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Epidemiological methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667574/genomic-non-coding-regions-reveal-hidden-patterns-of-mumps-virus-circulation-in-spain-2005-to-2015
#1
Ana M Gavilán, Aurora Fernández-García, Angel Rueda, Ana Castellanos, Josefa Masa-Calles, Noemí López-Perea, María V Torres de Mier, Fernando de Ory, Juan E Echevarría
BackgroundSince mumps vaccination was introduced in 1981 in Spain, the incidence of the disease has dropped significantly. However, cyclic epidemic waves and outbreaks still occur, despite high vaccination coverage. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends genotyping to trace the pattern of mumps virus (MuV) circulation. Genotype H was predominant in Spain, but was replaced in 2005 by genotype G which has subsequently remained dominant. Of the small hydrophobic protein gene sequences, 78% are identical and belong to the MuVi/ Sheffield...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667573/molecular-epidemiology-of-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#2
James R Johnson, Thomas A Russo
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are important pathogens in humans and certain animals. Molecular epidemiological analyses of ExPEC are based on structured observations of E. coli strains as they occur in the wild. By assessing real-world phenomena as they occur in authentic contexts and hosts, they provide an important complement to experimental assessment. Fundamental to the success of molecular epidemiological studies are the careful selection of subjects and the use of appropriate typing methods and statistical analysis...
April 2018: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667433/association-between-physical-fitness-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Jan Müller, Jonathan Myers
Objective Exercise is a cornerstone of therapy for Parkinson's disease. This study addressed the association between physical fitness and the onset of Parkinson's disease and association with cardiovascular risk factors. Patients and methods Male veterans ( N = 7347, 59.0 ± 11.2 years) from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study cohort were evaluated. Physical fitness was measured objectively by maximal exercise testing. Onset of Parkinson's disease was abstracted from the Veterans Affairs computerized patient records system...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667174/impact-of-prior-cancer-history-on-the-overall-survival-of-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-cancer-a-pan-cancer-analysis-of-the-seer-database
#4
Huaqiang Zhou, Yan Huang, Zeting Qiu, Hongyun Zhao, Wenfeng Fang, Yunpeng Yang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Xue Hou, Yuxiang Ma, Shaodong Hong, Ting Zhou, Yaxiong Zhang, Li Zhang
The population of cancer survivors with prior cancer is rapidly growing. Whether a prior cancer diagnosis interferes with outcome is unknown. We conducted a pan-cancer analysis to determine the impact of prior cancer history for patients newly diagnosed with cancer. We identified 20 types of primary solid tumors between 2004 to 2008 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Demographic and clinicopathologic variables were compared by chi-squared test and t-test as appropriate. The propensity score-adjusted Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the impact of prior cancer on overall survival (OS)...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666765/characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-haemophilus-parasuis-isolated-from-pigs-in-china
#5
Yongda Zhao, Lili Guo, Jie Li, Xianhui Huang, Binghu Fang
Background: Haemophilus parasuis is a common porcine respiratory pathogen that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality in farmed swine. We performed a molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance genes harbored by H. parasuis from pig farms in China. Methods: We screened 143 H. parasuis isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility against six fluoroquinolone antibiotics testing by the broth microdilution method, and the presence of 64 antimicrobial resistance genes by PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666201/guidelines-for-conducting-epidemiological-studies-of-blast-injury
#6
Dan Bieler, I Cernak, L Martineau, S Bjarnason, A Franke, E Kirkman, M J Leggieri, H Orru, S Ouellet, M Philippens, M G Risling, J-C Sarron, S Skriudalen, J A Teland, S Watts, R Gupta
Blast injuries are often caused by more than one mechanism, do not occur in isolation, and typically elicit a secondary multi-system response. Research efforts often do not separate blast injuries caused by blast waves from those caused by blunt force trauma and other mechanisms. 15 experts from nine different NATO nations developed in the HFM Research Task Group (RTG; HFM-234 (RTG)) 'Environmental Toxicology of Blast Exposures: Injury Metrics, Modelling, Methods and Standards' Guidelines for Conducting Epidemiological Studies of Blast Injury...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665803/plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-dynamics-re-infections-recrudescences-and-relapses
#7
Michael T White, Stephan Karl, Cristian Koepfli, Rhea J Longley, Natalie E Hofmann, Rahel Wampfler, Ingrid Felger, Tom Smith, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Leanne Robinson, Azra Ghani, Ivo Mueller
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic populations, complex patterns of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection dynamics may be observed. Genotyping samples from longitudinal cohort studies for merozoite surface protein (msp) variants increases the information available in the data, allowing multiple infecting parasite clones in a single individual to be identified. msp genotyped samples from two longitudinal cohorts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Thailand were analysed using a statistical model where the times of acquisition and clearance of each clone in every individual were estimated using a process of data augmentation...
April 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665621/on-the-analysis-of-discrete-time-competing-risks-data
#8
Minjung Lee, Eric J Feuer, Jason P Fine
Regression methodology has been well developed for competing risks data with continuous event times, both for the cause-specific hazard and cumulative incidence functions. However, in many applications, including those from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute, the event times may be observed discretely. Naive application of continuous time regression methods to such data is not appropriate. We propose maximum likelihood inferences for estimation of model parameters for the discrete time cause-specific hazard functions, develop predictions for the associated cumulative incidence functions, and derive consistent variance estimators for the predicted cumulative incidence functions...
April 17, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665558/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-with-diarrhoea-results-of-a-polish-multicenter-prospective-biannual-point-prevalence-study
#9
Hanna Pituch, Piotr Obuch-Woszczatyński, Dominika Lachowicz, Robert Kuthan, Katarzyna Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Agnieszka Mikucka, Katarzyna Jermakow, Aleksandra Pituch-Zdanowska, Kerrie Davies
PURPOSE: We aimed to measure the underdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection across Poland and the distribution of PCR-ribotypes of C. difficile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven Polish healthcare facilities (HCFs) participated in this prospective study. Each HCF systematically sent all diarrhoeal stools received from inpatients at their laboratories on two days (one in January 2013 and one in July 2013), independently of CDI test request, to the National Coordinating Laboratory (NCL) for standardized testing of CDI...
April 13, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664908/a-new-model-of-wheezing-severity-in-young-children-using-the-validated-isaac-wheezing-module-a-latent-variable-approach-with-validation-in-independent-cohorts
#10
Steven M Brunwasser, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Diane R Gold, Kedir N Turi, Cosby A Stone, Soma Datta, James E Gern, Tina V Hartert
BACKGROUND: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Wheezing Module is commonly used to characterize pediatric asthma in epidemiological studies, including nearly all airway cohorts participating in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) consortium. However, there is no consensus model for operationalizing wheezing severity with this instrument in explanatory research studies. Severity is typically measured using coarsely-defined categorical variables, reducing power and potentially underestimating etiological associations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664716/identification-of-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-selected-hospitals-of-the-gulf-cooperation-council-states-dominance-of-high-risk-clones-in-the-region
#11
Hosam M Zowawi, Melanie W Syrmis, Timothy J Kidd, Hanan H Balkhy, Timothy R Walsh, Sameera M Al Johani, Reem Y Al Jindan, Mubarak Alfaresi, Emad Ibrahim, Amina Al-Jardani, Jameela Al Salman, Ali A Dashti, Hanna E Sidjabat, Omar Baz, Ella Trembizki, David M Whiley, David L Paterson
PURPOSE: The molecular epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) were determined in hospitals in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait. METHODOLOGY: Isolates were screened for common carbapenem-resistance genes by PCR. Relatedness between isolates was assessed using previously described genotyping methods: an informative-single nucleotide polymorphism MassARRAY iPLEX assay (iPLEX20SNP) and the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR assay, with selected isolates being subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663448/seroprevalence-molecular-epidemiology-and-quantitation-of-parvovirus-b19-dna-levels-in-iranian-blood-donors
#12
Maryam Zadsar, Arezoo Aghakhani, Mohammad Banifazl, Monireh Kazemimanesh, Seyed Morteza Tabatabaei Yazdi, Setareh Mamishi, Anahita Bavand, Mona Sadat Larijani, Amitis Ramezani
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection is common among blood donors, and healthy blood donors can transmit virus via transfusion. Due to resistance of B19 to viral inactivation methods, there is a potential concern regarding transfusion safety in blood products. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and quantitation of B19 DNA levels in blood donors in Tehran, Iran. 500 blood donors from Blood Transfusion Research Center were studied. ELISA was used for detection of B19 IgG and IgM and nested PCR was carried out for detection of B19 DNA...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662874/prevalent-emm-types-among-invasive-gas-in-europe-and-north-america-since-year-2000
#13
Giovanni Gherardi, Luca Agostino Vitali, Roberta Creti
Background: Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen responsible for a broad range of infections, from uncomplicated to more severe and invasive diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological surveillance has been crucial to detect changes in the geographical and temporal variation of the disease pattern; for this purpose the M protein gene ( emm) gene typing is the most widely used genotyping method, with more than 200 emm types recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662479/comparison-of-two-molecular-assays-for-detection-and-characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-triazole-resistance-and-cyp51a-mutations-in-clinical-isolates-and-primary-clinical-samples-of-immunocompromised-patients
#14
Patricia Postina, Julian Skladny, Tobias Boch, Oliver A Cornely, Axel Hamprecht, Peter-Michael Rath, Jörg Steinmann, Oliver Bader, Thomas Miethke, Anne Dietz, Natalia Merker, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Dieter Buchheidt, Birgit Spiess
In hematological patients, the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by azole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) is rising. As the diagnosis of IA is rarely based on positive culture in this group of patients, molecular detection of resistance mutations directly from clinical samples is crucial. In addition to the in-house azole resistance ARAf polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detecting the frequent mutation combinations TR34/L98H, TR46/Y121F/T289A, and M220 in the Aspergillus fumigatus ( A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661261/genetic-diversity-and-phylogeography-of-the-elusive-but-epidemiologically-important-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-genotype-g3
#15
Liina Kinkar, Teivi Laurimäe, Ibrahim Balkaya, Adriano Casulli, Houria Zait, Malik Irshadullah, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Steffen Rehbein, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Sami Simsek, Viliam Šnábel, Gérald Umhang, Antonio Varcasia, Urmas Saarma
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a severe parasitic disease caused by the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Human infections are most commonly associated with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), comprising genotypes G1 and G3. The objective of the current study was to provide first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G3. Despite the epidemiological importance of the genotype, it has remained poorly explored due to the ambiguity in the definition of the genotype. However, it was recently demonstrated that long sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) provide a reliable method to discriminate G1 and G3 from each other...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661257/comparison-of-parasite-loads-in-serum-and-blood-samples-from-patients-in-acute-and-chronic-phases-of-chagas-disease
#16
Carolina Hernández, Aníbal Teherán, Carolina Flórez, Juan David Ramírez
Molecular methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from patients with Chagas disease. However, aspects of sample processing necessary for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), such as the addition of guanidine hydrochloride to whole blood samples, may limit timely access to molecular diagnosis. We analysed 169 samples from serum and guanidine-EDTA blood (GEB) obtained from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. We applied qPCR targeted to the satellite DNA region...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661215/recovering-parasites-from-mummies-and-coprolites-an-epidemiological-approach
#17
REVIEW
Morgana Camacho, Adauto Araújo, Johnica Morrow, Jane Buikstra, Karl Reinhard
In the field of archaeological parasitology, researchers have long documented the distribution of parasites in archaeological time and space through the analysis of coprolites and human remains. This area of research defined the origin and migration of parasites through presence/absence studies. By the end of the 20th century, the field of pathoecology had emerged as researchers developed an interest in the ancient ecology of parasite transmission. Supporting studies were conducted to establish the relationships between parasites and humans, including cultural, subsistence, and ecological reconstructions...
April 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659496/synthesis-of-theaflavins-and-their-functions
#18
REVIEW
Masumi Takemoto, Hiroaki Takemoto
Numerous epidemiological and interventional clinical studies have consistently reported that black tea is good for human health. The polyphenolic compound, theaflavin, and its galloyl esters (theaflavins) are the primary red pigments in black tea that possess several health benefits, including fat-reducing and glucose-lowering capabilities and lifestyle-related disease prevention related to anti-obesity, anticancer, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-osteoporotic, and anti-dental caries properties...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658841/genetic-structure-of-zymoseptoria-tritici-in-northern-france-at-region-field-plant-and-leaf-layer-scales
#19
Ali Siah, Myriam Bomble, Benoit Tisserant, Thierry Cadalen, Maxime Holvoet, Jean-Louis Hilbert, Patrice Halama, Philippe Lucien Reignault
Population genetic structure of the worldwide-distributed wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici has been extensively studied at large geographical scales, but to a much less extent at small or local spatial scales. A total of 627 single-conidial fungal isolates were sampled from several locations in northern France (Hauts-de-France Region) to assess fungal genetic structure at region, field, plant and leaf layer scales, using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and mating type idiomorphs. Important and overall similar levels of both gene and genotype diversities (gene diversity values ≥ 0...
April 16, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658726/factor-structure-and-criterion-validity-across-the-full-scale-and-ten-short-forms-of-the-ces-d-among-chinese-adolescents
#20
Wenhui Yang, Ge Xiong, Luis Eduardo Garrido, John X Zhang, Meng-Cheng Wang, Chong Wang
We systematically examined the factor structure and criterion validity across the full scale and 10 short forms of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with Chinese youth. Participants were 5,434 Chinese adolescents in Grades 7 to 12 who completed the full CES-D; 612 of them further completed a structured diagnostic interview with the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-age Children. Using a split-sample approach, a series of 4-, 3-, 2-, and 1-factor models were tested using exploratory structural equation modeling and cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis; the dimensionality was also evaluated by parallel analysis in conjunction with the scree test and aided by factor mixture analysis...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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