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Stella Koutros, Petra Lenz, Stephen M Hewitt, Masatoshi Kida, Michael Jones, Alan R Schned, Dalsu Baris, Ruth Pfeiffer, Molly Schwenn, Alison Johnson, Margaret R Karagas, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Nathaniel Rothman, Lee E Moore, Debra T Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Brian Shiner, Christine Leonard Westgate, Vanessa Simiola, Richard Thompson, Paula P Schnurr, Joan M Cook
Objective: Available studies on implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for patients attending Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs rely on therapist self-report of EBP delivery. Patient-level data on receipt of EBP are needed both to corroborate therapist self-report and to understand patient factors that predict receipt of EBPs for PTSD. Materials and Methods: We identified 159 therapists from 38 VA residential PTSD programs who responded to a survey about EBP implementation during the 2015 fiscal year (FY15)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ben A Wagstaff, Edward S Hems, Martin Rejzek, Jennifer Pratscher, Elliot Brooks, Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Ellis C O'Neill, Matthew I Donaldson, Steven Lane, John Currie, Andrew M Hindes, Gill Malin, J Colin Murrell, Robert A Field
Prymnesium parvum is a toxin-producing microalga that causes harmful algal blooms globally, which often result in large-scale fish kills that have severe ecological and economic implications. Although many toxins have previously been isolated from P. parvum , ambiguity still surrounds the responsible ichthyotoxins in P. parvum blooms and the biotic and abiotic factors that promote bloom toxicity. A major fish kill attributed to P. parvum occurred in Spring 2015 on the Norfolk Broads, a low-lying set of channels and lakes (Broads) found on the East of England...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
M Cheetham, A Wiseman, B Khazaeli, E Gibson, P Gray, P Van der Graaf, R Rushmer
Background: Embedded research (ER) is recognized as one way to strengthen the integration of evidence into public health (PH) practice. In this paper, we outline a promising example of the co-production of research evidence between Fuse, the UKCRC Centre for Translational Research in Public Health and a local authority (LA) in north east England. Methods: We critically examine attempts to share and use research findings to influence decision-making in a LA setting, drawing on insights from PH practitioners, managers, commissioners and academic partners involved in this organizational case study...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Amanda S Gallinat, Luca Russo, Eli K Melaas, Charles G Willis, Richard B Primack
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. METHODS: We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Akhgar Ghassabian, Paul S Albert, Mady Hornig, Edwina Yeung, Sara Cherkerzian, Risë B Goldstein, Stephen L Buka, Jill M Goldstein, Stephen E Gilman
Gestational inflammation may contribute to brain abnormalities associated with childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. Limited knowledge exists regarding the associations of maternal cytokine levels during pregnancy with offspring neurocognitive development. We assayed the concentrations of five cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10) up to four times in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy using stored prenatal sera from 1366 participants in the New England Family Study (enrollment 1959-1966)...
March 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Alberto Falk Delgado, Anna Falk Delgado
Recently, in the four top journals of humanities, an institutional bias towards publication of authors from Harvard and Yale was shown. The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is today the highest ranked general medical journal. It is unknown if there exists institutional bias favoring publication of articles originating from Harvard University, since the NEJM is produced by the Massachusetts Medical Society with close connections to the Harvard University. We examined if studies originating from the Harvard University published in the NEJM were noninferior in terms of citation rates compared to articles with an origin outside Harvard University...
2018: Scientometrics
Nadine M Smit, Ruth M Morgan, David A Lagnado
Evidence has the potential to be misleading if its value when expressing beliefs in hypotheses is not fully understood or presented. Although the knowledge base to understand uncertainties is growing, a challenge remains to prioritise research and to continuously assess the magnitude and consequences of misleading evidence in criminal cases. This study used a systematic content analysis to identify misleading evidence, drawing information from case transcripts of rulings argued unsafe by the Court of Appeal of England and Wales...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Douglas W Jones, Philip P Goodney, Jens Eldrup-Jorgensen, Marc L Schermerhorn, Jeffrey J Siracuse, Jeanwan Kang, Jesse A Columbo, Bjoern D Suckow, David H Stone
OBJECTIVE: Performing lower extremity bypass (LEB) in actively smoking claudicants remains controversial. Whereas some surgeons advocate a strict nonoperative approach to active smokers, citing perceived inferior outcomes, others will proceed with surgical bypass if the patient is anatomically suited and medical management has failed. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of active smoking on LEB outcomes among claudicants. METHODS: All patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB for claudication in the Vascular Study Group of New England from 2003 to 2016 were analyzed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Sarah Marone, Katherine Bloore, Paola Sebastiani, Christopher Flynn, Brittany Leonard, Kelsey Whitaker, Marilyn Mostowy, Thomas Perls, Stacy L Andersen
Objectives: Purpose in life (PIL), a feeling of meaning and direction in life, is associated with favorable health outcomes including lower mortality and reduced risk of disease, disability, and cognitive impairment. Since centenarian offspring have been shown to have long health spans we sought to examine whether they have higher PIL than individuals without familial longevity. Method: We compared PIL scores from the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being in centenarian offspring from the New England Centenarian Study (N=361, mean age=82...
March 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
A Ashraf, S Mahboob, R Andleeb, M U Ijaz, M S Shah
Recently, medicinal plants are achieving great interest because of their use in ethno medicine treatment of different common diseases and also other medicinal assertions are now reinforced by comprehensive scientific evidence. Almost 82 research articles and abstracts published, so far, were screened for evaluating antiviral efficiency of various plant samples and 23 different plants were found to be traditionally used against Newcastle disease (ND). ND is a most transmissible viral disease of avian species caused by virulent strain of Avula virus from the Paramyxoviridae family...
2018: Acta Virologica
Rachel Margaret Coyle, Ada Rose Miltz, Fiona C Lampe, Janey Sewell, Andrew N Phillips, Andrew Speakman, Jyoti Dhar, Lorraine Sherr, S Tariq Sadiq, Stephen Taylor, Daniel R Ivens, Simon Collins, Jonathan Elford, Jane Anderson, Alison Rodger
OBJECTIVES: In the UK, people of black ethnicity experience a disproportionate burden of HIV and STI. We aimed to assess the association of ethnicity with sexual behaviour and sexual health among women and heterosexual men attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England. METHODS: The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV is a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire study of HIV negative people recruited from 20 GUM clinics in England, 2013-2014...
March 8, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Robert Naylor
Without substantial investment in the NHS estate, the Five Year Forward View cannot be delivered, and the estate will 'remain unfit for purpose and continue to deteriorate', an independent review of NHS property and estate in England headed by Sir Robert Naylor, the former CEO of University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (pictured), concludes. Among the recommendations of the DH-commissioned review--which considers the opportunities to generate valuable funds via the sale of under-utilised NHS properties--is the establishment of 'a powerful new NHS Property Board', to 'provide leadership to the centre, and expertise and delivery support to Sustainability and Transformation Plans'...
May 2017: Health Estate
Miriam T Ashford, Susan Ayers, Ellinor K Olander
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore women's interest in web-based treatments for postpartum anxiety and determine the feasibility of reaching women with postpartum anxiety online. BACKGROUND: Anxiety in the postpartum period is common and often untreated. One innovative approach of offering treatment during this period is through web-based self-help. Assessing women's interest in new treatments, such as a web-based self-help, is an important step prior to development efforts...
September 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
A H Heald, A A Fryer, S G Anderson, M Livingston, M Lunt, M Davies, Gyc Moreno, R Gadsby, R J Young, M Stedman
AIMS: Despite increasing spend on new Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) therapies, the proportion of people with T2DM achieving target glycaemia outcomes is declining. Our aim was to determine, using published General Practice level data, how differences in T2DM prescribing patterns relate to glycaemic target achievement levels. METHODS: Multiple linear regression modelling was used to link practice characteristics and defined daily dose (DDD) of class of medication in 2015/16 and changes to 2014/15 in medication to proportions achieving target glycaemic control (TGC; glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≤7...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Akihiko Ozaki, Morihito Takita, Tetsuya Tanimoto
Introduction Globally, laws and guidelines for managing conflict of interest are increasingly implemented to achieve transparency in financial ties between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries, yet little information is available regarding the limitations of the current frameworks for disclosing these financial ties. Case In June 2017, the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. In this study, which suggested the post-surgery addition of capecitabine would improve survival of high-risk breast cancer patients, the cost of capecitabine for off-label use was illegally claimed to the Japanese public health insurance system, rather than being covered by the research budget...
March 8, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Brian P DiMento, Robert P Mason
Many studies have recognized abiotic photochemical degradation as an important sink of methylmercury (CH3 Hg) in sunlit surface waters, but the rate-controlling factors remain poorly understood. The overall objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the relative importance of photochemical reactions in the degradation of CH3 Hg in surface waters across a variety of marine ecosystems by extending the range of water types studied. Experiments were conducted using surface water collected from coastal sites in Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine, as well as offshore sites on the New England continental shelf break, the equatorial Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean...
November 20, 2017: Marine Chemistry
Daiga Jermacane, Thomas David Waite, Charles R Beck, Angie Bone, Richard Amlôt, Mark Reacher, Sari Kovats, Ben Armstrong, Giovanni Leonardi, G James Rubin, Isabel Oliver
BACKGROUND: The longer term impact of flooding on health is poorly understood. In 2015, following widespread flooding in the UK during winter 2013/14, Public Health England launched the English National Study of Flooding and Health. The study identified a higher prevalence of probable psychological morbidity one year after exposure to flooding. We now report findings after two years. METHODS: In year two (2016), a self-assessment questionnaire including flooding-related exposures and validated instruments to screen for probable anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was sent to all participants who consented to further follow-up...
March 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
Annie Herbert, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Jeremy Whelan, Rachel M Taylor, Julie Barber, Faith Gibson, Lorna A Fern
Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are thought to experience prolonged intervals to cancer diagnosis, but evidence quantifying this hypothesis and identifying high-risk patient subgroups is insufficient. We aimed to investigate diagnostic timeliness in a cohort of AYAs with incident cancers and to identify factors associated with variation in timeliness. Methods: We did a cross-sectional analysis of the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort, which included AYAs aged 12-24 years recruited within an average of 6 months from new primary cancer diagnosis from 96 National Health Service hospitals across England between July 1, 2012, and April 30, 2015...
March 2018: The lancet child & adolescent health
P W Crous, M J Wingfield, T I Burgess, A J Carnegie, G E St J Hardy, D Smith, B A Summerell, J F Cano-Lira, J Guarro, J Houbraken, L Lombard, M P Martín, M Sandoval-Denis, A V Alexandrova, C W Barnes, I G Baseia, J D P Bezerra, V Guarnaccia, T W May, M Hernández-Restrepo, A M Stchigel, A N Miller, M E Ordoñez, V P Abreu, T Accioly, C Agnello, A Agustin Colmán, C C Albuquerque, D S Alfredo, P Alvarado, G R Araújo-Magalhães, S Arauzo, T Atkinson, A Barili, R W Barreto, J L Bezerra, T S Cabral, F Camello Rodríguez, R H S F Cruz, P P Daniëls, B D B da Silva, D A C de Almeida, A A de Carvalho Júnior, C A Decock, L Delgat, S Denman, R A Dimitrov, J Edwards, A G Fedosova, R J Ferreira, A L Firmino, J A Flores, D García, J Gené, A Giraldo, J S Góis, A A M Gomes, C M Gonçalves, D E Gouliamova, M Groenewald, B V Guéorguiev, M Guevara-Suarez, L F P Gusmão, K Hosaka, V Hubka, S M Huhndorf, M Jadan, Ž Jurjević, B Kraak, V Kučera, T K A Kumar, I Kušan, S R Lacerda, S Lamlertthon, W S Lisboa, M Loizides, J J Luangsa-Ard, P Lysková, W P Mac Cormack, D M Macedo, A R Machado, E F Malysheva, P Marinho, N Matočec, M Meijer, A Mešić, S Mongkolsamrit, K A Moreira, O V Morozova, K U Nair, N Nakamura, W Noisripoom, I Olariaga, R J V Oliveira, L M Paiva, P Pawar, O L Pereira, S W Peterson, M Prieto, E Rodríguez-Andrade, C Rojo De Blas, M Roy, E S Santos, R Sharma, G A Silva, C M Souza-Motta, Y Takeuchi-Kaneko, C Tanaka, A Thakur, M Th Smith, Z Tkalčec, N Valenzuela-Lopez, P van der Kleij, A Verbeken, M G Viana, X W Wang, J Z Groenewald
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica : Cadophora antarctica from soil. Australia : Alfaria dandenongensis on Cyperaceae , Amphosoma persooniae on Persoonia sp., Anungitea nullicana on Eucalyptus sp . , Bagadiella eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus , Castanediella eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus sp., Cercospora dianellicola on Dianella sp., Cladoriella kinglakensis on Eucalyptus regnans , Cladoriella xanthorrhoeae (incl. Cladoriellaceae fam. nov...
December 2017: Persoonia
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