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moral behavior

Selma Carolin Rudert, Daniela Sutter, Veronique Charlotte Corrodi, Rainer Greifeneder
When observing an ostracism episode, observers may wish to know whether ostracism is justified or not. If ostracism appears unjustified, observers will likely blame the sources and sympathize with the target; if it appears justified, observers will likely blame and devalue the target. Here we introduce the "social dissimilarity rule," which holds that observers base their moral judgments on dissimilarities between the members of the observed group. In five studies, participants either recalled observed ostracism episodes or observed group interactions in which one group member was ostracized (e...
July 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Joseph Billingsley, Debra Lieberman, Joshua M Tybur
Why is disgust sensitivity associated with socially conservative political views? Is it because socially conservative ideologies mitigate the risks of infectious disease, whether by promoting out-group avoidance or by reinforcing norms that sustain antipathogenic practices? Or might it be because socially conservative ideologies promote moral standards that advance a long-term, as opposed to a short-term, sexual strategy? Recent attempts to test these two explanations have yielded differing results and conflicting interpretations...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Xiaoping Ying, Jing Luo, Chi-Yue Chiu, Yanhong Wu, Yan Xu, Jin Fan
The insula is thought to be involved in disgust. However, the roles of the posterior insula (PI) and anterior insula (AI) in moral disgust have not been clearly dissociated in previous studies. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, the participants evaluated the degree of disgust using sentences related to mild moral violations with different types of behavioral agents (mother and stranger). The activation of the PI in response to the stranger agent was significantly higher than that in response to the mother agent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
A DeSmet, S Bastiaensens, K Van Cleemput, K Poels, H Vandebosch, G Deboutte, L Herrewijn, S Malliet, S Pabian, F Van Broeckhoven, O De Troyer, G Deglorie, S Van Hoecke, K Samyn, I De Bourdeaudhuij
.This paper describes the items, scale validity and scale reliability of a self-report questionnaire that measures bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents among adolescents, and its behavioral determinants. Determinants included behavioral intention, behavioral attitudes, moral disengagement attitudes, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, subjective norm and social skills. Questions also assessed (cyber-)bullying involvement. Validity and reliability information is based on a sample of 238 adolescents (M age=13...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Md Razwan Hasan Khan Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan Chowdhury, Russell Kabir, Nirmala K P Perera, Manzur Kader
Objectives: Anecdotal reports from Bangladesh indicated that some young adults were becoming addicted to online pornography similar to how others become addicted to gambling, drugs, and alcohol. Such behaviors can have social, academic, and behavioral implications in this population. This study investigated the association between consumption of online pornography and sociobehavioral patterns among students from a private university in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 299 undergraduate students (70...
May 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
Wan Ding, Yanhong Shao, Binghai Sun, Ruibo Xie, Weijian Li, Xiaozhen Wang
Prior research has shown that moral judgment, moral elevation, and moral identity contribute to prosocial behavior. However, how these three motivating factors interact in predicting prosocial behaviors is not yet clear. The current study proposed and examined a moderated mediation model to illustrate the specific process of how prosocial behavior is motivated by these factors. A total of 264 Chinese undergraduate and graduate students participated in the present study (140 females; age range 17-26, M = 20...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mariola Paruzel-Czachura, Małgorzata Dobrowolska
Background: The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that additional information about the perpetrator responsible for the death of subordinates at the workplace may influence the assessment of morality. The article contains the results of an empirical study conducted among young adult working Silesians (N = 262), who were asked to evaluate the morality of the person responsible for the decision, in line with which miners had started working on 6th October 2014. On that day miners died following an explosion in the “Mysłowice-Wesoła” methane mine in the Polish Silesia region...
May 22, 2018: Medycyna Pracy
Benjamin Buttlar, Eva Walther
Meat consumption elicits highly ambivalent feelings. On the one hand, it is associated with sensory pleasure and tradition; on the other hand, it is linked to moral, ecological, and health-related issues. This conflict is referred to as the meat paradox and it is hypothesized that people who experience the meat paradox resolve resulting discomfort by moral disengagement. However, ambivalence-a central process variable underlying the meat paradox-has never been measured directly, and theorizing on the meat paradox, so far, remains rather elusive...
June 6, 2018: Appetite
Oriel FeldmanHall, A Ross Otto, Elizabeth A Phelps
There is little consensus about how moral values are learned. Using a novel social learning task, we examine whether vicarious learning impacts moral values-specifically fairness preferences-during decisions to restore justice. In both laboratory and Internet-based experimental settings, we employ a dyadic justice game where participants receive unfair splits of money from another player and respond resoundingly to the fairness violations by exhibiting robust nonpunitive, compensatory behavior (baseline behavior)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Manuel Schaper, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: Commercial genetic testing offered over the internet, known as direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), currently is under ethical attack. A common critique aims at the limited validation of the tests as well as the risk of psycho-social stress or adaption of incorrect behavior by users triggered by misleading health information. Here, we examine in detail the specific role of advertising communication of DTC GT companies from a medical ethical perspective. Our argumentative analysis departs from the starting point that DTC GT operates at the intersection of two different contexts: medicine on the one hand and the market on the other...
June 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Longjian Liu, Xiaoyan Yin, Ming Chen, Hong Jia, Howard J Eisen, Albert Hofman
Background and objectives: Studies that examined geographic variation in heart failure (HF) and its association with risk factors at county and state levels were limited. This study aimed to test a hypothesis that HF mortality is disproportionately distributed across the United States, and this variation is significantly associated with the county- and state-level prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity. Methods: Data from 1,723 counties in 51 states (including District of Columbia as a state) on the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, HBP and diabetes in 2010, and age-adjusted HF mortality in 2013-2015 are examined...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Maite Garaigordobil, Vanesa Martínez-Valderrey
Bullying and cyberbullying have serious consequences for all those involved, especially the victims, and its prevalence is high throughout all the years of schooling, which emphasizes the importance of prevention. This article describes an intervention proposal, made up of a program (Cyberprogram 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2014a) and a videogame (Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2016b) which aims to prevent and reduce cyberbullying during adolescence and which has been validated experimentally...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Roberta Fida, Carlo Tramontano, Marinella Paciello, Chiara Guglielmetti, Silvia Gilardi, Tahira M Probst, Claudio Barbaranelli
Workplace aggression is a critical phenomenon particularly in the healthcare sector, where nurses are especially at risk of bullying and third-party aggression. While workplace aggression has been frequently examined in relation to health problems, less is known about the possible negative impact such aggression may have on the (un)ethical behavior of victims. Our research aims to fill this gap. Drawing on literature on counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and the social-cognitive literature on aggression we investigated in two independent studies ( N Study1 = 439; N Study2 = 416), the role of negative emotions - in particular anger, fear, and sadness, - and of moral disengagement (MD) in the paths between workplace aggression, CWB and health symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Cristina Scarpazza, Ambrogio Pennati, Giuseppe Sartori
A 60 plus-year-old male was charged with pedophilia for forcing a child to touch him inappropriately near a primary school fence. In another case, a 70 plus-year-old male was charged with pedophilia for intimately touching a boy in a cinema. What led them to manifest this socially-inappropriate and legally-relevant behavior? Is there an explanation for the sexually-related behavioral changes emerging late in life of these two men? Indeed, a common point exists between the two men: both were found to suffer from highly-disabling neurological conditions, known to have a potential effect on social behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ali Janati, Edris Hasanpoor, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani
Purpose Hospital manager decisions can have a significant impact on service effectiveness and hospital success, so using an evidence-based approach can improve hospital management. The purpose of this paper is to identify evidence-based management (EBMgt) components and challenges. Consequently, the authors provide an improving evidence-based decision-making framework. Design/methodology/approach A total of 45 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2016. The authors also established three focus group discussions with health service managers...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Adriana B Cesari, Natalia S Paulucci, María A Biasutti, Gustavo M Morales, Marta S Dardanelli
We evaluate the behavior of the membrane of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 during adaptation to polyethylene glycol (PEG). A dehydrating effect on the morphology of the cell surface, as well as a fluidizing effect on the membrane was observed 10 min after PEG shock; however, the bacteria were able to restore optimal membrane fluidity. Shock for 1 h caused an increase of lysophosphatidylethanolamine in the outer membrane at the expense of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, through an increase in phospholipase activity...
June 1, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Cynthia M Clark, Katy Ritter
BACKGROUND: Incivility in academic workplaces can have detrimental effects on individuals, teams, departments, and the campus community at large. Alternately, healthy academic workplaces generate heightened levels of employee satisfaction, engagement, and morale. METHOD: This article describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive, legally defensible policy related to workplace civility and the establishment of a healthy academic work environment...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Gerard Hastings
We have discovered the elixir of life. For the first time in human existence we now know how we can avoid disease, make our lives healthier and more fulfilled, and even fend off the grim reaper himself (at least for a while). We may not have joined the immortals - many traps and snares continue to prey on us - but we are beginning to learn some of their secrets. Why then are we failing to grasp these heady opportunities? WHO data show that nine out of ten of we Europeans are dying of lifestyle diseases; that is diseases caused by our own choices - self-inflicted diseases...
June 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
N Gómez-Cerezo, L Casarrubios, I Morales, M J Feito, M Vallet-Regí, D Arcos, M T Portolés
A mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) of molar composition 75SiO2 -20CaO-5P2 O5 (MBG-75S) has been synthetized as a potential bioceramic for bone regeneration purposes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nitrogen adsorption studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that MBG-75S possess a highly ordered mesoporous structure with high surface area and porosity, which would explain the high ionic exchange rate (mainly calcium and silicon soluble species) with the surrounded media...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Randi G Sokol, Allen F Shaughnessy
INTRODUCTION: Continuing medical information courses have been criticized for not promoting behavior change among their participants. For behavior change to occur, participants often need to consciously reject previous ideas and transform their way of thinking. Transformational learning is a process that cultivates deep emotional responses and can lead to cognitive and behavioral change in learners, potentially facilitating rich learning experiences and expediting knowledge translation...
April 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
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