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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535663/up-regulation-of-rank-expression-via-erk1-2-by-insulin-contributes-to-the-enhancement-of-osteoclast-differentiation
#1
Ju Hee Oh, Na Kyung Lee
Despite the importance of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signaling mechanisms on osteoclast differentiation, little has been studied on how RANK expression is regulated or what regulates its expression during osteoclastogenesis. We show here that insulin signaling increases RANK expression, thus enhancing osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Insulin stimulation induced RANK gene expression in time- and dose-dependent manners and insulin receptor shRNA completely abolished RANK expression induced by insulin in bone marrow-derived monocyte/ macrophage cells (BMMs)...
May 22, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531801/ace-2-ang1-7-mas-cascade-mediates-ace-inhibitor-captopril-protective-effects-in-estrogen-deficient-osteoporotic-rats
#2
Hatem M Abuohashish, Mohammed M Ahmed, Dina Sabry, Mahmoud M Khattab, Salim S Al-Rejaie
The local role of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was documented recently beside its conventional systemic functions. Studies showed that the effector angiotensin II (AngII) alters bone health, while inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) preserved these effects. The newly identified Ang1-7 exerts numerous beneficial effects opposing the AngII. Thus, the current study examines the role of Ang1-7 in mediating the osteo-preservative effects of ACEI (captopril) through the G-protein coupled Mas receptor using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530641/the-many-ways-of-osteoclast-activation
#3
Joseph Lorenzo
Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for bone resorption, a process that is essential for the maintenance of healthy bones. Bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, which are characterized by high rates of bone resorption and loss of bone mass, may benefit from treatments that inhibit osteoclast formation and/or function. The RANKL/RANK pathway is critical for both osteoclast formation and function, and these effects are thought to be mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530511/wnt-signaling-related-osteokines-and-transforming-growth-factors-before-and-after-a-single-bout-of-plyometric-exercise-in-child-and-adolescent-females
#4
Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse, Panagiota Klentrou
This study examined resting levels of catabolic and anabolic osteokines related to Wnt signaling and their responses to a single bout of plyometric exercise in child and adolescent females. Fourteen pre-menarcheal girls (10.5 ± 1.8 years old) and 12 post-menarcheal adolescent girls (15.0 ± 1.0 years old) performed a plyometric exercise trial. One resting and three post-exercise blood samples (5 min, 1h, 24h post-exercise) were analysed for sclerostin (SOST), dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) and transforming growth factors (TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3)...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529724/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#5
REVIEW
Seiji Fukumoto, Toshio Matsumoto
There has been substantial progress in the management of patients with osteoporosis and the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Currently available strong anti-resorptive agents are bisphosphonates and an anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) antibody, denosumab. Although bisphosphonates and denosumab both inhibit bone resorption and prevent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, their mechanisms of action are different. Whereas bisphosphonates' effects on bone mineral density and fracture peak around 3 to 5 years and become plateaued, those of denosumab are maintained for up to 10 years...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528307/extracellular-atp-is-a-key-modulator-of-alveolar-bone-loss-in-periodontitis
#6
REVIEW
Itzhak Binderman, Nasir Gadban, Avinoam Yaffe
Periodontal diseases are initiated by pathogenic bacterial biofilm activity that induces a host inflammatory cells immune response, degradation of dento gingival fibrous tissue and its detachment from root cementum. It is well accepted, that osteoclastic alveolar bone loss is governed exclusively through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that once degradation of collagen fibers by MMPs occurs, a drop of cellular strains cause immediate release of ATP from marginal gingival fibroblasts, cell deformation and influx of Ca+2...
May 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525946/ghrelin-attenuates-vascular-calcification-in-diabetic-patients-with-amputation
#7
Suining Xu, Fei Ye, Lihua Li, Jinchuan Yan, Zhengyang Bao, Zhen Sun, Liangjie Xu, Jie Zhu, Zhongqun Wang
Vascular calcification is established to be a critical factor in diabetes mellitus, which causes cardiovascular and amputation complication of diabetic patients. OPG/RANKL/RANK axis serves as a regulatory role in vascular calcification. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has been reported to exhibit potent cardiovascular protective effects. However, the role of ghrelin in the regulation of diabetic vascular calcification is still elusive. Here, we reported the role of ghrelin and its relationship with OPG/RANKL/RANK system in patients with diabetic foot amputation...
May 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525794/stat6-silencing-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-derived-cell-apoptosis-and-growth-inhibition-by-decreasing-the-rankl-expression
#8
Tian Qing, Zhang Yamin, Wang Guijie, Jin Yan, Shen Zhongyang
Signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT6) is highly expressed in various human cancers and considered a regulator of multiple biological processes in cancers, including cell apoptosis. Evidence has indicated that STAT6 predicts a worse prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of STAT6 in human HCC cells. We found that STAT6 silencing significantly inhibited HepG2 and Hep3B cell survival and proliferation. We observed that depletion of STAT6 increased HepG2 and Hep3B cell apoptosis by using a histone DNA ELISA detection kit...
May 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524179/a-fkbp5-mutation-is-associated-with-paget-s-disease-of-bone-and-enhances-osteoclastogenesis
#9
Bingru Lu, Yulian Jiao, Yinchang Wang, Jing Dong, Muyun Wei, Bin Cui, Yafang Sun, Laicheng Wang, Bingchang Zhang, Zijiang Chen, Yueran Zhao
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common metabolic bone disease that is characterized by aberrant focal bone remodeling, which is caused by excessive osteoclastic bone resorption followed by disorganized osteoblastic bone formation. Genetic factors are a critical determinant of PDB pathogenesis, and several susceptibility genes and loci have been reported, including SQSTM1, TNFSF11A, TNFRSF11B, VCP, OPTN, CSF1 and DCSTAMP. Herein, we report a case of Chinese familial PDB without mutations in known genes and identify a novel c...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523251/bone-marker-gene-expression-in-calvarial-bones-different-bone-microenvironments
#10
Osama Al-Amer
BACKGROUND: In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521869/high-fgf21-levels-are-associated-with-altered-bone-homeostasis-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#11
José M Gallego-Escuredo, Maria Karuna Lamarca, Joan Villarroya, Joan C Domingo, Ma Gracia Mateo, Ma Del Mar Gutierrez, Francesc Vidal, Francesc Villarroya, Pere Domingo, Marta Giralt
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and body weight homeostasis. However, recent experimental studies have reported that increased FGF21 levels may lead to bone loss. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of serum FGF21 levels and altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 137 HIV-1-infected patients and 35 healthy controls conducted at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521692/pharmacological-treatment-of-bone-loss
#12
Rui Pang, Weibo Xia
Bone loss is common in clinical practice, such as health assessment of postmenopausal women, treatment of tumor metastasis, side-effects of glucocorticoids, and skeletal manifestations of inflammatory diseases. The imbalance of remodeling between bone resorption and bone formation, the pathophysiological basis of bone loss, increases bone fragility. The treatment of bone loss is mainly carried out from the treatment of osteoporosis. There are various pharmacological therapies for bone loss, which will be introduced in 3 aspects, including anti-resorptive agents, anabolic agents and new medications...
May 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515152/effects-of-deficiency-of-kelch-like-ech-associated-protein-1-on-skeletal-organization-a-mechanism-for-diminished-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-cytoplasmic-1-during-osteoclastogenesis
#13
Eiko Sakai, Masanobu Morita, Masahiro Ohuchi, Mizuho A Kido, Yutaka Fukuma, Kazuhisa Nishishita, Kuniaki Okamoto, Ken Itoh, Masayuki Yamamoto, Takayuki Tsukuba
Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) binds to nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for antioxidant enzymes, to suppress Nrf2 activation. The role of oxidative stress in many diseases supports the possibility that processes that are associated with Nrf2 activation might offer therapeutic potential. Nrf2 deficiency induces osteoclastogenesis, which is responsible for bone loss, by activating receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated signaling; however, the effects of Keap1 deficiency remain unclear...
May 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509316/effects-of-17%C3%AE-estradioland-raloxifene-on-endothelial-opg-and-rankl-secretion
#14
Wojciech Karwowski, Katarzyna Lekesiz, Ewa Koc-Żórawska, Krzysztof Wnuczko, Hanna Borysewicz-Sanczyk, Beata Naumnik
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to asses the effects of estradiol vs. raloxifene on the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kB Ligand (sRANKL) in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) culture in standard and calcifying medium. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells were isolated from human umbilical vein by standard method. The supernatant concentrations of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and sRANKL (ELISA) were determined after incubation with glicerophosphate, estradiol , raloxifene, glicerophoshate and estradiol, glicerophosphate and raloxifene in comparison with control group at four designated time points (0, 1, 2 and 4 days of incubation)...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506889/nfam1-signaling-enhances-osteoclast-formation-and-bone-resorption-activity-in-paget-s-disease-of-bone
#15
Yuvaraj Sambandam, Kumaran Sundaram, Takamitsu Saigusa, Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian, Sakamuri V Reddy
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is marked by the focal activity of abnormal osteoclasts (OCLs) with excess bone resorption. We previously detected measles virus nucleocapsid protein (MVNP) transcripts in OCLs from patients with PDB. Also, MVNP stimulates pagetic OCL formation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism by which MVNP induces excess OCLs/bone resorption activity is unclear. Microarray analysis identified MVNP induction of NFAM1 (NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1) expression. Therefore, we hypothesize that MVNP induction of NFAM1 enhances OCL differentiation and bone resorption in PDB...
May 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506283/prolactin-blocks-the-expression-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-and-reduces-osteoclastogenesis-and-bone-loss-in-murine-inflammatory-arthritis
#16
Maria G Ledesma-Colunga, Norma Adán, Georgina Ortiz, Mariana Solís-Gutiérrez, Fernando López-Barrera, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp
BACKGROUND: Prolactin (PRL) reduces joint inflammation, pannus formation, and bone destruction in rats with polyarticular adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Here, we investigate the mechanism of PRL protection against bone loss in AIA and in monoarticular AIA (MAIA). METHODS: Joint inflammation, trabecular bone loss, and osteoclastogenesis were evaluated in rats with AIA treated with PRL (via osmotic minipumps) and in mice with MAIA that were null (Prlr-/-) or not (Prlr+/+) for the PRL receptor...
May 15, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501578/anhydroicaritin-a-srebps-inhibitor-inhibits-rankl-induced-osteoclastic-differentiation-and-improves-diabetic-osteoporosis-in-stz-induced-mice
#17
Zu-Guo Zheng, Xin Zhang, Ya-Ping Zhou, Chong Lu, Pyone Myat Thu, Cheng Qian, Mu Zhang, Ping Li, Hui-Jun Li, Xiaojun Xu
Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to osteoporosis caused by diabetes mellitus. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic patients activate the activity of osteoclasts through the RANKL/OPG pathway. The nuclear transcription factor SREBP2, a master regulator of cholesterol metabolism, has been found involved in osteoclastogenesis. In previous study, we have identified anhydroicaritin as a potent inhibitor of transcription factor SREBPs, which improve dyslipidemia and insulin resistance...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494718/osteoimmunology-offers-new-perspectives-for-the-treatment-of-pathological-bone-loss
#18
Hongrui Liu, Tingting Luo, Jiali Tan, Minqi Li, Jie Guo
New evidence of the interactions between the immune system and bone has accumulated in bone diseases, including osteoporosis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. A marked imbalance between bone resorption and formation is central to the onset of pathological bone loss. Osteoimmunology has revealed that the immune system, including T cells, B cells and inflammatory cytokines, is a key regulator of both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Th1 cells, which differentiate from CD4+T cells, are thought to play a major function during bone loss...
May 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494644/the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-of-deciduous-dental-pulp-stem-cells-regulates-osteoclastogenesis-during-physiological-root-resorption
#19
Lulu Wang, Zhifei Zhou, Yujiang Chen, Shuai Yuan, Yang Du, Xinke Ju, Lizheng Wu, Xiaojing Wang
The physiological root resorption of deciduous teeth is a normal phenomenon, but the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. In this study, deciduous dental pulp stem cells (DDPSCs) and permanent dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were derived from deciduous teeth and normal permanent teeth at different stages of resorption. In the middle stage of root resorption, DDPSCs exhibited an increase in the ability to induce osteoclast differentiation. Activation of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) by secretory mammalian Ly-6 urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein 1 (SLURP-1) caused a significant increase in the expression levels of NF-κB, RANKL and the ratio of RANKL/OPG...
May 11, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494043/maxillary-sinus-floor-augmentation-using-xenograft-gene-expression-and-histologic-analysis
#20
Jaijam Suwanwela, Dollaya Puangchaipruk, Kamolporn Wattanasirmkit, Paksinee Kamolratanakul, Pornchai Jansisyanont
PURPOSE: Many histologic and histomorphometric studies as well as systematic reviews have shown the clinical success of the use of anorganic bovine bone (ABB, Bio-Oss) in maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA). The molecular processes involved in bone healing are, however, still unknown. The aims of this study were to explore gene expression associated with bone remodeling and inflammation in MSFA sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase (TRAP), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), as well as the ratio of RANKL/OPG were compared between alveolar bone of a group after MSFA with ABB and a maxillary posterior edentulous bone group...
May 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
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