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moral behavior

Aranza Wille-Bille, Roberto Sebastián Miranda-Morales, Mariangela Pucci, Fabio Bellia, Claudio D'Addario, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Animal models have suggested that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) alters the κ opioid receptor system. The present study investigated the brain expression of dynorphin and nociceptin/orphanin FQ related genes and assessed anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box (LDB), shelter-seeking and risk-taking behaviors in the concentric square field (CSF) test, and ethanol-induced locomotion in the open field (OF), in infant or adolescent Wistar rats that were exposed to PEE (0.0 or 2.0 g/kg, intragastrically, gestational days 17-20)...
April 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Matthew Valle, K Michele Kacmar, Suzanne Zivnuska, Troy Harting
This paper draws from social exchange theory and social cognitive theory to explore moral disengagement as a potential mediator of the relationship between abusive supervision and organizational deviance. We also explore the moderating effect of leader-member exchange (LMX) on this mediated relationship. Results indicate that employees with abusive supervisors engaged in moral disengagement strategies and subsequently in organizational deviance behaviors. Additionally, this relationship was stronger for those higher in LMX...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Ahmad Ghaderi, Farhad Malek, Mohammad Mohammadi, Somayeh Rostami Maskopaii, Amir Hamta, Seyyed Abdollah Madani
BACKGROUND: Considering that medical ethics is an applied subject providing systematic solutions to help physicians with moral issues, this research aimed to evaluate adherence to the principles of medical ethics among physicians on the basis of attitude of physicians of Mazandaran province. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mazandaran province, Iran during 2015. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was first completed by 40 physicians and its reliability was confirmed by obtaining a Cronbach's alpha coefficient equal to 0...
January 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Erin E Buckels, Paul D Trapnell, Tamara Andjelovic, Delroy L Paulhus
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the association between online trolling and sadistic personality; and provide evidence that the reward and rationalization processes at work in sadism are likewise manifest in online trolling. METHOD: Online respondents (total N = 1,715) completed self-report measures of personality and trolling behavior. They subsequently engaged in one of two judgment tasks. In Study 1, respondents viewed stimuli depicting scenes of emotional/physical suffering, and provided ratings of (a) perceived pain intensity and (b) pleasure experienced while viewing the photos...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
Kennon M Sheldon, Nicolas Sommet, Mike Corcoran, Andrew J Elliot
We created a life-goal assessment drawing from self-determination theory and achievement goal literature, examining its predictive power regarding immoral behavior and subjective well-being. Our source items assessed direction and energization of motivation, via the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic aims and between intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for acting, respectively. Fused source items assessed four goal complexes representing a combination of direction and energization. Across three studies ( Ns = 109, 121, and 398), the extrinsic aim/extrinsic reason complex was consistently associated with immoral and/or unethical behavior beyond four source and three other goal complex variables...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Brenda Zylbersztajn, Marlon Barraza, Juan P Torres, Jorge Morales
This review summarizes recommendations of therapeutic monitoring of three antimicrobials based in regional data: vancomycin, amikacin and voriconazole in pediatric population. Regional evidence agrees with international literature regarding the requirement of higher daily doses than 40 mg/kg/day of vancomycin, as well as with the possibility of use one daily doses of amikacin and to recommend higher doses of voriconazole compared to the initially recommended doses of 8 mg/kg/day. Local data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior of various antimicrobials in pediatrics are of great value for dosing adjustment in our pediatric population...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Daniel T L Shek, Xiaoqin Zhu
Based on the six-wave data collected from Grade 7 to Grade 12 students ( N = 3,328 at Wave 1), this pioneer study examined the development of problem behaviors (risk and delinquent behavior and problem behavioral intention) and the predictors (moral competence and spirituality) among adolescents in Hong Kong. Individual growth curve models revealed that while risk and delinquent behavior accelerated and then slowed down in the high school years, adolescent problem behavioral intention slightly accelerated over time...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mowei Shen, Chengfeng Zhu, Huayu Liao, Haihang Zhang, Jifan Zhou, Zaifeng Gao
As an important moral emotion, guilt plays a critical role in social interaction. It has been found that people tended to exhibit prosocial behavior under circumstances of guilt. However, all extant studies have predominantly focused on the influence of guilt on macro-level behavior. So far, no study has investigated whether guilt affects people's micro-level perception. The current study closes this gap by examining whether guilt affects one's inclination to perceive approaching motion. We achieved this aim by probing a facing-the-viewer bias (FTV bias)...
2018: PloS One
Annis Lai Chu Fung, Toney Ka Hung Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effectiveness of Chinese martial arts in reducing reactive and proactive aggressive behavior among schoolchildren with a cluster-randomized trial. METHODS: A screening questionnaire was completed by 3511 schoolchildren of Grades 2 to 5 from 13 sites in Hong Kong. We shortlisted 298 children who scored z ≥ 1 on the total score of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in their respective sites to participate in the experiment...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Mark D Bowren, Katie E Croft, Justin Reber, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: A well-documented effect of focal ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) damage is a deficit in real-world decision making. An important aspect of this deficit may be a deficiency in "internal consistency" during social decision making-that is, impaired congruence between expressed preferences versus actual behavioral choices. An example of low internal consistency would be if one expressed the desire to marry someone with impeccable moral character, yet proceeded to marry someone convicted of multiple felonies...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
Viviana Alvarez-Toro, Cesar A Lopez-Morales
Despite the existence of important safeguards in our criminal legal system, innocent suspects often succumb to forceful and deceptive interrogation techniques. Among those over-represented members of the false confessor population are minors, people with cognitive and intellectual disabilities, and those with psychiatric disorders. Some of the confessions made by these at-risk populations can hardly be considered voluntary or reliable, but they are generally admitted at trial, regardless of their prejudicial effect...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Juan Antonio Vera-Sánchez, Carmen Ruiz-Morales, Antonio González-López
PURPOSE: To provide a multi-stage model to calculate uncertainty in radiochromic film dosimetry with Monte-Carlo techniques. This new approach is applied to single-channel and multichannel algorithms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two lots of Gafchromic EBT3 are exposed in two different Varian linacs. They are read with an EPSON V800 flatbed scanner. The Monte-Carlo techniques in uncertainty analysis provide a numerical representation of the probability density functions of the output magnitudes...
March 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Andrew Miles, Laura Upenieks
Most research on moral identities conceptualizes morality exclusively in terms of care and justice, but work from across the social sciences indicates that these represent only a corner of the moral landscape. Emphasizing care and justice alone severely restricts the scope of moral identity models, and risks under-estimating the influence of moral self-processes. To address this, we develop and validate measures of moral identity focused on group loyalty, authority, and purity, three additional facets of morality highlighted in Moral Foundations Theory...
May 2018: Social Science Research
Angela M Simmons, Felecia M Rivers, Sandi Gordon, Linda H Yoder
BACKGROUND: Military nurses provide care to seriously injured service members in flight, on the ground, or at sea during transport from the point of injury to a facility capable of providing higher levels of care. From this experience nurses are at increased risk of developing negative behavioral health symptoms. Spirituality, a belief in someone or something greater than oneself, could provide behavioral health support for military nurses who serve in this role. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of spirituality on the behavioral health of nurses who provided en route care while deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan...
April 2018: Critical Care Nurse
David Alberto Rodríguez Medina, Benjamín Domínguez Trejo, Patricia Cortés Esteban, Irving Armando Cruz Albarrán, Luis Alberto Morales Hernández, Gerardo Leija Alva
Background : Recent research has evaluated psychological and biological characteristics associated with pain in survivors of breast cancer (BC). Few studies consider their relationship with inflammatory activity. Voluntary facial expressions modify the autonomic activity and this may be useful in the hospital environment for clinical biopsychosocial assessment of pain. Methods: This research compared a BC survivors group under integral treatment (Oncology, Psychology, Nutrition) with a control group to assess the intensity of pain, behavioral interference, anxiety, depression, temperament-expression, anger control, social isolation, emotional regulation, and alexithymia and inflammatory activity, with salivary interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
March 30, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Jerome Kagan
This article discusses three major, but related, controversies surrounding the idea of morality. Is the complete pattern of features defining human morality unique to this species? How context dependent are moral beliefs and the emotions that often follow a violation of a moral standard? What developmental sequence establishes a moral code? This essay suggests that human morality rests on a combination of cognitive and emotional processes that are missing from the repertoires of other species. Second, the moral evaluation of every behavior, whether by self or others, depends on the agent, the action, the target of the behavior, and the context...
March 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Jordan W Moon, Jaimie Arona Krems, Adam B Cohen
Religious people are more trusted than nonreligious people. Although most theorists attribute these perceptions to the beliefs of religious targets, religious individuals also differ in behavioral ways that might cue trust. We examined whether perceivers might trust religious targets more because they heuristically associate religion with slow life-history strategies. In three experiments, we found that religious targets are viewed as slow life-history strategists and that these findings are not the result of a universally positive halo effect; that the effect of target religion on trust is significantly mediated by the target's life-history traits (i...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Nydia Morales-Soto, Sage J B Dunham, Nameera F Baig, Joseph F Ellis, Chinedu S Madukoma, Paul W Bohn, Jonathan V Sweedler, Joshua D Shrout
There is a general lack of understanding about how communities of bacteria respond to exogenous toxins such as antibiotics. Most of our understanding of community-level stress responses comes from the study of stationary biofilm communities. Although several community behaviors and production of specific biomolecules affecting biofilm development and associated behavior have been described for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria, we have little appreciation for the production and dispersal of secreted metabolites within the 2D and 3D spaces they occupy as they colonize, spread, and grow on surfaces...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sebastian Boltana, Nataly Sanhueza, Andrea Donoso, Andrea Aguilar, Diego Crespo, Daniela Vergara, Gabriel Arriagada, Byron Morales-Lange, Luis Mercado, Sonia Rey, Lluis Tort, Simon Mackenzie
A fever, or increased body temperature, is a symptom of inflammation, which is a complex defence reaction of the organism to pathogenic infections. After pathogens enter the body, immune cells secrete a number of agents, the functions of which stimulate the body to develop a functional immune and fever response. In mammals it is known that PGE2 is the principal mediator of fever. The extent to which PGE2 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-1β could be involved in the induction of behavioural fever in fish remains to be clarified...
March 21, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Aaron Metzger, Lauren M Alvis, Benjamin Oosterhoff, Elizabeth Babskie, Amy Syvertsen, Laura Wray-Lake
Civic developmental theory anticipates connections between normative developmental competencies and civic engagement, but little previous research has directly studied such links. The current study sought to contribute to civic development theory by examining associations between emotional and sociocognitive competencies (empathy, emotion regulation, prosocial moral reasoning, future-orientation) and civic engagement (volunteering, informal helping, political behaviors and beliefs, environmental behaviors, social responsibility values, civic skills)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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