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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028564/assessing-police-officers-attitudes-and-legal-knowledge-on-behaviors-that-impact-hiv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#1
Javier A Cepeda, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jaime Arredondo, Maria L Mittal, Teresita Rocha, Mario Morales, Erika Clairgue, Eliane Bustamante, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Thomas Kerr, Carlos L Magis-Rodriguez, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Policing practices such as syringe confiscation and arrest can act as important social-structural drivers of HIV risk among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, police referral to treatment and other services may improve the health of PWID. Little is known about the role of modifiable attitudinal and knowledge factors in shaping officer behavior. Using baseline findings from a police education program (PEP), we assessed relationships between drug policy knowledge and attitudes towards public health interventions with self-reported syringe confiscation, drug arrest, and service referral among street-level police in Tijuana, Mexico...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024664/the-anterior-insular-cortex%C3%A2-central-amygdala-glutamatergic-pathway-is-critical-to-relapse-after-contingency-management
#2
Marco Venniro, Daniele Caprioli, Michelle Zhang, Leslie R Whitaker, Shiliang Zhang, Brandon L Warren, Carlo Cifani, Nathan J Marchant, Ofer Yizhar, Jennifer M Bossert, Cristiano Chiamulera, Marisela Morales, Yavin Shaham
Despite decades of research on neurobiological mechanisms of psychostimulant addiction, the only effective treatment for many addicts is contingency management, a behavioral treatment that uses alternative non-drug reward to maintain abstinence. However, when contingency management is discontinued, most addicts relapse to drug use. The brain mechanisms underlying relapse after cessation of contingency management are largely unknown, and, until recently, an animal model of this human condition did not exist...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018370/empathic-and-self-regulatory-processes-governing-doping-behavior
#3
Ian D Boardley, Alan L Smith, John P Mills, Jonathan Grix, Ceri Wynne
Evidence associating doping behavior with moral disengagement (MD) has accumulated over recent years. However, to date, research examining links between MD and doping has not considered key theoretically grounded influences and outcomes of MD. As such, there is a need for quantitative research in relevant populations that purposefully examines the explanatory pathways through which MD is thought to operate. Toward this end, the current study examined a conceptually grounded model of doping behavior that incorporated empathy, doping self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), doping MD, anticipated guilt and self-reported doping/doping susceptibility...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992273/neural-correlates-of-moral-judgment-in-pedophilia
#4
Claudia Massau, Christian Kärgel, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Tillmann Hc Krueger, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment paradigm consisting of 36 scenarios describing different types of offenses...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983952/general-and-professional-values-of-student-nurses-and-nurse-educators
#5
Olga Riklikiene, Laima Karosas, Snieguole Kaseliene
AIM: To explore and compare the self-reported general and professional values in undergraduate student nurses and nurse educators in Lithuania. BACKGROUND: Contemporary nursing requires strong moral motivation and clear values as nurses confront many ethical dilemas in their practice. Students acquire essential values of the nursing profession through the appropriate role modeling of their educators. Nursing students seek to become capable in providing ethical and professional patient care while their educators attempt to model desired behaviors...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981466/negative-peer-relationships-on-piracy-behavior-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-associations-between-cyberbullying-involvement-and-digital-piracy
#6
Santiago Yubero, Elisa Larrañaga, Beatriz Villora, Raúl Navarro
The present study examines the relationship between different roles in cyberbullying behaviors (cyberbullies, cybervictims, cyberbullies-victims, and uninvolved) and self-reported digital piracy. In a region of central Spain, 643 (49.3% females, 50.7% males) students (grades 7-10) completed a number of self-reported measures, including cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, self-reported digital piracy, ethical considerations of digital piracy, time spent on the Internet, and leisure activities related with digital content...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974450/acanthamoeba-culbertsoni-isolated-from-a-clinical-case-with-intraocular-dissemination-structure-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-analysis-of-the-interaction-with-hamster-cornea-and-mdck-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#7
Arturo González-Robles, Maritza Omaña-Molina, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Catalina Flores-Maldonado, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, María Reyes-Batlle, Francisco Arnalich-Montiel, Adolfo Martínez-Palomo
Acanthamoeba culbertsoni trophozoites, previously isolated from a human keratitis case with severe intraocular damage, were maintained in axenic culture. Co-incubation of amoebae with MDCK cell monolayers demonstrated an apparent preference of the amoebae to introduce themselves between the cells. The trophozoites appeared to cross the cell monolayer through the tight junctions, which resulted in decreased trans-epithelial resistance (TER) measurements. Unexpectedly, after co-incubation of amoebae with hamster corneas, we observed that the trophozoites were able to cross the different cell layers and reach the corneal stroma after only 12 h of interaction, in contrast to other Acanthamoeba species...
September 30, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974154/-your-brain-matters-issues-of-risk-and-responsibility-in-online-dementia-prevention-information
#8
Michael Lawless, Martha Augoustinos, Amanda LeCouteur
The Internet has been argued to provide diverse sites for health communication and promotion, including issues that constitute major public health priorities such as the prevention of dementia. In this study, discursive psychology is used to examine how information about dementia risk prevention was presented on the websites of the most prominent English-language, nonprofit dementia organizations. We demonstrate how information about dementia risk and its prevention positions audiences as at-risk of developing dementia and constructs preventive behavior as a matter of individual responsibility...
October 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972990/the-moral-foundations-of-illusory-correlation
#9
Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Itxaso Barberia
Previous research has studied the relationship between political ideology and cognitive biases, such as the tendency of conservatives to form stronger illusory correlations between negative infrequent behaviors and minority groups. We further explored these findings by studying the relation between illusory correlation and moral values. According to the moral foundations theory, liberals and conservatives differ in the relevance they concede to different moral dimensions: Care, Fairness, Loyalty, Authority, and Purity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972842/culture-and-development-a-systematic-relationship
#10
Heidi Keller
This article argues that the relationships between culture and development are differential and systematic. Therefore the presentation of the Western middle-class developmental pathway in textbooks as universal is grossly neglecting the reality and the psychologies of the majority of the world' s population. First, the conception of culture as the representation of environmental conditions is presented. The level of formal education acts as organizer of social milieus that define different learning environments for children...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966138/human-lesion-studies-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#11
REVIEW
Brett Schneider, Michael Koenigs
Studies of neurological patients with focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have demonstrated a critical role for this brain area in various aspects of cognition, emotion, and behavior. In this article, we review the key themes, methods, and findings from neuropsychological research on vmPFC lesion patients. Early case studies demonstrated profound disruptions in personality and behavior following vmPFC damage, including blunted affect, poor decision-making, and inappropriate social behavior...
September 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966038/depletion-moral-identity-and-unethical-behavior-why-people-behave-unethically-after-self-control-exertion
#12
Yan Wang, Guosen Wang, Qiuju Chen, Lin Li
Self-control enables people to resist short-term temptations in the service of long-term goals. Previous exertion of self-control leads to a state of ego depletion. Three studies demonstrated that ego depletion leads to a high level of unethical behavior. These studies also hypothesized and confirmed that depleted individuals behave unethically because of low moral identity. Study 1 found that depleted participants were more likely to over-report their performance than non-depleted participants. Study 2 revealed that depletion reduced people's moral identity, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in unethical behavior...
September 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966013/more-on-altruism-moral-behavior-and-assent-by-children-for-research
#13
EDITORIAL
Richard Shader
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964941/tiered-co-payments-pricing-and-demand-in-reference-price-markets-for-pharmaceuticals
#14
Annika Herr, Moritz Suppliet
Health insurance companies curb price-insensitive behavior and the moral hazard of insureds by means of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing in drug markets. This paper evaluates the effect of price limits - below which drugs are exempt from co-payments - on prices and on demand. First, using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the new policy decreases prices by 5 percent for generics and increases prices by 4 percent for brand-name drugs in the German reference price market...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960139/how-should-we-deal-with-misattributed-paternity-a-survey-of-lay-public-attitudes
#15
Georgia Lowe, Jonathan Pugh, Guy Kahane, Louise Corben, Sharon Lewis, Martin Delatycki, Julian Savulescu
Backround: Increasing use of genetic technologies in clinical and research settings increases the potential for misattributed paternity to be identified. Yet existing guidance from the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the Institute of Medicine (amongst others) offers contradictory advice. Genetic health professionals are thus likely to vary in their practice when misattributed paternity is identified, and empirical investigation into the disclosure of misattributed paternity is scarce...
September 29, 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959221/how-upward-moral-comparison-influences-prosocial-behavioral-intention-examining-the-mediating-role-of-guilt-and-the-moderating-role-of-moral-identity
#16
Heyun Zhang, Sisi Chen, Rong Wang, Jiang Jiang, Yan Xu, Huanhuan Zhao
Although it has been shown that exceptional good deeds exert influences on people's prosocial behavior and intention, we have known little about how common moral actions in our daily life. The present study aimed to examine how upward moral comparison influenced prosocial behavioral intention as well as to explore the mediating role of guilt and the moderating role of moral identity in the focal relationship. An experimental study was conducted with 162 Chinese undergraduates (103 women, 59 men) randomly assigned to an upward moral comparison condition, an upward competence comparison condition or a control condition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958214/conceptualizing-suffering-and-pain
#17
Noelia Bueno-Gómez
BACKGROUND: This article aims to contribute to a better conceptualization of pain and suffering by providing non-essential and non-naturalistic definitions of both phenomena. Contributions of classical evidence-based medicine, the humanistic turn in medicine, as well as the phenomenology and narrative theories of suffering and pain, together with certain conceptions of the person beyond them (the mind-body dichotomy, Cassel's idea of persons as "intact beings") are critically discussed with such purpose...
September 29, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955633/effect-of-differential-processing-of-the-native-and-recombinant-%C3%AE-amylase-from-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-jjc33m-on-specificity-and-enzyme-properties
#18
Juan José Montor-Antonio, Sarahi Hernández-Heredia, Ángela Ávila-Fernández, Clarita Olvera, Bernardo Sachman-Ruiz, Sandra Del Moral
AmyJ33, an α-amylase isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JJC33M, has been characterized as a non-metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes raw starch. In this work, the gene that codifies for AmyJ33 was isolated and cloned. The recombinant α-amylase (AmyJ33r) produced had a molecular weight of 72 kDa, 25 kDa higher than the native α-amylase (AmyJ33). Our results suggest that the C-terminal was processed in a different way in the native and the recombinant enzyme causing the difference observed in the molecular weight...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949868/when-are-primary-care-physicians-untruthful-with-patients-a-qualitative-study
#19
Stephanie R Morain, Lisa I Iezzoni, Michelle M Mello, Elyse R Park, Joshua P Metlay, Gabrielle Horner, Eric G Campbell
BACKGROUND: Notwithstanding near-universal agreement on the theoretical importance of truthfulness, empirical research has documented gaps between ethical norms and physician behaviors. Although prior research has explored situations in which physicians may not be truthful with patients, it has focused on contexts within specialty practice. In this article, we report on a qualitative study of truthfulness in primary care. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study during December 2014-March 2015 involving both focus groups and in-depth, semistructured interviews with 32 primary care physicians from the Boston, MA, and Baltimore, MD, metro areas in three specialties: internal medicine, family practice, and pediatrics...
January 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944223/enrollment-childbearing-motivations-and-intentions-of-couples-in-the-creighton-model-effectiveness-intentions-and-behaviors-assessment-ceiba-study
#20
Joseph B Stanford, Christina A Porucznik
CONTEXT: The Creighton Model FertilityCare(TM) System (CrM) is a standardized approach for educating women about the biomarkers of their fertility. Couples can use this information for timing intercourse during "fertile" or "infertile" days in order to try to conceive or to avoid pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: The study of Creighton Model Effectiveness, Intentions, and Behaviors Assessment (CEIBA) was conducted to assess fertility motivations, intentions, fertility-related sexual behaviors, and their impact on effectiveness to avoid and to conceive among new users of the CrM...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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