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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077830/-path-analysis-of-the-influence-of-hospital-ethical-climate-perceived-by-nurses-on-supervisor-trust-and-organizational-effectiveness
#1
Yoon Goo Noh, Myun Sook Jung
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the paths of influence that a hospital's ethical climate exerts on nurses' organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior, with supervisor trust as the mediating factor, and verify compatibility of the models in hospital nurses. METHODS: The sample consisted of 374 nurses recruited from four hospitals in 3 cities in Korea. The measurements included the Ethical Climate Questionnaire, Supervisor Trust Questionnaire, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058240/factors-influencing-exclusive-breastfeeding-among-iranian-mothers-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#2
Mohsen Saffari, Amir H Pakpour, Hui Chen
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047960/tu-b-206-02-on-the-algorithmic-approach-to-ethical-conduct
#3
G Sherouse
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047387/tu-b-206-00-do-the-right-thing
#4
Jeffrey Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046722/tu-b-206-01-navigating-the-black-white-and-gray
#5
J Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045278/corporate-personhood-lay-perceptions-and-ethical-consequences
#6
Arthur S Jago, Kristin Laurin
Modern conceptions of corporate personhood have spurred considerable debate about the rights that society should afford business organizations. Across eight experiments, we compare lay perceptions of how corporations and people use rights, and also explore the with consequences of these judgments. We find that people believe corporations, compared to humans, are similarly likely to use rights in protective ways that prevent harm but more likely to use rights in nonprotective ways that appear independent from-or even create-harm (Experiments 1a through 1c and Experiment 2)...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039957/social-responsibility-and-the-state-s-duty-to-provide-healthcare-an-islamic-ethico-legal-perspective
#7
Aasim I Padela
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes...
December 30, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035522/analysis-of-gene-candidate-snp-and-ancestral-origin-associated-to-obesity-and-postoperative-weight-loss-in-a-cohort-of-obese-patients-undergoing-rygb
#8
David Velázquez-Fernández, Gabriela Mercado-Celis, Jeny Flores-Morales, Diana Clavellina-Gaytán, Ramón Vidrio, Eduardo Vidrio, Maureen Mosti, Hugo Sánchez-Aguilar, Donaji Rodriguez, Pablo León, Miguel F Herrera
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is the result of a complex interaction between multiple genetic traits and psychological, behavioral, nutritional and environmental factors. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were (a) to comparatively evaluate the presence of 20 candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in morbidly obese patients, (2) their association to comorbid conditions and (3) their impact on weight loss after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty-nine patients were eligible for this study...
December 29, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033714/scholars-open-debate-paper-on-the-world-health-organization-icd-11-gaming-disorder-proposal
#9
Espen Aarseth, Anthony M Bean, Huub Boonen, Michelle Colder Carras, Mark Coulson, Dimitri Das, Jory Deleuze, Elza Dunkels, Johan Edman, Christopher J Ferguson, Maria C Haagsma, Karin Helmersson Bergmark, Zaheer Hussain, Jeroen Jansz, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Lawrence Kutner, Patrick Markey, Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, Nicole Prause, Andrew Przybylski, Thorsten Quandt, Adriano Schimmenti, Vladan Starcevic, Gabrielle Stutman, Jan Van Looy, Antonius J Van Rooij
Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033574/evaluation-of-a-hollow-fiber-supported-liquid-membrane-device-as-a-chemical-surrogate-for-the-measurements-of-zinc-ii-bioavailability-using-two-microalgae-strains-as-biological-references
#10
Erik A Rodríguez-Morales, Eduardo Rodríguez de San Miguel, Josefina de Gyves
The environmental bioavailability of zinc (II), i.e., the uptake of the element by an organism, was determined using two microalgae species, Scenedesmus acutus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and estimated using hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HF-SLM) device as the chemical surrogate. Several experimental conditions were studied including the presence of organic matter, inorganic anions and concomitant cations and pH. The results show strong positive correlation coefficients between the responses given by the HF-SLM and the microalgae species (r = 0...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032773/the-dark-side-of-going-abroad-how-broad-foreign-experiences-increase-immoral-behavior
#11
Jackson G Lu, Jordi Quoidbach, Francesca Gino, Alek Chakroff, William W Maddux, Adam D Galinsky
Because of the unprecedented pace of globalization, foreign experiences are increasingly common and valued. Past research has focused on the benefits of foreign experiences, including enhanced creativity and reduced intergroup bias. In contrast, the present work uncovers a potential dark side of foreign experiences: increased immoral behavior. We propose that broad foreign experiences (i.e., experiences in multiple foreign countries) foster not only cognitive flexibility but also moral flexibility. Using multiple methods (longitudinal, correlational, and experimental), 8 studies (N > 2,200) establish that broad foreign experiences can lead to immoral behavior by increasing moral relativism-the belief that morality is relative rather than absolute...
January 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025015/developmental-trajectories-of-event-related-potentials-related-to-working-memory
#12
Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Antonio Arjona, Manuel Morales, Carlos M Gómez
Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS)...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024438/to-participate-or-not-participate-in-unprofessional-behavior-is-that-the-question
#13
Renato Soleiman Franco, Camila Ament Giuliani Dos Santos Franco, Solena Ziemer Kusma, Milton Severo, Maria Amélia Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Medical education provides students with abundant learning opportunities, each of which is embodied with messages concerning what is expected from students. This paper analyses students? exposure to instances of unprofessional behavior, investigating whether they judge such behavior to be unprofessional and whether they also participate in unprofessional behavior. METHODS: The survey developed in the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago was the basis of this questionnaire that was answered by 276 students from two medical schools in Brazil and Portugal...
December 26, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018786/chinese-insurance-agents-in-bad-barrels-a-multilevel-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-ethical-leadership-ethical-climate-and-business-ethical-sensitivity
#14
Na Zhang, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: The moral hazards and poor public image of the insurance industry, arising from insurance agents' unethical behavior, affect both the normal operation of an insurance company and decrease applicants' confidence in the company. Contrarily, these scandals may demonstrate that the organizations were "bad barrels" in which insurance agents' unethical decisions were supported or encouraged by the organization's leadership or climate. OBJECTIVE: The present study brings two organization-level factors (ethical leadership and ethical climate) together and explores the role of ethical climate on the relationship between the ethical leadership and business ethical sensitivity of Chinese insurance agents...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013450/post-implant-analysis-of-epidemiologic-and-eating-behavior-data-related-to-weight-loss-effectiveness-in-obese-patients-treated-with-gastric-electrical-stimulation
#15
I Alarcón Del Agua, M Socas-Macias, L Busetto, A Torres-Garcia, A Barranco-Moreno, P P Garcia de Luna, S Morales-Conde
OBJECTIVE: To determine possible preoperative predictors for obtaining clinically meaningful weight loss with gastric electrical stimulation (GES) using the "Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire" (TFEQ) as well as epidemiological data. METHODS: Ninety-seven obese participants in a prospective multicenter randomized study conducted in nine European centers were implanted laparoscopically with the abiliti® closed-loop GES system (CLGES). Five clinical variables and three preoperative TFEQ factor scores (F1-cognitive-restraint, F2-disinhibition, and F3-hunger) were analyzed in order to determine predictors of weight loss success defined as excess weight loss (EWL) > 30% and failure defined as EWL < 20% at 12 months post-surgery...
December 24, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011725/indoor-resting-behavior-of-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-in-acapulco-mexico
#16
Felipe Dzul-Manzanilla, Jésus Ibarra-López, Wilbert Bibiano Marín, Andrés Martini-Jaimes, Joel Torres Leyva, Fabián Correa-Morales, Herón Huerta, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Gonzalo Vazquez M Prokopec
The markedly anthropophilic and endophilic behaviors of Aedes aegypti (L.) make it a very efficient vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Although a large body of research has investigated the immature habitats and conditions for adult emergence, relatively few studies have focused on the indoor resting behavior and distribution of vectors within houses. We investigated the resting behavior of Ae. aegypti indoors in 979 houses of the city of Acapulco, Mexico, by performing exhaustive indoor mosquito collections to describe the rooms and height at which mosquitoes were found resting...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010161/convention-versus-deviance-moral-agency-in-adolescent-gang-members-decision-making
#17
Julia Dickson-Gomez, Maria Pacella, Michelle Renee Broaddus, Katherine Quinn, Carol Galletly, Justin Rivas
BACKGROUND: Adolescent gang members are a source of concern due to their involvement in criminal activity, violence, substance use, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Adolescent gang theories hypothesize that social institutions, including the family and school, fail to meet the needs of adolescents who therefore feel less attachment to these institutions and find an unconventional institution (i.e. the gang) to meet these needs through the gang. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we will examine the extent to which social disorganization and social control theories, in particular the rejection of conventional norms and aspirations, match adolescents' subjective reasons for their decisions and their future aspirations...
December 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982418/a-developmental-neuroscience-study-of-moral-decision-making-regarding-resource-allocation
#18
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Melanie Killen, Jean Decety
Distinguishing between equity and equality is essential when making social and moral decisions, yet the related neurodevelopmental processes are unknown. Evaluations of contextually based third-party distributions incorporating recipient need and resource importance were examined in children and adolescents (N = 82; 8-16 years). Spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses show distinct developmental profiles to viewing such distributions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) differentially predicted real-life behaviors based on age, where older children's (8-10 years) evaluations were related to a fairly rapid, automatic ERP component (early posterior negativity), whereas adolescent and preadolescent (11-16 years) evaluations, first-person allocations, and prosocial behaviors were predicted by later, cognitively controlled ERP components (P3 and late positive potential)...
December 16, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982309/experiences-and-coping-with-the-altered-body-image-in-digestive-stoma-patients
#19
César Hueso-Montoro, Candela Bonill-de-Las-Nieves, Miriam Celdrán-Mañas, Sandra Milena Hernández-Zambrano, Manuel Amezcua-Martínez, José Miguel Morales-Asencio
Objective: to describe the coping of stoma patients with the news about the ostomy, as well as to analyze the meaning and the experience of their new bodily reality. Method: qualitative phenomenological study undertaken through semistructured interviews with 21 stoma patients. The analysis was based on the constant comparison of the data, the progressive incorporation of subjects and triangulation among researchers and stomal therapy nurses. The software Atlas.ti was used...
December 8, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957287/the-doctor-patient-relationship-toward-a-conceptual-re-examination
#20
Hamidreza Namazi, Kiarash Aramesh, Bagher Larijani
The nature of the doctor-patient relationship as a keystone of care necessitates philosophical, psychological and sociological considerations. The present study investigates concepts related to these three critical views considered especially important. From the philosophical viewpoint, the three concepts of "the demands of ethics "," ethical phenomenology and "the philosophy of the relationship" are of particular importance. From a psychological point of view, the five concepts of "communication behavior patterns" (including submissiveness, dominance, aggression, and assertiveness), "psychic distance", "emotional quotient", "conflict between pain relief and truth-telling", and "body language" have received specific emphasis...
2016: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
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