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moral behavior

Richard A I Bethlehem, Carrie Allison, Emma M van Andel, Alexander I Coles, Kym Neil, Simon Baron-Cohen
Why do people act altruistically? One theory is that empathy is a driver of morality. Experimental studies of this are often confined to laboratory settings, which often lack ecological validity. In the present study we investigated whether empathy traits predict if people will act altruistically in a real-world setting, 'in the wild'. We staged a situation in public that was designed to elicit helping, and subsequently measured empathic traits in those who either stopped to help or walked past and did not help...
October 19, 2016: Social Neuroscience
J M Parrott, L Redus, D Santana-Coelho, J Morales, X Gao, J C O'Connor
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has an important role in mediating the behavioral effects of inflammation, which has implications in understanding neuropsychiatric comorbidity and for the development of novel therapies. Inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prevents the development of many of these inflammation-induced preclinical behaviors. However, dysregulation in the balance of downstream metabolism, where neuroactive kynurenines are generated, is hypothesized to be a functionally important pathogenic feature of inflammation-induced depression...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Virginia Almadana Pacheco, Ana Paulina Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Agustín Valido Morales, Estefanía Luque Crespo, Soledad Monserrat, Teodoro Montemayor Rubio
: There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. METHOD: A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking...
October 7, 2016: Adicciones
Stephan Steidl, Huiling Wang, Marco Ordonez, Shiliang Zhang, Marisela Morales
Converging evidence shows that ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons receive laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs. To test the behavioral consequences of selectively driving the two sources of excitatory LDTg input to the VTA, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed in LDTg cholinergic neurons of ChAT::Cre mice (ChAT-ChR2 mice) or in LDTg glutamatergic neurons of VGluT2::Cre mice (VGluT2-ChR2 mice). Mice were tested in a 3-chamber place preference apparatus where entry into a light-paired chamber resulted in VTA light stimulation of LDTg-cholinergic or LDTg-glutamatergic axons for the duration of a chamber stay...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kate Churruca, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz
Bulimia, an eating disorder that affects more women than men, involves binging and compensatory behaviors. Given the importance of food in experiences of these behaviors, in this article, we examine constructions of food in accounts of bulimic behavior: how these constructions relate to cultural discourses, and their implications for subjectivity. Fifteen women who engaged in bulimic behaviors were interviewed. Through a thematic decomposition of their accounts, we identified six discursive constructions of food: "good/healthy" or "bad/unhealthy," "contaminating body and soul," "collapsed into fat," "pleasurable reward," "comfort," and "fuel for the body...
October 13, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Yochanan E Bigman, Maya Tamir
If good intentions pave the road to hell, what paves the road to heaven? We propose that moral judgments are based, in part, on the degree of effort exerted in performing the immoral or moral act. Because effort can serve as an index of goal importance, greater effort in performing immoral acts would lead to more negative judgments, whereas greater effort in performing moral acts would lead to more positive judgments. In support of these ideas, we found that perceived effort intensified judgments of both immoral (Studies 1-2) and moral (Studies 2-7) agents...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Mark W Bruner, Ian D Boardley, Veronica Allan, Zach Root, Sara Buckham, Chris Forrest, Jean Côté
Social identity - identity formed through membership in groups - may play an important role in regulating intrateam moral behaviour in youth sport (Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., & Côté, J. (2014). Social identity and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 56-64. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.003). The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine this potential role through stimulated recall interviews with competitive youth-ice-hockey players. Twenty-three players (Mage = 13...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mingchang Li, Wei Wang, Haojian Mai, Xinmu Zhang, Jian Wang, Yufeng Gao, Yuefei Wang, Gang Deng, Ling Gao, Shuanhu Zhou, Qianxue Chen, Xin Wang
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant nerve dysfunction, such as hemiplegia, mood disorders, cognitive and memory impairment. Currently, no clear measures can reduce brain nerve damage. The study of brain nerve protection after SAH is of great significance. We aim to evaluate the protective effects and the possible mechanism of methazolamide in C57BL/6J SAH animal model in vivo and in blood-induced primary cortical neuron (PCNs) cellular model of SAH in vitro. We demonstrate that methazolamide accelerates the recovery of neurological damage, effectively relieves cerebral edema, and improves cognitive function in SAH mice as well as offers neuroprotection in blood- or hemoglobin-treated PCNs and partially restores normal neuronal morphology...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marta Villacieros, José Carlos Bermejo, Marisa Magaña, Invención Fernández-Quijano
: The purpose of this study was to analyze psychometric properties of the Spanish version of Attitudinal Beliefs Questionnaire about Suicidal Behavior CCCS-18 (Ruiz, Navarro-Ruiz, Torrente, & Rodríguez, 2005). The participants were 277 subjects, 81.2% (225) women and 18.8% (52) men. The average age was 39.95 years old (SD = 15.9). A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the adequacy of the four-factor model proposed by the authors. As a result it was obtained a three-factor model (χ2/df = 1...
October 11, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Paul J Meza-Morales, Diego A Gómez-Gualdrón, Rodinson R Arrieta-Perez, Arturo J Hernández-Maldonado, Randall Q Snurr, María C Curet-Arana
Aiming to elucidate guest-induced structural changes in the coordination polymer CPL-2, grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were used to predict CO2 loadings in this material, and the results were compared with experimental isotherms. Our calculations suggest that CPL-2 exhibits more pronounced CO2-induced structural changes than previously reported. As the initial evidence, the isotherm simulated in the previously reported CPL-2 structure (experimentally resolved from X-ray diffraction in the "as-synthesized" CPL-2) underestimated the measured CO2 loadings at high pressure, indicating that CPL-2 might undergo structural changes that enable higher pore volumes at high pressure...
October 5, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Douglas S Massey, Jorge Durand, Karen A Pren
In this article we undertake a systematic analysis of why border enforcement backfired as a strategy of immigration control in the United States. We argue theoretically that border enforcement emerged as a policy response to a moral panic about the perceived threat of Latino immigration to the United States propounded by self-interested bureaucrats, politicians, and pundits who sought to mobilize political and material resources for their own benefit. The end result was a self-perpetuating cycle of rising enforcement and increased apprehensions that resulted in the militarization of the border in a way that was disconnected from the actual size of the undocumented flow...
March 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Carl A Latkin, Nguyen Vu Tuyet Mai, Tran Viet Ha, Teerada Sripaipan, Carla Zelaya, Nguyen Le Minh, Giuliana Morales, Vivian F Go
The accuracy of self-report data may be marred by a range of cognitive and motivational biases, including social desirability response bias. The current study used qualitative interviews to examine self-report response biases among participants in a large randomized clinical trial in Vietnam. A sample of study participants was reinterviewed. The vast majority reported being truthful and emphasized the importance of rapport with the study staff for achieving veridical data. However, some stated that rapport may lead to under reporting of risk behaviors in order not to disappoint study staff...
October 2016: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Eric R Igou
Boredom research is booming. Nonetheless, a comprehensive understanding of boredom in relation to other negative emotions is lacking. This ambiguity impedes accurate interpretation of boredom's causes and consequences. To gain more insights into boredom, we examined in detail how it differs from a range of other negative experiences, namely sadness, anger, frustration, fear, disgust, depression, guilt, shame, regret, and disappointment. Our research indicates that the appraisals associated with boredom distinguish it clearly from other negative emotions; conceptually (Study 1), in terms of state experiences (Study 2), and in terms of individual differences in these experiences (Study 3)...
October 6, 2016: Emotion
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Anthony J Gifuni, Adam Kendal, Fabrice Jollant
Guilt is a self-conscious emotion associated with the negative appraisal of one's behavior. In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of guilt, but no meta-analyses have yet identified the most robust activation patterns. A systematic review of literature found 16 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with whole-brain analyses meeting the inclusion criteria, for a total of 325 participants and 135 foci of activation. A meta-analysis was then conducted using activation likelihood estimation...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Cixin Wang, Ji Hoon Ryoo, Susan M Swearer, Rhonda Turner, Taryn S Goldberg
Moral disengagement is a series of cognitive processes used to disengage moral standards to achieve absolved guilt and permit immoral conduct and has been found to be an important connection to bullying and aggressive behaviors among adolescents. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between moral disengagement and bullying behavior among a group of adolescents from fifth grade to ninth grade (n = 1180, mean age = 12.2, SD = 1.29, 46.5 % female, 80.2 % Caucasian/White, 7.1 % Black/African American, 5...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Alexa Gomez, Alexandra N Petrucci, Lauren Dance, Jessica Morales Valenzuela, Nicole Gibbs, Cara C Dahlhausen, Jessica R Villatoro, Russell F Frohardt, Fay A Guarraci
The present study was designed to test the effects of an acute, high dose of methylphenidate (MPH; trademarked as Ritalin) on sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, naturally cycling subjects in estrus were tested for partner preference 20 min after receiving an i.p. injection of MPH 10.0 mg/kg (n=8) or saline (n=7). During the partner-preference test, female subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male stimulus or a sexually receptive female stimulus. Physical contact was limited by placing the stimulus animals behind a wire mesh during the no-contact phase of the test, whereas physical contact was not limited during the contact phase...
September 27, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Tatsuya Kameda, Keigo Inukai, Satomi Higuchi, Akitoshi Ogawa, Hackjin Kim, Tetsuya Matsuda, Masamichi Sakagami
Distributive justice concerns the moral principles by which we seek to allocate resources fairly among diverse members of a society. Although the concept of fair allocation is one of the fundamental building blocks for societies, there is no clear consensus on how to achieve "socially just" allocations. Here, we examine neurocognitive commonalities of distributive judgments and risky decisions. We explore the hypothesis that people's allocation decisions for others are closely related to economic decisions for oneself at behavioral, cognitive, and neural levels, via a concern about the minimum, worst-off position...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
William Simkulet
Recently philosophers have proposed a wide variety of interventions referred to as 'moral enhancements'. Some of these interventions are concerned with helping individuals make more informed decisions; others, however, are designed to compel people to act as the intervener sees fit. Somewhere between these two extremes lie interventions designed to direct an agent's attention either towards morally relevant issues - hat-hanging - or away from temptations to do wrong - hat-hiding. I argue that these interventions fail to constitute genuine moral enhancement because, although they may result in more desirable outcomes - more altruism, more law-following, and/or less self-destructive behavior, they ignore a person's intentions, and often what makes an action right or wrong is the intent behind it...
September 30, 2016: Bioethics
Marisol Orozco-Ibarra, Jazmín García-Morales, Francisco José Calvo-Silva, Francisca Fernández-Valverde, Norma Serrano-García
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD). 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a mitochondrial toxin that specifically inhibits complex II of the electron transport chain (ETC) and is used to generate an experimental model of HD. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fish liver oil (FO) over the mitochondrial dysfunction induced via partial ETC inhibition by 3-NP. METHODS: This study was performed in rats and consisted of two phases: (i) administration of increasing doses of 3-NP and (ii) administration of FO for 14 days before to 3-NP...
September 28, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
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