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moral behavior

Youlong Zhan, Xiao Xiao, Jin Li, Lei Liu, Jie Chen, Wei Fan, Yiping Zhong
Interpersonal relationship (IR) may play an important role in moral decision-making. However, it is little known about how IR influences neural and behavioral responses during moral decision-making. The present study utilized the dilemma scenario-priming paradigm to examine the time course of the different intimate IR (friend, acquaintance, or stranger) impacts on the emotional and cognitive processes during moral decision-making. Results showed that participants made less altruistic decisions with increased decision times and experienced more unpleasure for strangers versus friends and acquaintances...
February 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Idaira Pacheco-Fernández, Verónica Pino, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Juan H Ayala, Ana M Afonso
A novel ionic liquid (IL)-based microextraction method has been developed for the determination of four hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs) in urine samples. The water soluble IL-based surfactant selected as extraction solvent is decylguanidinium chloride (C10 Gu-Cl), the cytotoxicity and micellar behavior of which were evaluated. The proposed salt-induced IL-based preconcentration method simply consists in adding NaClO4 to the aqueous medium containing the IL to promote its water insolubility...
February 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Terry L Smith
Beginning in the 1950s, B. F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Aimee van Wynsberghe, Scott Robbins
Many industry leaders and academics from the field of machine ethics would have us believe that the inevitability of robots coming to have a larger role in our lives demands that robots be endowed with moral reasoning capabilities. Robots endowed in this way may be referred to as artificial moral agents (AMA). Reasons often given for developing AMAs are: the prevention of harm, the necessity for public trust, the prevention of immoral use, such machines are better moral reasoners than humans, and building these machines would lead to a better understanding of human morality...
February 19, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Teresa Shamah-Levy, Lucía Cuevas-Nasu, Luz María Gómez-Acosta, Ma Del Carmen Morales-Ruan, Ignacio Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Mara Nadiezhda Robles-Villaseñor, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of Education in Nutrition and Food Assistance components of the SaludArte program in participant schools during 2013-2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three cohort comparative study was used, with two type of follow-up panel structures: a complete panel and a continuous time, with a total of consisting on 1620 scholar children from 144 schools. Information on food intake, feeding behaviors, food preservation and hygiene, physical activity (PI) and anthropometry was registered...
November 2017: Salud Pública de México
Rachel Baumsteiger, Jason T Siegel
Prosociality is a critical issue in behavioral research. In this investigation, we developed a measure of prosocial behavioral intentions. Qualitative responses from two surveys (n = 465) and items from existing measures were used to generate a list of prosocial behaviors in which people might intend to engage. We factor analyzed responses to these items (n = 319) and retained the most common and representative items. The new measure demonstrated adequate internal consistency (n = 247, 147; α = .81, .83); convergent validity with past prosocial behavior (r = ...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Kelsey Lucca, Jacqueline Pospisil, Jessica A Sommerville
The ability to reason about fairness plays a defining role in the development of morality. Thus, researchers have long been interested in understanding when and how a sensitivity to fairness first develops. Here, we examined infants' ability to use fairness information in selecting social partners. Using a novel experimental paradigm that combined pre-recorded stimuli with an active behavioral measure, we tested whether infants preferred to socially engage with an individual they had previously seen behave fairly or unfairly...
2018: PloS One
Tomas Bonavia, Josué Brox-Ponce
The role played by the emotion of shame in the area of decision-making in situations of risk has hardly been studied. In this article, we show how the socio-moral emotions and the anticipated feeling of shame associated with different options can determine our decisions, even overriding the cognitive choice tendency proposed by the certainty effect. To do so, we carried out an experiment with university students as participants, dividing them into four experimental conditions. Our findings suggest that people avoid making unethical decisions, both when these decisions are made public to others and when they remain in the private sphere...
2018: PloS One
Fernando Vidal, Huina Lin, Cecilia Morales, Frieder Jäkle
The use of thermo-reversible Lewis Pair (LP) interactions in the formation of transient polymer networks is still greatly underexplored. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane/polystyrene (PDMS/PS) blends that form dynamic Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts resulting in reversible crosslinks. Linear PS containing 10 mol % of di-2-thienylboryl pendant groups randomly distributed was obtained in a two-step one-pot functionalization reaction from silyl-functionalized PS, while ditelechelic PDMS with pyridyl groups at the chain-termini was directly obtained via thiol-ene "click" chemistry from commercially available vinyl-terminated PDMS...
February 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Glenn N Saxe, Daniel Calderone, Leah J Morales
Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability...
2018: PloS One
Jessica A Sommerville, Elizabeth A Enright
Concerns about fairness are central to mature moral judgments. We review research regarding the origins of a sensitivity to distributive fairness, and how it relates to early sharing. Infants' sensitivity to fairness appears to be commensurate with that of school-age children: infants notice violations to fairness norms and evaluate individuals based on their fair or unfair behavior. However, it may differ in other ways: there is no evidence that infants punish unfair individuals. Sharing behavior plays a role in both the developmental emergence of, and subsequent individual differences in, infants' fairness concerns...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Luis Romero-Morales, Martín Martínez-Torres, Mario Cárdenas, Carmen Álvarez, Agustín Carmona, Benita Cedillo, Loya-Zurita Eduardo, Juana Luis
In the dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli), activational effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) in the regulation of paternal behavior have been repeatedly rejected because peripheral concentrations of E2 do not change across the reproductive cycle of males. Further, castration no affected paternal behavior despite that both T and E2 concentrations decreased significantly. However, the role of these hormones has not been evaluated in models of castration and hormonal replacement in virgin males. Here, we analysed the effects of E2 and T in paternal behavior in virgin male dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli)...
February 6, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Juan F Díaz-Morales, Zaida Parra-Robledo
Work psychology has noted the importance of considering the temporal dimension of behavior in organizations. Given that society widely operates on a 24-hr schedule, it is important to know how circadian typologies are distributed in the general population. In this study, diurnal preference was analyzed among 4,175 Spanish participants (61.3% women), 12-59 years old, who completed the Composite Scale of Morningness (Smith, Reilly, & Midkiff, 1989). Several measurement models of the CSM were analyzed using exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
M L Martinez-Fierro, G P Hernández-Delgadillo, V Flores-Morales, E Cardenas-Vargas, M Mercado-Reyes, I P Rodriguez-Sanchez, I Delgado-Enciso, C E Galván-Tejada, J I Galván-Tejada, J M Celaya-Padilla, I Garza-Veloz
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complex disease, distinguished by high blood pressure and proteinuria, diagnosed after the 20th gestation week. Depending on the values of blood pressure, urine protein concentrations, symptomatology, and onset of disease there is a wide range of phenotypes, from mild forms developing predominantly at the end of pregnancy to severe forms developing in the early stage of pregnancy. In the worst cases severe forms of PE could lead to systemic endothelial dysfunction, eclampsia, and maternal and/or fetal death...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jackson G Lu, Julia J Lee, Francesca Gino, Adam D Galinsky
Air pollution is a serious problem that affects billions of people globally. Although the environmental and health costs of air pollution are well known, the present research investigates its ethical costs. We propose that air pollution can increase criminal and unethical behavior by increasing anxiety. Analyses of a 9-year panel of 9,360 U.S. cities found that air pollution predicted six major categories of crime; these analyses accounted for a comprehensive set of control variables (e.g., city and year fixed effects, population, law enforcement) and survived various robustness checks (e...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Joshua B Grubbs, Samuel L Perry
Internet pornography use (IPU) remains a controversial topic within sexual behavior research fields. Whereas some people report feeling dysregulated in their use of pornography, mental health and medical communities are divided as to whether IPU can be addictive. The present review sought to examine this issue more closely, with a focus on how variables other than pornography use, such as moral disapproval and moral incongruence (i.e., feeling as if one's behaviors and one's values about those behaviors are misaligned), might specifically contribute to self-perceived problems around pornography use...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Bianca Brijnath, Josefine Antoniades
This article applies the framework of moral experience to examine the cultural experience of stigma with Indian-Australians and Anglo-Australians living with depression in Melbourne, Australia. To date few studies have examined this dynamic in relation to mental illness and culture, and no studies have applied this framework in a culturally comparative way. Based on 58 in-depth interviews with people with depression recruited from the community, we explicate how stigma modulates what is at stake upon disclosure of depression, participants' lived experience following that disclosure, and how practices of health-seeking become stigmatised...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Lydia Whitaker, Stephen L Brown, Bridget Young, Richard Fereday, Sarah M Coyne, Pamela Qualter
Laboratory studies of alcohol-inexperienced adolescents show that aggression can be primed by alcohol-related stimuli, suggesting that alcohol-related aggression is partly socially learned. Script theory proposes that alcohol-related aggression 'scripts' for social behaviors are culturally-available and learned by individuals. The purpose of the study was to understand the content and origins of alcohol-related aggression scripts learned by adolescents. This qualitative focus group study of 40 adolescents (ages 14-16 years) examined alcohol-related aggression scripts...
2018: PloS One
Michał Misiak, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski
People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles...
February 2, 2018: Appetite
Tania Molina-Jiménez, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime
Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior...
January 31, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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