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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816493/consequences-norms-and-generalized-inaction-in-moral-dilemmas-the-cni-model-of-moral-decision-making
#1
Bertram Gawronski, Joel Armstrong, Paul Conway, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Research on moral dilemma judgments has been fundamentally shaped by the distinction between utilitarianism and deontology. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consequences; the principle of deontology states that the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, researchers have investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
September 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813348/moral-behavior-in-sport
#2
REVIEW
Maria Kavussanu, Nicholas Stanger
In this review paper, we provide an overview of recent research on prosocial and antisocial behaviors, in the context of sport, focusing mainly on antecedents and consequences of these behaviors. Motivational variables such as task orientation, mastery climate, autonomous motivation, and autonomy supportive climate are likely to promote prosocial behavior, whereas ego orientation, performance climate, controlled motivation, and controlling climate may lead to antisocial behavior. The effects of some motivational variables (i...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810956/the-reasons-for-living-scale-military-version-assessing-protective-factors-against-suicide-in-a-military-sample
#3
Anne-Marie Deutsch, R Gregory Lande
INTRODUCTION: Military suicide rates have been rising over the past decade and continue to challenge military treatment facilities. Assessing suicide risk and improving treatments are a large part of the mission for clinicians who work with uniformed service members. This study attempts to expand the toolkit of military suicide prevention by focusing on protective factors over risk factors. In 1983, Marsha Linehan published a checklist called the Reasons for Living Scale, which asked subjects to check the reasons they choose to continue living, rather than choosing suicide...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807512/non-linear-finite-element-model-to-assess-the-effect-of-tendon-forces-on-the-foot-ankle-complex
#4
Enrique Morales-Orcajo, Thales R Souza, Javier Bayod, Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas
A three-dimensional foot finite element model with actual geometry and non-linear behavior of tendons is presented. The model is intended for analysis of the lower limb tendon forces effect in the inner foot structure. The geometry of the model was obtained from computational tomographies and magnetic resonance images. Tendon tissue was characterized with the first order Ogden material model based on experimental data from human foot tendons. Kinetic data was employed to set the load conditions. After model validation, a force sensitivity study of the five major foot extrinsic tendons was conducted to evaluate the function of each tendon...
August 11, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#5
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805438/situational-and-structural-variation-in-youth-perceptions-of-maternal-guilt-induction
#6
Wendy M Rote, Judith G Smetana
Parental induction of empathy-related guilt plays an important role in children's moral development. However, guilt induction can also be psychologically controlling and detrimental for youth adjustment. This study provided a more nuanced view of parental guilt induction by examining how the nature of a child's misdeed and the structure and content of the parental guilt inductive statement impact children's perceptions of it. Using hypothetical vignettes, this study experimentally examined the impact of the type (domain) of child behavior, highlighted victim, and focus of parental criticism on 156 children's and early and middle adolescents' (age: Ms = 8...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799865/space-creation-dynamics-in-basketball-small-sided-games
#7
Sarah G T Bredt, Juan C P Morales, André G P Andrade, Juliana O Torres, Gustavo H Peixoto, Pablo J Greco, Gibson M Praça, Mauro H Chagas
Space creation dynamics (SCDs) describe actions players perform to create a scoring opportunity. This study compared SCDs and types of offense during three different three versus three (3vs.3) basketball small-sided games (SSGs) played in half court: 3vs.3 with man-to-man defense in half playing area (3vs.3HALF), 3vs.3 with man-to-man defense in full playing area (3vs.3FULL), and 3vs.3 with reduced shot clock (3vs.3RT). We also investigated the efficacy of SCDs in all SSGs and the reliability of SCDs in 3vs...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794547/evolution-of-ethics-in-clinical-research-and-ethics-committee
#8
Nilay Kanti Das, Amrita Sil
Ethics are the moral values of human behavior and the principles which govern these values. The situation becomes challenging for a doctor when he assumes the role of researcher. The doctor-researcher has to serve both the roles and at times the zeal of an investigator has the potential to cloud the morality of the physician inside. It is very important to realize that exploiting the faith of patients is an offence that tantamount to a crime. Medical science is one discipline where the advancement of knowledge is hugely guided by research and mankind has benefitted from many experiments...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791492/perceived-police-injustice-moral-disengagement-and-aggression-among-juvenile-offenders-utilizing-the-general-strain-theory-model
#9
Tamika C B Zapolski, Devin E Banks, Katherine S L Lau, Matthew C Aalsma
Although many juvenile offenders report experiencing police injustice, few studies have examined how this source of strain may impact youths' behavioral outcomes, including risk for future recidivism. This study begins to address that gap in the literature. We applied the general strain theory as our theoretical framework to examine the interactive effect of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement on juvenile aggressive behavior. Our sample included 95 juvenile offenders who completed questionnaires on measures of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement...
August 8, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790916/in-vivo-sub-chronic-treatment-with-dichlorvos-in-young-rats-promotes-synaptic-plasticity-and-learning-by-a-mechanism-that-involves-acylpeptide-hydrolase-instead-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-correlation-with-endogenous-%C3%AE-amyloid-levels
#10
Gonzalo García-Rojo, Fernando Gámiz, Estíbaliz Ampuero, Daniel Rojas-Espina, Rodrigo Sandoval, Carlos Rozas, Bernardo Morales, Ursula Wyneken, Floria Pancetti
Acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) is a serine hydrolase that displays two catalytic activities, acting both as an exopeptidase toward short N-acylated peptides and as an endopeptidase toward oxidized peptides or proteins. It has been demonstrated that this enzyme can degrade monomers, dimers, and trimers of the Aβ1-40 peptide in the conditioned media of neuroblastoma cells. In a previous report, we showed that the specific inhibition of this enzyme by the organophosphate molecule dichlorvos (DDVP) triggers an enhancement of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789522/a-new-architecture-for-reagentless-protein-based-electro-chemical-biosensors
#11
Di Kang, Sheng Sun, Martin Kurnik, Demosthenes P Morales, Frederick Willis Dahlquist, Kevin W Plaxco
Here we demonstrate a new class of reagentless, single-step sensors for the detection of proteins and peptides that is the electro-chemical analog of fluorescence polarization (fluorescence anisotropy), a versatile optical approach widely employed to this same end. Our electrochemical sensors consist of a redox-reporter-modified protein (the "receptor") site-specifically anchored to an electrode via a short, flexible polypeptide linker. Interaction of the receptor with its binding partner alters the efficiency with which the reporter approaches the electrode surface, thus causing a change in redox current upon voltammetric interrogation...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780253/biomechanics-of-human-parietal-pleura-in-uniaxial-extension
#12
Luis E Morales Tenorio, Kelsey J Devine, Jayme Lee, Timothy M Kowalewski, Victor H Barocas
Tension pneumothorax, a major preventable cause of battlefield death, often arises from chest trauma and is treated by needle decompression to release trapped air from the pleural cavity. Surgical simulation mannequins are often employed to train medical personnel to perform this procedure properly. Accurate reproduction of the mechanical behavior of the parietal pleura, especially in response to needle penetration, is essential to maximize the fidelity of these surgical simulators. To date, however, the design of pleura-simulating material has been largely empirical and based on subjective practitioner feel rather than on the tissue properties, which have remained unknown...
July 29, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776840/pro-environmental-behavior-and-adolescent-moral-development
#13
Tobias Krettenauer
Previous research has demonstrated that children take a strong moral stance toward protecting the natural environment. However, the question of how this moralization of pro-environmental behavior develops in adolescence has been rarely investigated. This study investigated age-related differences in adolescents' pro-environmental behavior as it relates to moral judgments about environmental issues and emotions. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 325 Canadian adolescents from early, middle, and late adolescence...
September 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774725/endogenous-information-adverse-selection-and-prevention-implications-for-genetic-testing-policy
#14
Richard Peter, Andreas Richter, Paul Thistle
We examine public policy toward the use of genetic information by insurers. Individuals engage in unobservable primary prevention and have access to different prevention technologies. Thus, insurance markets are affected by moral hazard and adverse selection. Individuals can choose to take a genetic test to acquire information about their prevention technology. Information has positive decision-making value, that is, individuals may adjust their behavior based on the result of the test. However, testing also exposes individuals to uncertainty over the available insurance contract, so-called classification risk, which lowers the value of information...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769072/post-conventional-moral-reasoning-is-associated-with-increased-ventral-striatal-activity-at-rest-and-during-task
#15
Zhuo Fang, Wi Hoon Jung, Marc Korczykowski, Lijuan Luo, Kristin Prehn, Sihua Xu, John A Detre, Joseph W Kable, Diana C Robertson, Hengyi Rao
People vary considerably in moral reasoning. According to Kohlberg's theory, individuals who reach the highest level of post-conventional moral reasoning judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals rather than self-interest or adherence to laws and rules. Recent research has suggested the involvement of the brain's frontostriatal reward system in moral judgments and prosocial behaviors. However, it remains unknown whether moral reasoning level is associated with differences in reward system function...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766863/do-storybooks-with-anthropomorphized-animal-characters-promote-prosocial-behaviors-in-young-children
#16
Nicole E Larsen, Kang Lee, Patricia A Ganea
For millennia, adults have told children stories not only to entertain but also to impart important moral lessons to promote prosocial behaviors. Many such stories contain anthropomorphized animals because it is believed that children learn from anthropomorphic stories as effectively, if not better than, from stories with human characters, and thus are more inclined to act according to the moral lessons of the stories. Here we experimentally tested this belief by reading preschoolers a sharing story with either human characters or anthropomorphized animal characters...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766079/lawful-sinners-reproductive-governance-and-moral-agency-around-abortion-in-mexico
#17
Elyse Ona Singer
The Catholic Hierarchy unequivocally bans abortion, defining it as a mortal sin. In Mexico City, where the Catholic Church wields considerable political and popular power, abortion was recently decriminalized in a historic vote. Of the roughly 170,000 abortions that have been carried out in Mexico City's new public sector abortion program to date, more than 60% were among self-reported Catholic women. Drawing on eighteen months of fieldwork, including interviews with 34 Catholic patients, this article examines how Catholic women in Mexico City grapple with abortion decisions that contravene Church teachings in the context of recent abortion reform...
August 1, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765994/modulation-of-financial-deprivation-on-deception-and-its-neural-correlates
#18
Peng Sun, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Jia Chen, Lin Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Xuemei Cheng, Xiuyan Guo
Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763050/3d-hydrogel-based-polymeric-nanoreactors-for-silver-nano-antimicrobial-composites-generation
#19
Albanelly Soto-Quintero, Ángel Romo-Uribe, Víctor H Bermúdez-Morales, Isabel Quijada-Garrido, Nekane Guarrotxena
This study underscores the development of Ag hydrogel nanocomposites, as smart substrates for antibacterial uses, via innovative in situ reactive and reduction pathways. To this end, two different synthetic strategies were used. Firstly thiol-acrylate (PSA) based hydrogels were attained via thiol-ene and radical polymerization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polycaprolactone (PCL). As a second approach, polyurethane (PU) based hydrogels were achieved by condensation polymerization from diisocyanates and PCL and PEG diols...
August 1, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759283/parental-concern-parents-discuss-how-they-support-their-adolescents-attending-schoolies-events-in-australia
#20
Kasey Irwin, Pauline Hill, Alison Hutton
Adolescents who have completed their high school studies converge on coastal areas of Australia annually to celebrate their freedom in events known as "Schoolies." The current body of research in relation to Schoolies demonstrates that adolescents consume alcohol and other drugs and engage in sexual activity during these events. Exactly how parents support adolescents in attending these events and how they perceive the Schoolies experience represent major gaps in the literature. To undertake this research, 7 parents were interviewed using a semi-structured approach...
July 31, 2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
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