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Epidemiological methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110499/dynamic-predictions-using-flexible-joint-models-of-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#1
Jessica Barretta, Li Sub
Joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data are particularly relevant to many clinical studies where longitudinal biomarkers could be highly associated with a time-to-event outcome. A cutting-edge research direction in this area is dynamic predictions of patient prognosis (e.g., survival probabilities) given all available biomarker information, recently boosted by the stratified/personalized medicine initiative. As these dynamic predictions are individualized, flexible models are desirable in order to appropriately characterize each individual longitudinal trajectory...
January 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110132/thromboelastographic-characterization-of-the-activated-clotting-system-in-children-with-sickle-cell-trait-or-sickle-cell-disease
#2
Shveta Gupta, Roxana Carmona, Jemily Malvar, Guy Young
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological evidence suggests sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell trait (SCT) is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The increased in-vivo markers of thrombin generation support the notion that such patients are in a chronic hypercoagulable state. In an attempt to better understand the underlying mechanism, global hemostatic assays including thrombin generation assay (TGA) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been utilized by several groups, but thus far, have shown inconsistent results either due to small sample size or technical differences...
September 21, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108875/against-the-odds-syringe-exchange-policy-implementation-in-indiana
#3
Beth E Meyerson, Carrie A Lawrence, Laura Miller, Anthony Gillespie, Daniel Raymond, Kristen Kelley, D J Shannon
Indiana recently passed legislation allowing local governments to establish syringe exchanges. While the effectiveness of syringe exchange programming is established, there is a dearth of studies about associated policy adoption and implementation. This study documents the experiences of 24 Indiana counties engaged in the process of establishing syringe exchange programming under new state law. A mixed method, qualitative, exploratory case study was conducted from May 2015 to April 2016. We observed rapid and widespread policy adoption interest, and yet counties reported significant policy ambiguity, epidemiologic and resource capacity issues...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108804/antigenic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-rabies-virus-isolated-from-bats-mammalia-chiroptera-from-municipalities-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-southeastern-brazil
#4
Benedito Donizete Menozzi, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Laís Moraes Paiz, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Helio Langoni
Bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in the Americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. Antigenic and genetic studies of RABV isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. This study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 RABV isolates from central nervous system samples of non-hematophagous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera)...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108199/freedom-from-infection-confirming-interruption-of-malaria-transmission
#5
REVIEW
Gillian Stresman, Angus Cameron, Chris Drakeley
The global reductions in disease burden and the continued spread of drug and insecticide resistance make malaria elimination both viable and imperative, although this may be more easily achieved in some settings compared to others. Whilst the focus has been on optimal approaches to achieve elimination, less attention has been paid to how to measure the absence of malaria. Measuring the absence of transmission poses a specific challenge in that it involves proving a negative. The concept of freedom from infection, routinely used in veterinary epidemiology, can provide quantitative and reproducible estimates that, if infections were present above a predefined (low) threshold, they would be detected with a known uncertainty...
January 17, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107671/recent-sequence-variation-in-probe-binding-site-affected-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-group-b-by-real-time-rt-pcr
#6
Everlyn Kamau, Charles N Agoti, Clement S Lewa, John Oketch, Betty E Owor, Grieven P Otieno, Anne Bett, Patricia A Cane, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Direct immuno-fluorescence test (IFAT) and multiplex real-time RT-PCR have been central to RSV diagnosis in Kilifi, Kenya. Recently, these two methods showed discrepancies with an increasing number of PCR undetectable RSV-B viruses. OBJECTIVES: Establish if mismatches in the primer and probe binding sites could have reduced real-time RT-PCR sensitivity. STUDY DESIGN: Nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes were sequenced for real-time RT-PCR positive and negative samples...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107444/epidemiological-and-clinical-features-of-brucellosis-in-the-country-of-georgia
#7
Tamar Akhvlediani, Christian T Bautista, Natalia Garuchava, Lia Sanodze, Nora Kokaia, Lile Malania, Nazibrola Chitadze, Ketevan Sidamonidze, Robert G Rivard, Matthew J Hepburn, Mikeljon P Nikolich, Paata Imnadze, Nino Trapaidze
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the country of Georgia. According to the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC), the average annual number of brucellosis cases was 161 during 2008-2012. However, the true number of cases is thought to be higher due to underreporting. The aim of this study was to provide current epidemiological and clinical information and evaluate diagnostic methods used for brucellosis in Georgia. METHODOLOGY: Adult patients were eligible for participation if they met the suspected or probable case definition for brucellosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106841/perspective-on-global-measles-epidemiology-and-control-and-the-role-of-novel-vaccination-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Melissa M Coughlin, Andrew S Beck, Bettina Bankamp, Paul A Rota
Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network...
January 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106781/family-food-providers-perceptions-of-the-causes-of-obesity-and-effectiveness-of-weight-control-strategies-in-five-countries-in-the-asia-pacific-region-a-cross-sectional-survey
#9
Anthony Worsley, Wei Wang, Rani Sarmugam, Quynh Pham, Judhiastuty Februhartanty, Stacey Ridley
The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group's awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents...
January 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106529/a-joint-cross-border-investigation-of-a-cluster-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-austria-romania-and-germany-in-2014-using-classic-genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-methods-lessons-learnt
#10
Lena Fiebig, Thomas A Kohl, Odette Popovici, Margarita Mühlenfeld, Alexander Indra, Daniela Homorodean, Domnica Chiotan, Elvira Richter, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Beatrix Schmidgruber, Patrick Beckert, Barbara Hauer, Stefan Niemann, Franz Allerberger, Walter Haas
Molecular surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 24-loci MIRU-VNTR in the European Union suggests the occurrence of international transmission. In early 2014, Austria detected a molecular MDR-TB cluster of five isolates. Links to Romania and Germany prompted the three countries to investigate possible cross-border MDR-TB transmission jointly. We searched genotyping databases, genotyped additional isolates from Romania, used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to infer putative transmission links, and investigated pairwise epidemiological links and patient mobility...
January 12, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105966/a-novel-approach-for-pathway-analysis-of-gwas-data-highlights-role-of-bmp-signaling-and-muscle-cell-differentiation-in-colorectal-cancer-susceptibility
#11
Aniket Mishra, Stuart MacGregor
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revolutionized the field of gene mapping. As the GWAS field matures, it is becoming clear that for many complex traits, a proportion of the missing heritability is attributable to common variants of individually small effect. Detecting these small effects individually can be difficult, and statistical power would be increased if relevant variants could be grouped together for testing. Here, we propose a VEGAS2Pathway approach that aggregates association strength of individual markers into pre-specified biological pathways...
February 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105627/-progression-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-primary-malignant-small-bowel-tumor
#12
Zhixun Zhao, Xu Guan, Yinggang Chen, Xishan Wang
Primary malignant small bowel tumor as a rare kind of intestinal tumor is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathological types were various and complicated, such as adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, malignant lymphoma, and malignant stromal tumor. The atypical early stage symptom resulted in difficult diagnosis at early stage, high misdiagnosis rate and lack of standard therapy schemes and means. In the past, X-ray, CT, MRI, and PET-CT were the main examination methods for primary small bowel tumor...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104506/assessing-the-risk-of-dengue-virus-transmission-in-a-non-endemic-city-surrounded-by-endemic-and-hyperendemic-areas
#13
Tsz Ho Kwan, Shui Shan Lee, Denise Pui Chung Chan, Manton Cheung, Kai Man Kam
OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential risk of dengue transmission in a non-endemic city using a spatial epidemiological approach METHODS: Past dengue exposure of the general population was examined by dengue virus (DENV) IgG testing of archived samples of voluntary blood donors. Vector intensities were determined by local Ovitrap Index (OI). Analyses were made in context of population statistics at both district and sub-district levels. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of DENV IgG was low at 2...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104416/longitudinal-cohort-study-on-the-incidence-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-in-bai-chinese
#14
Chen-Wei Pan, Wen-Yan Yang, Dan-Ning Hu, Jian-Gang Xu, Zhi-Qiang Niu, Yuan-Sheng Yuan, Min-Bin Yu, Hua Zhong
PURPOSE: The prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in China has been reported previously, which was lower than that in the white and black. However, the incidence of POAG in China has not been reported. Therefore, a longitudinal study was conducted to determine the 5-year cumulative incidence and predictors of POAG in China DESIGN: Population-based cohort study METHODS: Fifteen hundred and twenty participants (71.3%) of Bai ethnicity were examined and followed for 5 years. Glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification criteria...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104036/-analysis-of-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-elderly-population-in-china-2013
#15
W Q Chen, R S Zheng, S W Zhang, H M Zeng, X N Zou, J He
Objective: To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in elderly Chinese population in 2013 based on the data from local cancer registries submitted to National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: Data from 255 cancer registries submitted to NCCR with qualified data after checked and evaluated, were selected for this estimation. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by areas, sex, age groups and cancer site, combined with population data of the year 2013 to estimate cancer epidemiology in older people in China...
January 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103940/methodological-choices-affect-cancer-incidence-rates-a-cohort-study
#16
Hannah L Brooke, Mats Talbäck, Maria Feychting, Rickard Ljung
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates are fundamental to epidemiology, but their magnitude and interpretation depend on methodological choices. We aimed to examine the extent to which the definition of the study population affects cancer incidence rates. METHODS: All primary cancer diagnoses in Sweden between 1958 and 2010 were identified from the national Cancer Register. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of 29 cancer subtypes between 2000 and 2010 were calculated using four definitions of the study population: persons resident in Sweden 1) based on general population statistics; 2) with no previous subtype-specific cancer diagnosis; 3) with no previous cancer diagnosis except non-melanoma skin cancer; and 4) with no previous cancer diagnosis of any type...
January 19, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#17
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103398/cognitive-behavioral-and-psycho-social-factors-associated-with-successful-and-maintained-quit-smoking-status-among-patients-who-received-smoking-cessation-intervention-with-nurses-counseling
#18
Chie Taniguchi, Hideo Tanaka, Hideo Saka, Isao Oze, Kazunobu Tachibana, Yasuhiro Nozaki, Yukio Suzuki, Hisataka Sakakibara
AIM: To identify cognitive, behavioral and psycho-social factors associated with successful and maintained quit smoking status after patients received smoking cessation intervention with nurses' counseling. BACKGROUND: Although nurses' intervention for smoking cessation is effective for patients, few studies have been conducted to identify cognitive, behavioral and psycho-social factors associated with the success of quitting smoking. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study METHODS: In a multi-institutional study between October 2008 - October 2014, we administered the Japanese smoking cessation therapy, which consists of smoking cessation intervention five times with nurses' counseling over 12 weeks...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103259/characterization-and-genetic-variation-of-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-from-clinical-and-environmental-sources-in-thailand
#19
Achiraya Siriphap, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Rolf S Kaas, Chonchanok Theethakaew, Frank M Aarestrup, Orasa Sutheinkul, Rene S Hendriksen
Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using online bioinformatics tools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102740/update-on-functional-and-genetic-laboratory-assays-for-the-detection-of-platelet-microvesicles
#20
Maxime Laroche, Claire Dunois, Anne Marie Vissac, Jean Amiral
Functional and genetic assays for measuring platelet microvesicles (PMVs) are presented and discussed. Functional assays concern two groups of methods: a) homogeneous assays using the cofactor activity of phospholipids (PPLs) contained in PMVs and present in assayed plasmas, and a coagulation or a thrombin generation assay (TGA) as "end points"; b) capture-based assays, in which PMVs bind to an immobilized ligand, such as Annexin V in the presence of calcium, or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) specific for membrane proteins...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
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