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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236039/teacher-rated-school-ethos-and-student-reported-bullying-a-multilevel-study-of-upper-secondary-schools-in-stockholm-sweden
#1
Bitte Modin, Sara B Låftman, Viveca Östberg
School ethos refers to the school leadership's purposive efforts to shape and direct the attitudes, values and behaviors needed in order to promote an active learning environment and to prevent the emergence of undesirable behaviors by creating shared meaning and common goals for the school. The aim of this study was to examine how teacher rated aspects of school ethos are linked with manifestations of bullying among 11th grade students. Five teacher-rated sub-dimensions of school ethos (staff stability, teacher morale, structure-order, student focus, and academic atmosphere) were examined in relation to student-reported perpetration of and exposure to traditional school bullying and cyberbullying...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230069/value-based-standards-guide-sexism-inferences-for-self-and-others
#2
Chelsea Mitamura, Lynnsey Erickson, Patricia G Devine
People often disagree about what constitutes sexism, and these disagreements can be both socially and legally consequential. It is unclear, however, why or how people come to different conclusions about whether something or someone is sexist. Previous research on judgments about sexism has focused on the perceiver's gender and attitudes, but neither of these variables identifies comparative standards that people use to determine whether any given behavior (or person) is sexist. Extending Devine and colleagues' values framework (Devine, Monteith, Zuwerink, & Elliot, 1991; Plant & Devine, 1998), we argue that, when evaluating others' behavior, perceivers rely on the morally-prescriptive values that guide their own behavior toward women...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226152/the-phytoestrogen-genistein-produces-similar-effects-as-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-anxiety-like-behavior-in-rats-at-12-weeks-after-ovariectomy
#3
Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa, Jonathan Cueto-Escobedo, Abraham Puga-Olguín, Eduardo Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Blandina Bernal-Morales, Emma Virginia Herrera-Huerta, Andrea Santos-Torres
The phytoestrogen genistein produces anxiolytic-like effects in ovariectomized rats, which highlights its potential therapeutic effect in ameliorating anxiety in surgical menopausal women. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of identical doses of genistein and 17β-estradiol, the main estrogen used in hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women. The present study evaluated the anxiolytic-like effects of identical doses of genistein and 17β-estradiol (0.045, 0.09, and 0.18 mg/kg/7 days, s...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225586/extending-the-cooperative-phenotype-assessing-the-stability-of-cooperation-across-countries
#4
Amanda G Reigstad, Eirik A Strømland, Gustav Tinghög
This paper studies whether individual cooperation is stable across settings and over time. Involving more than 7,000 subjects on two different continents, this study documents positive correlation in cooperative behavior across economic games in Norway, Sweden, Austria, and the United States. The game measures also correlate with a tendency to make deontological judgments in moral dilemmas, and display of general trust toward strangers. Using time-variation in the data, we test whether temporal stability of behavior is similar in the United States and Norway, and find similar stability estimates for both the American and Norwegian samples...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219909/a-thematic-analysis-of-self-described-authentic-leadership-behaviors-among-experienced-nurse-executives
#5
Catherine Alexander, Ruth Palan Lopez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to understand the behaviors experienced nurse executives use to create healthy work environments (HWEs). The constructs of authentic leadership formed the conceptual framework for the study. BACKGROUND: The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses recommends authentic leadership as the preferred style of leadership for creating and sustaining HWEs. Behaviors associated with authentic leadership in nursing are not well understood...
January 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216450/endocannabinoid-actions-on-cortical-terminals-orchestrate-local-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#6
Yolanda Mateo, Kari A Johnson, Dan P Covey, Brady K Atwood, Hui-Ling Wang, Shiliang Zhang, Iness Gildish, Roger Cachope, Luigi Bellocchio, Manuel Guzmán, Marisela Morales, Joseph F Cheer, David M Lovinger
Dopamine (DA) transmission mediates numerous aspects of behavior. Although DA release is strongly linked to firing of DA neurons, recent developments indicate the importance of presynaptic modulation at striatal dopaminergic terminals. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates DA release and is a canonical gatekeeper of goal-directed behavior. Here we report that extracellular DA increases induced by selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are inhibited by CB1 agonists and eCBs...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214513/hyper-response-to-novelty-increases-c-fos-expression-in-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#7
Tomas Monfil, Rubén Antonio Vázquez Roque, Israel Camacho-Abrego, Hiram Tendilla-Beltran, Tommaso Ianniti, Ivan Meneses-Morales, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Gonzalo Flores, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina
Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that may have a neurodevelopmental origin. For this reason, animal models based on neonatal insults or manipulations have been extensively used to demonstrate schizophrenia-related behaviors. Among those, the neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (nVHL) is largely used as a model of schizophrenia-related behavior as it mimics behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities often seen in schizophrenic patients including hyperlocomotion in a novel environment. To investigate the neuroanatomical basis of coding novelty in the nVHL rat, we assessed the behavioral locomotor activity paradigm in a novel environment and measured expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in brain regions involved in the process of coding novelty or locomotion...
December 6, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213489/in-search-of-the-moral-psychological-and-neuroevolutionary-basis-of-political-partisanship
#8
REVIEW
Vitor Geraldi Haase, Isabella Starling-Alves
In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS) neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1) Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212879/single-molecule-measurements-of-the-effect-of-force-on-thy-1-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-interaction-using-non-purified-proteins
#9
Francesca Burgos-Bravo, Nataniel L Figueroa, Nathalie Casanova-Morales, Andrew F G Quest, Christian A M Wilson, Lisette Leyton
Thy-1 and αvβ3 integrin mediate bidirectional cell-to-cell communication between neurons and astrocytes. Thy-1/αvβ3 interactions stimulate astrocyte migration and the retraction of neuronal prolongations, both processes in which internal forces are generated affecting the bimolecular interactions that maintain cell-cell adhesion. Nonetheless, how the Thy-1/αvβ3 interactions respond to mechanical cues is an unresolved issue. In this study, optical tweezers were used as a single-molecule force transducer, and the Dudko-Hummer-Szabo Model was applied to calculate the kinetic parameters of Thy-1/αvβ3 dissociation...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211515/factors-associated-with-use-of-short-term-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-among-female-partners-of-migrant-miners-in-mozambique
#10
Joana Falcao, Allison Zerbe, Maria Lahuerta, Rachel Baggaley, Laurence Ahoua, Pietro DiMattei, Fernando Morales, Isaias Ramiro, Wafaa M El-Sadr
Effective interventions tailored to specific types of behaviors and contexts are needed for women at risk for HIV acquisition. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious HIV prevention intervention that uses antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection. In Mozambique, HIV remains a major public health concern, with a national prevalence of 13%. Studies have demonstrated that the migration of male miners between southern provinces of Mozambique and South Africa is contributing to the HIV epidemic in Mozambique...
December 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206571/predicting-ambivalence-when-same-sex-sex-is-only-sometimes-wrong
#11
Sarah M Steele, Allison Suppan Helmuth
Despite Americans' growing acceptance of LGBTQ people and their sexual behaviors over the past 40 years, approximately 10% of the population consistently expresses conflicted feelings, reporting that same-sex sex is only sometimes wrong. This research employs a theory of socially structured ambivalence to examine how individuals with ambivalence towards the morality of same-sex sex differ from those with strong moral stances. Using multinomial regression analysis of General Social Survey data, we find that socio-structural conflicts-e...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203527/a-novel-chemical-inducer-of-streptococcus-quorum-sensing-acts-by-inhibiting-the-pheromone-degrading-endopeptidase-pepo
#12
Tiara G Pérez Morales, Kiira Ratia, Duo-Sheng Wang, Artemis Gogos, Tom G Driver, Michael J Federle
Bacteria produce chemical signals (pheromones) to coordinate behaviors across a population in a process termed quorum sensing (QS). QS systems comprising peptide pheromones and their corresponding Rgg receptors are widespread among Firmicutes and may be useful targets for manipulating microbial behaviors, like suppressing virulence. The Rgg2/3 QS circuit of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes controls genes affecting resistance to host lysozyme in response to short hydrophobic pheromones (SHPs). Considering that artificial activation of a QS pathway may be as useful in the objective of manipulating bacteria as inhibiting it, we sought to identify small-molecule inducers of the Rgg2/3 QS system...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198599/who-is-the-boss-individual-recognition-memory-and-social-hierarchy-formation-in-crayfish
#13
Nayeli Jiménez-Morales, Karina Mendoza-Ángeles, Mercedes Porras-Villalobos, Elizabeth Ibarra-Coronado, Gabriel Roldán-Roldán, Jesús Hernández-Falcón
Under laboratory conditions, crayfish establish hierarchical orders through agonistic encounters whose outcome defines the dominant one and one, or more, submissive animals. These agonistic encounters are ritualistic, based on threats, pushes, attacks, grabs, and avoidance behaviors that include retreats and escape responses. Agonistic behavior in a triad of unfamiliar, size-matched animals is intense on the first day of social interaction and the intensity fades on daily repetitions. The dominant animal keeps its status for long periods, and the submissive ones seem to remember 'who the boss is'...
November 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197236/the-roles-of-parenting-practices-sociocognitive-emotive-traits-and-prosocial-behaviors-in-low-income-adolescents
#14
Alexandra N Davis, Gustavo Carlo
The goal of the current study was to examine the links among parenting practices (i.e., use of social and material rewards), sociocognitive and socioemotive traits (i.e., perspective taking, prosocial moral reasoning, and empathic concern), and prosocial behaviors among adolescents in a low-income, Midwestern community. Participants were 311 adolescents (M age = 16.10 years; range = 14-19 years; 58.7% girls; 82.7% White; 13.6% Latino). The results demonstrated that social rewards were positively associated with perspective taking, empathic concern, and prosocial moral reasoning, which were each associated with multiple forms of prosocial behaviors...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193938/-knowledge-behavior-and-perception-of-oral-health-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Gabriela García-Morales, Denny Kennia Barrera-Lagunas
BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease occurs severely in patients with diabetes, also causes high blood glucose. The objective of this article was to determine knowledge, behavior and perception of oral health in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Cross-sectional study performed at the Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 26 in Acapulco, Guerrero, México; 376 patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Sociodemographic questionnaire, knowledge, behavior and perception of oral health was applied...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193491/age-related-changes-in-the-dynamics-of-fear-related-regulation-in-early-childhood
#16
Santiago Morales, Nilam Ram, Kristin A Buss, Pamela M Cole, Jonathan L Helm, Sy-Miin Chow
Self-regulation is a dynamic process wherein executive processes (EP) delay, minimize or desist prepotent responses (PR) that arise in situations that threaten well-being. It is generally assumed that, over the course of early childhood, children expand and more effectively deploy their repertoire of EP-related strategies to regulate PR. However, longitudinal tests of these assumptions are scarce in part because self-regulation has been mostly studied as a static construct. This study engages dynamic systems modeling to examine developmental changes in self-regulation between ages 2 and 5 years...
November 29, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185207/prosocial-behavior-in-adolescence-gender-differences-in-development-and-links-with-empathy
#17
Jolien Van der Graaff, Gustavo Carlo, Elisabetta Crocetti, Hans M Koot, Susan Branje
Although adolescents' prosocial behavior is related to various positive outcomes, longitudinal research on its development and predictors is still sparse. This 6-wave longitudinal study investigated the development of prosocial behavior across adolescence, and examined longitudinal associations with perspective taking and empathic concern. Participants were 497 adolescents (M age t1 = 13.03 years, 43% girls) who reported on their prosocial behaviors, empathic concern, and perspective taking. The results revealed marked gender differences in the development of prosocial behavior...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184515/the-influence-of-empathy-and-morality-of-violent-video-game-characters-on-gamers-aggression
#18
Xuemei Gao, Lei Weng, Yuhong Zhou, Hongling Yu
According to the General Aggression Model, situational factors (such as the game characters) and personal factors both affect a gamer's acquisition of aggressive behavior. Previous studies have found not only that the surface features of game characters, such as appearance and clothing, but also that their inherent characteristics, such as morality and identity, can influence a gamer's attitude and behavior. Research has also shown that empathy, as a personal factor, can protect gamers from the impact of media violence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178984/moral-imagination-facilitating-prosocial-decision-making-through-scene-imagery-and-theory-of-mind
#19
Brendan Gaesser, Kerri Keeler, Liane Young
How we imagine and subjectively experience the future can inform how we make decisions in the present. Here, we examined a prosocial effect of imagining future episodes in motivating moral decisions about helping others in need, as well as the underlying cognitive mechanisms. Across three experiments we found that people are more willing to help others in specific situations after imagining helping them in those situations. Manipulating the spatial representation of imagined future episodes in particular was effective at increasing intentions to help others, suggesting that scene imagery plays an important role in the prosocial effect of episodic simulation...
November 24, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173541/progesterone-inhibits-the-in-vitro-l3-l4-molting-process-in-haemonchus-contortus
#20
R A Gutiérrez-Amézquita, J Morales-Montor, M A Muñoz-Guzmán, K E Nava-Castro, H Ramírez-Álvarez, C Cuenca-Verde, N A Moreno-Mendoza, J A Cuéllar-Ordaz, F Alba-Hurtado
We evaluated the direct effects of progesterone on the morphology, maturation and behavior of Haemonchus contortus larvae in vitro. The presence and location of possible progesterone receptors in these larvae were also determined. The addition of 8ng/mL of progesterone to larval cultures over 10days reduced larval enlargement, while the addition of 160ng/mL of the hormone increased the enlargement. Up to 62% and 65% of the H. contortus larvae molted from third-stage larvae (L3) to fourth-stage larvae (L4) when cultured in RPMI-1640 media without hormone for 5 and 10days, respectively...
December 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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