cristiano Antonio Grassi, Fabiano Rogério Palauro, Ayrton Andrade Martins Neto, Patrícia Caroline Gapski Pereira
Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the surgical results of humeral shaft fracture treatment and describe its epidemiology. Methods: Retrospective study that identified all patients treated with surgical fixation of humeral shaft fractures between December of 2014 and June of 2016 in a trauma reference center. All medical records were reviewed in search of epidemiological data referent to the trauma and post-operative results, including radiographic healing of the fracture and related complications...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Jianhua Feng, Fei Shen, Wensong Cai, Xiaoxiong Gan, Xingyan Deng, Bo Xu
BACKGROUND: Patients younger than 55 years of age with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have excellent survival. Diffuse sclerosing variant (DSV) and tall cell variant (TCV) of PTC are associated with aggressiveness; the survival of patients <55 years of age with these variants is still unclear. We aim to investigate the clinicopathological features and survival of these variants in the age group <55 years. METHODS: All adult patients (<55 years old) with DSV, TCV and conventional PTC (CPTC) came from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (1988-2013)...
June 16, 2018: Endocrine
Martina Sansone, Åsa Wiman, Maria Lind Karlberg, Maria Brytting, Lars Bohlin, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Johan Westin, Rickard Nordén
BACKGROUND/AIM: To describe a hospital outbreak of influenza B (InfB) virus infection during season 2015/2016 by combining clinical and epidemiological data with molecular methods. METHODS: Twenty patients diagnosed with InfB from a hospital outbreak during a four-week-period were included. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) positive for InfB by multiplex real-time PCR were sent for lineage typing and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data regarding patient characteristics, localisation, exposure and outcome and assembled into a timeline...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Shan Wu, Jin-Nan Chen, Qing-Wei Zhang, Chao-Tao Tang, Xin-Tian Zhang, Ming-Yu Tang, Xiao-Bo Li, Zhi-Zheng Ge
BACKGROUND: Current methods of lymph node (LN) staging are controversial in predicting the survival of SBA. We aimed to develop an alternative LN-classification-based nomogram to individualize SBA prognosis. METHODS: Based on the data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database of patients diagnosed with SBA between 2004 and 2014, we identified the cut-off points for the number of LNs examined and the number found to be metastatic using the K-adaptive partitioning (KAPS) algorithm...
June 13, 2018: EBioMedicine
Rachel M Chalmers, Gregorio Pérez-Cordón, Simone M Cacció, Christian Klotz, Lucy J Robertson
Due to the occurrence of genetic recombination, a reliable and discriminatory method to genotype Cryptosporidium isolates at the intra-species level requires the analysis of multiple loci, but a standardised scheme is not currently available. A workshop was held at the Robert Koch Institute, Berlin in 2016 that gathered 23 scientists with appropriate expertise (in either Cryptosporidium genotyping and/or surveillance, epidemiology or outbreaks) to discuss the processes for the development of a robust, standardised, multi-locus genotyping (MLG) scheme and propose an approach...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Laíse Diana Dos Santos Brandão, Douglas Boniek, Maria Aparecida de Resende Stoianoff, Flávia Maria Rezende da Mata, Paulo Roberto Medeiros de Azevedo, José Veríssimo Fernandes, Vânia Sousa Andrade
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an inflammatory disease of the vulva and vagina caused by different yeasts of the genus Candida which is responsible for infection in pregnant patients who attended Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. From 41 samples, 19 yeasts were identified phenotypically as Candida albicans, and one as C. glabrata which is reported as the non-albicans species most frequently isolated from vulvovaginitis. The susceptibility to selected antifungal agents (fluocytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin and micafungin) was determined, and the association between patient related signs and symptoms aided the construction of an epidemiological profile...
June 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Luis María Béjar, Óscar Adrián Reyes, María Dolores García-Perea
BACKGROUND: One of the greatest challenges in nutritional epidemiology is improving upon traditional self-reporting methods for the assessment of habitual dietary intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of a new method known as the current-day dietary recall (or current-day recall), based on a smartphone app called 12-hour dietary recall, for determining the habitual intake of a series of key food and drink groups using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and four dietary records as reference methods...
June 15, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Jana Pipiková, Ingrid Papajová, Viktória Majláthová, Jindřich Šoltys, Júlia Bystrianska, Ingrid Schusterová, Veronika Vargová
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is one of the most common gastrointestinal infections of humans and animals attributable to complex of eight morphologically identical genetic assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages. Disease is common for a wide range of hosts and genetic characterization is needed for better understanding of multifaceted epidemiology for this protozoan parasite. The aim of this study was to identify genetic heterogeneity in assemblages and sub-assemblages of Giardiaduodenalis circulating among the children population living in deprived socioeconomic conditions...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Lona Mody
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review describes our research experiences and efforts in advancing the field of infection prevention and control in nursing facilities including postacute and long-term care settings. RECENT FINDINGS: There are over two million infections in postacute and long-term care settings each year in the United States and $4 billion in associated costs. To define a target group most amenable to infection prevention and control interventions, we sought to quantify the relation between indwelling device use and microbial colonization in nursing facility patients...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Faith C Robertson, Jacob R Lepard, Rania A Mekary, Matthew C Davis, Ismaeel Yunusa, William B Gormley, Ronnie E Baticulon, Muhammad Raji Mahmud, Basant K Misra, Abbas Rattani, Michael C Dewan, Kee B Park
OBJECTIVE Central nervous system (CNS) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality and often require neurosurgical intervention for proper diagnosis and treatment. However, neither the international burden of CNS infection, nor the current capacity of the neurosurgical workforce to treat these diseases is well characterized. The objective of this study was to elucidate the global incidence of surgically relevant CNS infection, highlighting geographic areas for targeted improvement in neurosurgical capacity...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Hai-Feng Yu, Bing-Qing Zhao, Yong-Cheng Li, Jun Fu, Wei Jiang, Rong-Wei Xu, Hao-Chang Yang, Xiao-Jun Zhang
AIM: To ascertain the prognostic role of the T4 and N2 category in stage III pancreatic cancer according to the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. METHODS: Patients were collected from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2013) and were divided into three groups: T(1-3)N2, T4N(0-1), and T4N2. Overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Michelle M Haby, Mariona Pinart, Vanessa Elias, Ludovic Reveiz
Objective: To conduct a systematic review to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus infection in the general population and in specific population groups. Methods: We searched PubMed®, Embase® and LILACS online databases from inception to 26 January 2018. We included observational epidemiological studies where laboratory testing was used to confirm positive exposure of participants to Zika virus and in which Zika virus symptom status was also recorded...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Hanna Debiec, Claire Dossier, Eric Letouzé, Christopher E Gillies, Marina Vivarelli, Rosemary K Putler, Elisabet Ars, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Valery Elie, Manuela Colucci, Stéphanie Debette, Philippe Amouyel, Siham C Elalaoui, Abdelaziz Sefiani, Valérie Dubois, Tabassome Simon, Matthias Kretzler, Jose Ballarin, Francesco Emma, Matthew G Sampson, Georges Deschênes, Pierre Ronco
Background Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) is a childhood disease with unclear pathophysiology and genetic architecture. We investigated the genomic basis of SSNS in children recruited in Europe and the biopsy-based North American NEPTUNE cohort. Methods We performed three ancestry-matched, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 273 children with NS (Children Cohort Nephrosis and Virus [NEPHROVIR] cohort: 132 European, 56 African, and 85 Maghrebian) followed by independent replication in 112 European children, transethnic meta-analysis, and conditional analysis...
June 14, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Paolo Vineis, Daniela Fecht
The proportion of total deaths attributable to environmental factors is estimated to be 23% of global deaths and 22% of global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) according to one review. These estimates encompass all environmental agents including infectious agents but excluding behavioural factors. The authors of the review also estimated that 16% (95% CI: 7-41%) of cancer deaths are attributable to environmental risk factors (and 36% [95% CI: 17-52%] for lung cancer). In this article, we focus on the reasons why epidemiology is often unable to account for the whole burden of environmental carcinogens...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Melanie H Schwimmer, Mary Catherine Sawh, Karen M Heskett, Nidhi P Goyal, Kimberly P Newton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric gastroenterology is a clinical and research discipline principally developed over the past 50 years. Bibliometric methods provide quantitative analysis and identify research trends. Study aims were to characterize the growth and trends in pediatric gastroenterology clinical and translational research using citation analysis. METHODS: Using citations analysis software, a search strategy specific for pediatric gastroenterology was implemented for the years 1970-2017...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Yu Yu Vinnik, A V Andreichikov, N Yu Klimov
This literature review outlines the most common methods of diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Promising diagnostic modalities include uroflowmetry, assessment of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), transrectal ultrasound and prostate elastography. The authors address social implications and epidemiological features of the disease in Russia and developed countries.
May 2018: Urologii︠a︡
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