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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645976/a-combined-randomised-and-observational-study-of-surgery-for-fractures-in-the-distal-radius-in-the-elderly-crossfire-a-study-protocol
#1
Ian A Harris, Justine M Naylor, Andrew Lawson, Rachelle Buchbinder, Rebecca Ivers, Zsolt Balogh, Paul Smith, Rajat Mittal, Wei Xuan, Kirsten Howard, Arezoo Vafa, Piers Yates, Bertram Rieger, Geoff Smith, Ilia Elkinson, Woosung Kim, Mellick Chehade, Jai Sungaran, Kim Latendresse, James Wong, Sameer Viswanathan, Martin Richardson, Kush Shrestha, Herwig Drobetz, Phong Tran, Jeremy Loveridge, Richard Page, Raphael Hau, Roger Bingham, Jonathan Mulford, Ian Incoll
Fractures of the distal radius are common and occur in all age groups. The incidence is high in older populations due to osteoporosis and increased falls risk. Considerable practice variation exists in the management of distal radius fractures in older patients ranging from closed reduction with cast immobilisation to open reduction with plate fixation. Plating is currently the most common surgical treatment. While there is evidence showing no significant advantage for some forms of surgical fixation over conservative treatment, and no difference between different surgical techniques, there is a lack of evidence comparing two of the most common treatments used: closed reduction and casting versus plating...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639920/burnout-prevalence-and-associated-factors-among-radiology-residents-in-new-england-with-comparison-against-united-states-resident-physicians-in-other-specialties
#2
Jeffrey P Guenette, Stacy E Smith
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to establish burnout prevalence, associated demographic and program-related factors, and degree of burnout in New England radiology residents relative to residents in other specialties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 31-item survey, including nine demographic and program-related questions and the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health Services Survey, was sent to all resident members of the New England Roentgen Ray Society (20 programs, 472 residents)...
July 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639058/geospatial-analysis-of-drug-poisoning-deaths-involving-heroin-in-the-usa-2000-2014
#3
Kathleen Stewart, Yanjia Cao, Margaret H Hsu, Eleanor Artigiani, Eric Wish
We investigate the geographic patterns of drug poisoning deaths involving heroin by county for the USA from 2000 to 2014. The county-level patterns of mortality are examined with respect to age-adjusted rates of death for different classes of urbanization and racial and ethnic groups, while rates based on raw counts of drug poisoning deaths involving heroin are estimated for different age groups and by gender. To account for possible underestimations in these rates due to small areas or small numbers, spatial empirical Baye's estimation techniques have been used to smooth the rates of death and alleviate underestimation when analyzing spatial patterns for these different groups...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638708/citation-classics-in-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-demyelinating-disease
#4
Jee-Eun Kim, Kang M Park, Yerim Kim, Dae Y Yoon, Jong S Bae
OBJECTIVES: To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636529/bladder-cancer-and-water-disinfection-by-product-exposures-through-multiple-routes-a-population-based-case-control-study-new-england-usa
#5
Laura E Beane Freeman, Kenneth P Cantor, Dalsu Baris, John R Nuckols, Alison Johnson, Joanne S Colt, Molly Schwenn, Mary H Ward, Jay H Lubin, Richard Waddell, G Monawar Hosain, Chris Paulu, Richard McCoy, Lee E Moore, An-Tsun Huang, Nat Rothman, Margaret R Karagas, Debra T Silverman
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of disinfection byproducts has been associated with bladder cancer in multiple studies. Although associations with other routes of exposure have been suggested, epidemiologic evidence is limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between bladder cancer and total, chlorinated, and brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) through various exposure routes. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in New England ( cases; controls), we estimated lifetime exposure to THMs from ingestion, showering/bathing, and hours of swimming pool use...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634019/economic-evaluation-of-epinephrine-auto-injectors-for-peanut-allergy
#6
Marcus Shaker, Katherine Bean, Marylee Verdi
BACKGROUND: Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. METHODS: Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy...
June 17, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630057/characteristics-of-children-who-do-not-attend-their-hospital-appointments-and-gps-response-a-mixed-methods-study-in-primary-and-secondary-care
#7
Lydia Rm French, Katrina M Turner, Hannah Morley, Lisa Goldsworthy, Debbie J Sharp, Julian Hamilton-Shield
BACKGROUND: Children who do not attend (DNA) their hospital outpatient appointments are a concern because this potentially compromises the child's health and incurs financial cost. Little is known about children who DNA or the views of GPs to non-attendance. AIM: To describe the characteristics of children who DNA hospital paediatric outpatient appointments, and explore how GPs view and respond to DNAs. DESIGN AND SETTING: A mixed methods study of data from all new referrals to a children's hospital in the South West of England between 1 September and 31 October 2012...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627039/consensus-building-on-developing-dysphagia-competence-a-north-west-of-england-perspective
#8
Susan Guthrie, John Lancaster, Jois Stansfield
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia has been an increasing area of practice for speech and language therapists (SLTs) for over 20 years, and throughout that period there has been debate about how practical skills in dysphagia can best be developed. The implementation of the new Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) framework was considered from a regional perspective seeking to establish consensus across different speech and language therapy settings. AIM: To explore practical solutions to the development of dysphagia competency in new graduates whilst acknowledging the wide variation in staffing and clinical dysphagia experience across the geographical and clinical landscape in the North West of England...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623747/results-of-a-national-survey-of-high-frequency-fish-consumers-in-the-united-states
#9
Katherine von Stackelberg, Miling Li, Elsie Sunderland
Exposure to contaminants in fish may be associated with adverse health outcomes even as fish consumption is generally considered beneficial. Risk assessments conducted to support regulatory analyses rely on quantitative fish consumption estimates. Here we report the results of a national survey of high-frequency fish consumers (n = 2099) based on a survey population statistically representative of ~17.6 million U.S. individuals consuming three or more fish meals per week. The survey was conducted during 2013 using an on-line survey instrument...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622872/processes-of-local-alcohol-policy-making-in-england-does-the-theory-of-policy-transfer-provide-useful-insights-into-public-health-decision-making
#10
Lucy Gavens, John Holmes, Penny Buykx, Frank de Vocht, Matt Egan, Daniel Grace, Karen Lock, John D Mooney, Alan Brennan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making...
June 13, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622732/cost-effectiveness-of-memory-assessment-services-for-the-diagnosis-and-early-support-of-patients-with-dementia-in-england
#11
Manuel Gomes, Mark Pennington, Raphael Wittenberg, Martin Knapp, Nick Black, Sarah Smith
Background Policy makers in England advocate referral of patients with suspected dementia to Memory Assessment Services (MAS), but it is unclear how any improvement in patients' health-related quality of life (HRQL) compares with the associated costs. Aims To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of MAS for the diagnosis and follow-up care of patients with suspected dementia. Method We analysed observational data from 1318 patients referred to 69 MAS, and their lay carers (n = 944), who completed resource use and HRQL questionnaires at baseline, three and six months...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619464/the-ageing-society-and-emergency-hospital-admissions
#12
Raphael Wittenberg, Luke Sharpin, Barry McCormick, Jeremy Hurst
There is strong policy interest, in England as elsewhere, in slowing the growth in emergency hospital admissions, which for older people increased by 3.3% annually between 2001/2 and 2012/3. Resource constrains have increased the importance of understanding rising emergency admissions, which in policy discourse is often explained by population aging. This study examines how far the rise in emergency admissions of people over 65 was due to population ageing, how far to the changing likelihood of entering hospital at each age, and how far to other factors which might be more amenable to policy measures...
May 29, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612100/costs-and-outcomes-of-improving-population-health-through-better-social-housing-a-cohort-study-and-economic-analysis
#13
Nathan Bray, Paul Burns, Alice Jones, Eira Winrow, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the impact of warmth-related housing improvements on the health, well-being, and quality of life of families living in social housing. METHODS: An historical cohort study design was used. Households were recruited by Gentoo, a social housing contractor in North East England. Recruited households were asked to complete a quality of life, well-being, and health service use questionnaire before receiving housing improvements (new energy-efficient boiler and double-glazing) and again 12 months afterwards...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609224/towards-a-poststructural-understanding-of-abortion-and-social-class-in-england
#14
Gillian Love
Despite previous research suggesting that social class influences experiences of and attitudes to abortion, there is a dearth of research which studies the intersection of abortion and social class in England. Across the UK, abortion rates and experiences differ by region and socio-economic status, reflecting broader health inequalities. Contemporary austerity in the UK creates an imperative for new research which contextualises the experience of abortion within this socio-historical moment, and the worsening inequalities which have accompanied it...
June 13, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607680/increasing-the-uptake-of-electronic-prescribing-in-primary-care
#15
Nazia Imambaccus, Samuel Glace, Rory Heath
Electronic prescribing is a form of paperless prescribing that is reported to reduce prescription mistakes and increases the cost effectiveness of the process. In England, around 1.5 million prescriptions are generated in general practice daily. Thus by reducing costs and increasing efficiency of this system through electronic prescribing, costs can be driven down. In this Quality Improvement project, a GP practice in London with approximately 3000 patients on record was assessed for its electronic prescribing rates throughout 3 intervention cycles over a period of 2 months...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607066/socioeconomic-disadvantage-gestational-immune-activity-and-neurodevelopment-in-early-childhood
#16
Stephen E Gilman, Mady Hornig, Akhgar Ghassabian, Jill Hahn, Sara Cherkerzian, Paul S Albert, Stephen L Buka, Jill M Goldstein
Children raised in economically disadvantaged households face increased risks of poor health in adulthood, suggesting that inequalities in health have early origins. From the child's perspective, exposure to economic hardship may begin as early as conception, potentially via maternal neuroendocrine-immune responses to prenatal stressors, which adversely impact neurodevelopment. Here we investigate whether socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with gestational immune activity and whether such activity is associated with abnormalities among offspring during infancy...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606336/identification-at-the-crime-scene-the-sooner-the-better-the-interpretation-of-rapid-identification-information-by-csis-at-the-crime-scene
#17
Madeleine de Gruijter, Claire Nee, Christianne J de Poot
New technologies will allow Crime Scene Investigators (CSIs) in the near future to analyse traces at the crime scene and receive identification information while still conducting the investigation. These developments could have considerable effects on the way an investigation is conducted. CSIs may start reasoning based on possible database-matches which could influence scenario formation (i.e. the construction of narratives that explain the observed traces) during very early phases of the investigation. The goal of this study is to gain more insight into the influence of the rapid identification information on the reconstruction of the crime and the evaluation of traces by addressing two questions, namely 1) is scenario formation influenced from the moment that ID information is provided and 2) do database matches influence the evaluation of traces and the reconstruction of the crime...
July 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605055/geographic-hotspots-of-critical-national-infrastructure
#18
Scott Thacker, Stuart Barr, Raghav Pant, Jim W Hall, David Alderson
Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures...
June 12, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604355/costs-and-performance-of-english-mental-health-providers
#19
Valerie Moran, Rowena Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Despite limited resources in mental health care, there is little research exploring variations in cost performance across mental health care providers. In England, a prospective payment system for mental health care based on patient needs has been introduced with the potential to incentivise providers to control costs. The units of payment under the new system are 21 care clusters. Patients are allocated to a cluster by clinicians, and each cluster has a maximum review period...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600361/coding-of-barrett-s-oesophagus-with-high-grade-dysplasia-in-national-administrative-databases-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Georgina Chadwick, Mira Varagunam, Christian Brand, Stuart A Riley, Nick Maynard, Tom Crosby, Julie Michalowski, David A Cromwell
OBJECTIVES: The International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) system used in the English hospital administrative database (Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)) does not contain a specific code for oesophageal high-grade dysplasia (HGD). The aim of this paper was to examine how patients with HGD were coded in HES and whether it was done consistently. SETTING: National population-based cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed with HGD in England...
June 9, 2017: BMJ Open
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