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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326045/attainable-and-relevant-moral-exemplars-are-more-effective-than-extraordinary-exemplars-in-promoting-voluntary-service-engagement
#1
Hyemin Han, Jeongmin Kim, Changwoo Jeong, Geoffrey L Cohen
The present study aimed to develop effective moral educational interventions based on social psychology by using stories of moral exemplars. We tested whether motivation to engage in voluntary service as a form of moral behavior was better promoted by attainable and relevant exemplars or by unattainable and irrelevant exemplars. First, experiment 1, conducted in a lab, showed that stories of attainable exemplars more effectively promoted voluntary service activity engagement among undergraduate students compared with stories of unattainable exemplars and non-moral stories...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324702/the-cag-polymorphism-in-androgen-receptor-ar-gene-impacts-the-moral-permissibility-of-harmful-behavior-in-females
#2
Pingyuan Gong, Pengpeng Fang, Xing Yang, Wenzhao Ru, Bei Wang, Xiaocai Gao, Jinting Liu
The moral permissibility of harm is strikingly varied among individuals. In light of the connection between testosterone levels and utilitarian moral judgment, this study examined to what extent a CAG polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene, a genetic polymorphism with the ability to regulate testosterone function, contributes to individual differences in moral judgment. Four hundred and thirty-nine Chinese Han participants completed permissibility ratings of harm in moral dilemmas and moral transgression scenarios...
March 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323839/on-dna-numerical-representations-for-genomic-similarity-computation
#3
Gerardo Mendizabal-Ruiz, Israel Román-Godínez, Sulema Torres-Ramos, Ricardo A Salido-Ruiz, J Alejandro Morales
Genomic signal processing (GSP) refers to the use of signal processing for the analysis of genomic data. GSP methods require the transformation or mapping of the genomic data to a numeric representation. To date, several DNA numeric representations (DNR) have been proposed; however, it is not clear what the properties of each DNR are and how the selection of one will affect the results when using a signal processing technique to analyze them. In this paper, we present an experimental study of the characteristics of nine of the most frequently-used DNR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321688/an-ethical-descriptive-framework-for-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-i
#4
Omar J Alkhatib, Alaa Abdou
The construction industry is usually characterized as a fragmented system of multiple-organizational entities in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The greatest challenge in the construction process for the achievement of a successful practice is the development of an outstanding reputation, which is built on identifying and applying an ethical framework. This framework should reflect a common ethical ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
March 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319378/computational-study-of-13c-nmr-csa-patterns-in-c20h10-and-c20h10-4-insights-into-their-variation-upon-planarization-and-formation-of-concentric-aromatic-species-in-the-smaller-isolated-pentagon-structural-motif
#5
Alvaro Muñoz-Castro, Wilson Caimanque-Aguilar, Cesar Morales-Verdejo
Corannulene, C20H10, exhibits a concave surface in the ground state which is able to experience a bowl-to-bowl inversion through a planar conformation. Such structure is the smaller example resembling an isolated-pentagon motif, as a relevant fragment in Fullerene chemistry. Here, we explored the differences between bowl and planar conformations involving both energetic and 13C-NMR properties, for the neutral and tetraanionic species by using DFT methods. This allows to understand the variation of the chemical environment at the carbon atoms upon planarization of this representive motif...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317120/the-efficacy-of-teachers-responses-to-incidents-of-bullying-and-victimization-the-mediational-role-of-moral-disengagement-for-bullying
#6
Kristel Campaert, Annalaura Nocentini, Ersilia Menesini
Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio-cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers' behavior cognitively and that teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students' level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students' moral disengagement between types of teachers' responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11...
March 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303111/episodic-future-thinking-about-the-ideal-self-induces-lower-discounting-leading-to-a-decreased-tendency-toward-cheating
#7
Wen-Hsiung Wu, Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
Delay discounting refers to a pervasive tendency toward preferring smaller immediate gains over larger future gains. Recent empirical research has shown that episodic future thinking (EFT; i.e., projecting oneself into the future to pre-experience forthcoming events) can reduce the tendency toward discounting. A common tenet of psychological theories of crime is that delinquency results from focusing on short-term gains while failing to consider adequately the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301695/justifying-clinical-nudges
#8
Moti Gorin, Steven Joffe, Neal Dickert, Scott Halpern
The shift away from paternalistic decision-making and toward patient-centered, shared decision-making has stemmed from the recognition that in order to practice medicine ethically, health care professionals must take seriously the values and preferences of their patients. At the same time, there is growing recognition that minor and seemingly irrelevant features of how choices are presented can substantially influence the decisions people make. Behavioral economists have identified striking ways in which trivial differences in the presentation of options can powerfully and predictably affect people's choices...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295596/embedded-narratives-metabolic-disorders-and-pentecostal-conversion-in-samoa
#9
Jessica Hardin
Drawing from interviews and participant observation, this article explores the intersection of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and religious conversion among Pentecostal Christians in Samoa by analyzing what I call embedded narratives--conversion narratives embedded in illness narratives. Drawing from ethnographic data, I examine how using conversion narrative conventions enabled those living with metabolic disorders to narrate behavior change in a culturally and socially valorized way. By embedding their narratives, I suggest those living with metabolic disorders shifted the object of care from a disease process toward the creation of a religious life and in turn transformed the risks associated with metabolic disorders, including diet, exercise, and pharmaceutical use into moral risks associated with everyday religious life...
March 10, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294318/impact-of-killing-in-war-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#10
Shira Maguen, Kristine Burkman, Erin Madden, Julie Dinh, Jeane Bosch, Jessica Keyser, Martha Schmitz, Thomas C Neylan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of Impact of Killing (IOK), a novel, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) aimed at reducing mental health symptoms and functional impairment. METHOD: Participants were 33 combat Veterans with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis who had completed trauma-focused psychotherapy and reported distress regarding killing or feeling responsible for the deaths of others in war. Veterans were randomized to either IOK treatment or a 6-week waitlist condition, after which Veterans could receive IOK...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292201/performing-piety-in-sexual-health-research-gender-health-and-evangelical-christianities-in-a-mexican-human-papillomavirus-hpv-study
#11
Emily Wentzell
Recent research suggests that health surveillance experiences like clinical trial participation might have unanticipated social consequences. I investigate how evangelical Christians participating in longitudinal, observational sexual health research incorporate that long-term medical surveillance into their religious practice. This exploratory research focuses on Mexican Cristianos' participation in the Cuernavaca arm of the multinational 'Human Papillomavirus in Men' ('HIM') study, which tested men for the common and usually asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus (HPV) over time...
March 15, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285442/thymine-adsorption-on-two-dimensional-boron-nitride-structures-first-principles-studies
#12
J Castro-Medina, D García-Toral, M López-Fuentes, A Sánchez-Castillo, S Torres-Morales, L Morales de la Garza, Gregorio H Cocoletzi
First-principles total-energy calculations were performed to investigate the structural and electronic properties of thymine (T) adsorption on pristine and Al-doped two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) surfaces. Periodic density functional theory, as developed in the PWscf code of the quantum espresso package, was applied. The pseudopotential theory was used to deal with electron-ion interactions. The generalized gradient approximation was applied to treat the exchange-correlation energies. Van der Waals interactions were incorporated in the calculations...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282928/oxidative-stress-a-new-target-for-pancreatic-cancer-prognosis-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Javier Martinez-Useros, Weiyao Li, Marticela Cabeza-Morales, Jesus Garcia-Foncillas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal types of tumors, and its incidence is rising worldwide. Survival can be improved when tumors are detected at an early stage; however, this cancer is usually asymptomatic, and the disease only becomes apparent after metastasis. Several risk factors are associated to this disease. Chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and some infectious disease are the most relevant risk factors. Incidence of PDAC has increased in the last decades. It is hypothesized it could be due to other acquired risk habits, like smoking, high alcohol intake, and obesity...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282126/tuning-the-rectification-ratio-by-changing-the-electronic-nature-open-shell-and-closed-shell-in-donor-acceptor-self-assembled-monolayers
#14
Manuel Souto, Li Yuan, Dayana C Morales, Li Jiang, Imma Ratera, Christian A Nijhuis, Jaume Veciana
This Communication describes the mechanism of charge transport across self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of two donor-acceptor systems consisting of a polychlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) electron-acceptor moiety linked to an electron-donor ferrocene (Fc) unit supported by ultraflat template-stripped Au and contacted by a eutectic alloy of gallium and indium top contacts. The electronic and supramolecular structures of these SAMs were well characterized. The PTM unit can be switched between the nonradical and radical forms, which influences the rectification behavior of the junction...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281156/questionable-objectionable-or-criminal-public-opinion-on-data-fraud-and-selective-reporting-in-science
#15
Justin T Pickett, Sean Patrick Roche
Data fraud and selective reporting both present serious threats to the credibility of science. However, there remains considerable disagreement among scientists about how best to sanction data fraud, and about the ethicality of selective reporting. The public is arguably the largest stakeholder in the reproducibility of science; research is primarily paid for with public funds, and flawed science threatens the public's welfare. Members of the public are able to make meaningful judgments about the morality of different behaviors using moral intuitions...
March 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277721/clarifying-the-link-between-job-satisfaction-and-absenteeism-the-role-of-guilt-proneness
#16
Rebecca L Schaumberg, Francis J Flynn
We propose that the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism depends partly on guilt proneness. Drawing on withdrawal and process models of absenteeism, we argue that job satisfaction predicts absences for employees who are low (but not high) in guilt proneness because low guilt-prone people's behaviors are governed more by fulfilling their own egoistic desires than by fulfilling others' normative expectations. We find support for this prediction in a sample of customer service agents working for a major telecommunications company and a sample of working adults employed in a range of industries...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275345/moral-enhancement-using-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#17
REVIEW
R Ryan Darby, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Biomedical enhancement refers to the use of biomedical interventions to improve capacities beyond normal, rather than to treat deficiencies due to diseases. Enhancement can target physical or cognitive capacities, but also complex human behaviors such as morality. However, the complexity of normal moral behavior makes it unlikely that morality is a single capacity that can be deficient or enhanced. Instead, our central hypothesis will be that moral behavior results from multiple, interacting cognitive-affective networks in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272595/perceived-safety-and-value-of-inpatient-very-important-person-services
#18
Joshua Allen-Dicker, Andrew Auerbach, Shoshana J Herzig
Providing care to "very important person" (VIP) patients can pose unique moral and value-based challenges for providers. No studies have examined VIP services in the inpatient setting. Through a multi-institutional survey of hospitalists, we assessed physician viewpoints and behavior surrounding the care of VIP patients. A significant proportion of respondents reported feeling pressured by patients, family members, and hospital representatives to provide unnecessary care to VIP patients. Based on self-reported perceptions, as well as case-based questions, we also found that the VIP status of a patient may impact physician clinical decision-making related to unnecessary medical care...
March 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270135/is-cancer-a-pure-growth-curve-or-does-it-follow-a-kinetics-of-dynamical-structural-transformation
#19
Maraelys Morales González, Javier Antonio González Joa, Luis Enrique Bergues Cabrales, Ana Elisa Bergues Pupo, Baruch Schneider, Suleyman Kondakci, Héctor Manuel Camué Ciria, Juan Bory Reyes, Manuel Verdecia Jarque, Miguel Angel O'Farril Mateus, Tamara Rubio González, Soraida Candida Acosta Brooks, José Luis Hernández Cáceres, Gustavo Victoriano Sierra González
BACKGROUND: Unperturbed tumor growth kinetics is one of the more studied cancer topics; however, it is poorly understood. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool to elucidate new mechanisms involved in tumor growth kinetics, which can be relevant to understand cancer genesis and select the most suitable treatment. METHODS: The classical Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami as well as the modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth are used and compared with the Gompertz modified and Logistic models...
March 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266338/vocally-disruptive-behaviors-management-in-older-people-with-dementia
#20
Caroline Berastegui, Emmanuel Monfort, Bertrand Boudin
Although shouting is a common psycho-behavioral symptom in geriatric institutions, the question of its assessment and treatment remains seldom studied and has rarely been the subject of specific recommendations. The combination of the focus group method and brainstorming has emerged as a methodology both relevant and feasible in geriatric facility to identify the coping strategies used by professionals and generalize guidelines for clinical observation and vocally disruptive behaviors management (shouting)...
March 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
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