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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650997/disambiguating-authenticity-interpretations-of-value-and-appeal
#1
Kieran O'Connor, Glenn R Carroll, Balázs Kovács
While shaping aesthetic judgment and choice, socially constructed authenticity takes on some very different meanings among observers, consumers, producers and critics. Using a theoretical framework positing four distinct meanings of socially constructed authenticity-type, moral, craft, and idiosyncratic-we aim to document empirically the unique appeal of each type. We develop predictions about the relationships between attributed authenticity and corresponding increases in the value ascribed to it through: (1) consumer value ratings, (2) willingness to pay, and (3) behavioral choice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647290/effect-of-professional-expertise-and-exposure-to-everyday-life-decision-making-on-moral-choices
#2
Maddalena Boccia, Paola Verde, Gregorio Angelino, Paolo Carrozzo, Diego Vecchi, Laura Piccardi, Stefano Colangeli, Pierluigi Cordellieri, Fabio Ferlazzo, Anna Maria Giannini
Moral sense is defined as a feeling of fairness or unfairness of an action that knowingly causes harm to people other than the subject. It is crucial in determining human behavior and becomes pivotal in operational environments. Here we assessed whether professional daily life experience in an operational environment affects moral judgment by asking 41 military pilots of the Italian Air Force (P) and 69 controls (C) to solve 40 moral dilemmas. We found that P gave more morally acceptable utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644791/culture-and-moral-distress-what-s-the-connection-and-why-does-it-matter
#3
Nancy Berlinger, Annalise Berlinger
Culture is learned behavior shared among members of a group and from generation to generation within that group. In health care work, references to "culture" may also function as code for ethical uncertainty or moral distress concerning patients, families, or populations. This paper analyzes how culture can be a factor in patient-care situations that produce moral distress. It discusses three common, problematic situations in which assumptions about culture may mask more complex problems concerning family dynamics, structural barriers to health care access, or implicit bias...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644786/antecedents-and-consequences-of-medical-students-moral-decision-making-during-professionalism-dilemmas
#4
Lynn Monrouxe, Malissa Shaw, Charlotte Rees
Medical students often experience professionalism dilemmas (which differ from ethical dilemmas) wherein students sometimes witness and/or participate in patient safety, dignity, and consent lapses. When faced with such dilemmas, students make moral decisions. If students' action (or inaction) runs counter to their perceived moral values-often due to organizational constraints or power hierarchies-they can suffer moral distress, burnout, or a desire to leave the profession. If moral transgressions are rationalized as being for the greater good, moral distress can decrease as dilemmas are experienced more frequently (habituation); if no learner benefit is seen, distress can increase with greater exposure to dilemmas (disturbance)...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632441/research-dilemmas-with-behavioral-big-data
#5
Galit Shmueli
Behavioral big data (BBD) refers to very large and rich multidimensional data sets on human and social behaviors, actions, and interactions, which have become available to companies, governments, and researchers. A growing number of researchers in social science and management fields acquire and analyze BBD for the purpose of extracting knowledge and scientific discoveries. However, the relationships between the researcher, data, subjects, and research questions differ in the BBD context compared to traditional behavioral data...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629599/moral-learning-current-and-future-directions
#6
EDITORIAL
Fiery Cushman, Victor Kumar, Peter Railton
The past 15years occasioned an extraordinary blossoming of research into the cognitive and affective mechanisms that support moral judgment and behavior. This growth in our understanding of moral mechanisms overshadowed a crucial and complementary question, however: How are they learned? As this special issue of the journal Cognition attests, a new crop of research into moral learning has now firmly taken root. This new literature draws on recent advances in formal methods developed in other domains, such as Bayesian inference, reinforcement learning and other machine learning techniques...
June 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612325/stages-of-change-for-mammography-among-mexican-women-and-a-decisional-balance-comparison-across-countries
#7
Ana María Salinas-Martínez, David Emmanuel Castañeda-Vásquez, Norma Guadalupe García-Morales, Norma Edith Oliva-Sosa, Laura Hermila de-la-Garza-Salinas, Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha, José Manuel Ramírez-Aranda
An analysis of the adoption of secondary preventive behaviors is significant in regions with disparities in mammography use and breast cancer survival. Therefore, we determined the cognitive factors and the degree to which they differentiate stages of change in mammography among Mexican women. We also compared the decisional balance performance at Mexico, Switzerland, South Korea, and the USA. A cross-sectional study was designed for women in the stages of precontemplation (n = 240), contemplation (n = 243), action (n = 205), maintenance (n = 311), and relapse (n = 348)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607061/when-the-appeal-of-a-dominant-leader-is-greater-than-a-prestige-leader
#8
Hemant Kakkar, Niro Sivanathan
Across the globe we witness the rise of populist authoritarian leaders who are overbearing in their narrative, aggressive in behavior, and often exhibit questionable moral character. Drawing on evolutionary theory of leadership emergence, in which dominance and prestige are seen as dual routes to leadership, we provide a situational and psychological account for when and why dominant leaders are preferred over other respected and admired candidates. We test our hypothesis using three studies, encompassing more than 140,000 participants, across 69 countries and spanning the past two decades...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604018/resisting-temptation-for-the-good-of-the-group-binding-moral-values-and-the-moralization-of-self-control
#9
Marlon Mooijman, Peter Meindl, Daphna Oyserman, John Monterosso, Morteza Dehghani, John M Doris, Jesse Graham
When do people see self-control as a moral issue? We hypothesize that the group-focused "binding" moral values of Loyalty/betrayal, Authority/subversion, and Purity/degradation play a particularly important role in this moralization process. Nine studies provide support for this prediction. First, moralization of self-control goals (e.g., losing weight, saving money) is more strongly associated with endorsing binding moral values than with endorsing individualizing moral values (Care/harm, Fairness/cheating)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603441/the-care-of-our-hybrid-selves-ethics-in-times-of-technical-mediation
#10
Steven Dorrestijn
What can the art of living after Foucault contribute to ethics in relation to the mediation of human existence by technology? To develop the relation between technical mediation and ethics, firstly the theme of technical mediation is elaborated in line with Foucault's notion of ethical problematization. Every view of what technology does to us at the same time expresses an ethical concern about technology. The contemporary conception of technical mediation tends towards the acknowledgement of ongoing hybridization, not ultimately good or bad but ambivalent, which means for us the challenge of taking care of ourselves as hybrid beings...
2017: Foundations of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601927/what-makes-you-so-sure-dogmatism-fundamentalism-analytic-thinking-perspective-taking-and-moral-concern-in-the-religious-and-nonreligious
#11
Jared Parker Friedman, Anthony Ian Jack
Better understanding the psychological factors related to certainty in one's beliefs (i.e., dogmatism) has important consequences for both individuals and social groups. Generally, beliefs can find support from at least two different routes of information processing: social/moral considerations or analytic/empirical reasoning. Here, we investigate how these two psychological constructs relate to dogmatism in two groups of individuals who preferentially draw on the former or latter sort of information when forming beliefs about the world-religious and nonreligious individuals...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593649/the-effect-of-gabapentin-and-tramadol-in-cancer-pain-induced-by-glioma-cell-in-rat-femur
#12
Janette Nallely Corona-Ramos, Myrna Déciga-Campos, Mario Romero-Piña, Luis A Medina, Issac Martínez-Racine, Osmar A Jaramillo-Morales, Patricia García-López, Francisco Javier López-Muñoz
Preclinical Research The presence of pain as part of the cancer process is variable. Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) can produce bone metastasis, a condition that involves other pathological phenotypes including neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Tramadol and gabapentin are drugs used in the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, there are no studies evaluating their analgesic effects in bone metastasis. We produced a pain model induced by the inoculation of glioma cells (10(5) ) into the rat femur, by perforating the intercodiloid fossa...
June 7, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588441/tempering-proactive-cognitive-control-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-right-but-not-the-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, María C Martín, Julia Morales
Behavioral and neuroimaging data support the distinction of two different modes of cognitive control: proactive, which involves the active and sustained maintenance of task-relevant information to bias behavior in accordance with internal goals; and reactive, which entails the detection and resolution of interference at the time it occurs. Both control modes may be flexibly deployed depending on a variety of conditions (i.e., age, brain alterations, motivational factors, prior experience). Critically, and in line with specific predictions derived from the dual mechanisms of control account (Braver, 2012), findings from neuroimaging studies indicate that the same lateral prefrontal regions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588303/critical-dynamics-of-endogenous-fluctuations-predict-cognitive-flexibility-in-the-go-nogo-task
#14
Jaana Simola, Alexander Zhigalov, Isabel Morales-Muñoz, J Matias Palva, Satu Palva
Fluctuations with power-law scaling and long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) are characteristic to human psychophysical performance. Systems operating in a critical state exhibit such LRTCs, but phenomenologically similar fluctuations and LRTCs may also be caused by slow decay of the system's memory without the system being critical. Theoretically, criticality endows the system with the greatest representational capacity and flexibility in state transitions. Without criticality, however, slowly decaying system memory would predict inflexibility...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587185/air-flow-detection-in-crude-oil-by-infrared-light
#15
Guilherme Dutra, Cicero Martelli, Marco José Da Silva, Rodolfo L Patyk, Rigoberto E M Morales
In this paper, we used infrared light in the range of 8-12 μm to develop and test an optical imaging system to detect air bubbles flowing in oil. The system basically comprises a broadband light source and a 31 × 32 thermopile array to generate images. To analyze the effects related to light absorption, reflection, and refraction on air-oil boundaries, a numerical model was developed and the predominance of the refraction instead of the absorption in bubbles with diameters below a certain critical value was observed...
June 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585703/husk-tomato-physalis-ixocarpa-brot-waste-as-a-promising-source-of-pectin-extraction-and-physicochemical-characterization
#16
Blanca Elizabeth Morales-Contreras, Juan Carlos Contreras-Esquivel, Louise Wicker, Luz Araceli Ochoa-Martínez, Juliana Morales-Castro
Husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. var. Rendidora) waste was evaluated as a source of specialized pectin, and pectin extracted from this waste was characterized physicochemically. Fruit was blanched for 10 or 15 min and extracted in 0.1 N HCl for 15 to 25 min. Extracted pectin was subjected to physicochemical analysis. For all extraction conditions, the percentage of anhydrogalacturonic acid exceeded 60%, indicating that husk tomato was a good source of pectin. The degree of esterification of pectin molecules was 63% to 91%...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585702/consistent-belief-in-a-good-true-self-in-misanthropes-and-three-interdependent-cultures
#17
Julian De Freitas, Hagop Sarkissian, George E Newman, Igor Grossmann, Felipe De Brigard, Andres Luco, Joshua Knobe
People sometimes explain behavior by appealing to an essentialist concept of the self, often referred to as the true self. Existing studies suggest that people tend to believe that the true self is morally virtuous; that is deep inside, every person is motivated to behave in morally good ways. Is this belief particular to individuals with optimistic beliefs or people from Western cultures, or does it reflect a widely held cognitive bias in how people understand the self? To address this question, we tested the good true self theory against two potential boundary conditions that are known to elicit different beliefs about the self as a whole...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581315/moral-injury-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-suicidal-behavior-among-national-guard-personnel
#18
Craig J Bryan, AnnaBelle O Bryan, Erika Roberge, Feea R Leifker, David C Rozek
OBJECTIVE: To empirically examine similarities and differences in the signs and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and moral injury and to determine if the combination of these 2 constructs is associated with increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in a sample of U.S. National Guard personnel. METHOD: 930 National Guard personnel from the states of Utah and Idaho completed an anonymous online survey. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was used to test a measurement model of PTSD and moral injury...
June 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569221/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-4-ethical-issues-in-clinical-and-social-applications-of-neuroscience
#19
EDITORIAL
Kira Becker, John R Shook, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: As a discipline, neuroethics addresses a range of questions and issues generated by basic neuroscientific research (inclusive of studies of putative neurobiological processes involved in moral and ethical cognition and behavior), and its use and meanings in the clinical and social spheres. Here, we present Part 4 of a four-part bibliography of the neuroethics literature focusing on clinical and social applications of neuroscience, to include: the treatment-enhancement discourse; issues arising in neurology, psychiatry, and pain care; neuroethics education and training; neuroethics and the law; neuroethics and policy and political issues; international neuroethics; and discourses addressing "trans-" and "post-" humanity...
May 31, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567598/the-interplay-between-phenotypic-and-ontogenetic-plasticities-can-be-assessed-using-reaction-diffusion-models-the-case-of-pseudoplatystoma-fishes
#20
Aldo Ledesma-Durán, Lorenzo-Héctor Juárez-Valencia, Juan-Bibiano Morales-Malacara, Iván Santamaría-Holek
Every morphological, behavioral, or even developmental character expression of living beings is coded in its genotype and is expressed in its phenotype. Nevertheless, the interplay between phenotypic and ontogenetic plasticities, that is, the capability to manifest trait variations, is a current field of research that needs morphometric, numerical, or even mathematical modeling investigations. In the present work, we are searching for a phenotypic index able to identify the underlying correlation among phenotypic, ontogenetic, and geographic distribution of the evolutionary development of species of the same genus...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
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