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Doctors without borders

Louise van Galen, Joyce Wachelder
Young medical trainees all over the world are encouraged to investigate unknown areas of medicine that need clarification. This often leads them to undertake a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy). Being curious, critical, and creative are necessary competences which enable us to engender scientific research within acute (internal) medicine. Worldwide, huge numbers of professionals are pursuing a PhD, with the aim of receiving a 'Doctor'-title. These PhD trajectories vary distinctly between countries. Since the distances in the scientific world are getting smaller and it is becoming more easy to work with each other across borders, it might be interesting to know what it requires to become an academic 'doctor' overseas...
2017: Acute Medicine
Miguel Trelles Centurion, Rafael Van Den Bergh, Henry Gray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disasters and armed conflicts are characterized by high numbers of trauma cases, and occur mainly in developing countries where the healthcare response is already impaired, resulting in an inadequate response. Aside of the trauma cases, other surgical health conditions are also still present and require urgent care. Surgical care needs are different from context to context and depend on local means and capabilities. RECENT FINDINGS: Doctors without Borders (MSF) has proven that even in precarious situations, safe administration of anesthesia is possible, and the "do no harm" principle can and must be upheld...
2017: Current Anesthesiology Reports
Val Wass, Lesley Southgate
The unprecedented demands of patient and population priorities created by globalization and escalating health and social inequities will not be met unless medical education changes. Educators have failed to move fast enough to create an education framework that meets current population needs. A new common set of professional values around global social accountability is necessary. Education borders must be broken down at three levels-societal-institutional, interpersonal, and individual.At a societal-institutional level, global health must be embraced as part of a philosophy of population needs, human rights, equity, and justice...
April 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Lucia Brum-Soares, Juan-Carlos Cubides, Iris Burgos, Carlota Monroy, Leticia Castillo, Selene González, Pedro Albajar Viñas, Pedro Pablo Palma Urrutia
INTRODUCTION: Geographical, epidemiological, and environmental differences associated with therapeutic response to Chagas etiological treatment have been previously discussed. This study describes high seroconversion rates 72 months after benznidazole treatment in patients under 16 years from a project implemented by Doctors without Borders in Guatemala. METHODS: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Trypanosoma cruzi IgG antibodies in capillary blood samples from patients 72 months after treatment...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
P S Sidhu
In these days of political vagueness, to use a kinder term, although many would describe the situation as turmoil, in Europe, there are success stories to be lauded. Notwithstanding the direction individual countries choose in relation to closer or not so close co-operation in Europe and the direction the political agenda will travel over the next few years, I believe science and in particular medicine has benefited enormously form close co-operation across the European Union and with colleagues outside this political and trading block of nations...
October 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Miguel Trelles, Barclay T Stewart, Hamayoun Hemat, Masood Naseem, Sattar Zaheer, Mutallib Zakir, Edris Adel, Catherine Van Overloop, Adam L Kushner
BACKGROUND: On October 3, 2015, a United States airstrike hit Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) Trauma Centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan. Our aim was to describe the care provided and estimate the health burden averted by surgical care at the hospital. We also report the benefit rendered by the Trauma Centre to the health of the local population prior to its destruction. METHODS: All operations performed in an operating theater at the Trauma Centre from its opening on August 30, 2011, to August 31, 2015, were described...
July 9, 2016: Surgery
Charles W Sauer, Krishelle L Marc-Aurele
BACKGROUND: Infants born at 23 weeks' gestation have a poor prognosis and require intensive care, including blood transfusions, to survive. Generally speaking, the decision to forgo life support is acceptable. Jehovah's Witnesses believe that life is sacred and want lifesaving interventions except for blood transfusions. Therefore, an ethical dilemma exists when a baby is born on the edge of viability to parents that are Jehovah's Witnesses. In this case, if parents and healthcare professionals disagree on the best interests of the child, the medical team should obtain a court order from the state to intervene...
June 3, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Naina Bhalla, Nagham Hussein, Maha Atari, Rasheed M Fakhri, Chiara Lepora, Nadia Walsh, Sara E Cosgrove, Richard A Murphy
Antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) implementation in humanitarian settings is a new endeavor. Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières introduced an ASP within a hospital in Amman, Jordan, where patients from Iraq, Syria, and Yemen with chronic, often multidrug-resistant, infections related to war are managed. Antibiotics were reviewed, and real-time recommendations were made to optimize choice, dose, duration, and route by a small team. Over the first year of implementation, acceptance of the ASP's recommendations improved...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Jean-Marie Milleliri
He would have celebrated his 100th birthday in 2015, but finally, it doesn't matter, since by leaving his name to African meningitis belt, that isohyetal band in sub-Saharan Africa where epidemics of cerebrospinal meningitis are rife, Lapeyssonnie, the trailblazer at the end of his trail, has gone straight into the textbooks of tropical medicine. There was probably nothing he enjoyed more than wandering the lateritic paths and Sudano-Sahelian bush in that zone. His first job, in the Mossi country in Upper Volta that had not yet become Burkina Faso, was of course an initiation...
January 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Cory S Harris, Natasha K J Campbell, Amir Raz
BACKGROUND: Physicians around the world report to using placebos in a variety of situations and with varying degrees of frequency. Inconsistent methodologies, however, complicate interpretation and prevent direct comparisons across studies. While US- and Canada-based physicians share similar professional standards, Canada harbours a less-litigious universal healthcare model with no formal placebo-related policy-factors that may impact how physicians view and use placebos. METHODS: To compare American and Canadian data, we circulated an online survey to academic physicians practicing in Canada, collected anonymous responses, and extracted those of internists and rheumatologists for comparison to US data obtained through parallel methodologies...
2015: PloS One
Markus Enenkel, Linda See, Mathias Karner, Mònica Álvarez, Edith Rogenhofer, Carme Baraldès-Vallverdú, Candela Lanusse, Núria Salse
The Central African Republic is one of the world's most vulnerable countries, suffering from chronic poverty, violent conflicts and weak disaster resilience. In collaboration with Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), this study presents a novel approach to collect information about socio-economic vulnerabilities related to malnutrition, access to resources and coping capacities. The first technical test was carried out in the North of the country (sub-prefecture Kabo) in May 2015. All activities were aimed at the investigation of technical feasibility, not at operational data collection, which requires a random sampling strategy...
2015: PloS One
Chiara Botti, Giovanni Botti
Among the current topics, one that is more commonly discussed is that of the mini-invasive or "soft" techniques that seem to attract doctors and patients more than real surgery. We instead propose a relatively aggressive technique that can really rejuvenate the faces and necks of our patients. Are we not in step with the times? The problem is, unfortunately, that until now there is nothing that, without anesthesia, swelling, bruising, and so forth, can magically bring about the result of a well-done facelift...
October 2015: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
Deborah Wilson
In December 2013, the first cases of the most recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) emerged in the West African nation of Guinea. Within months the disease had spread to the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. The international humanitarian aid organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; known in English as Doctors Without Borders) soon responded by sending staff to set up treatment centers and outreach triage teams in all three countries. In August 2014, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak an international public health emergency...
December 2015: American Journal of Nursing
Adi Nadimpalli, Laura Buchholz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Elin A Gursky
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play a critical humanitarian role in the developing world. Over 100 NGOs currently operate in Sierra Leone, a country in West Africa that ranks 183 out of 187 in the United Nation's Human Development Index. Following a brutal 11-year war that ended in January 2002, the country has been unsuccessful at building a sufficiently resourced, robust, and anticipatory public health and medical care infrastructure. Consequently, Sierra Leone suffers from high levels of poverty, infant mortality, and limited access to safe drinking water, as well as morbidity from malnutrition, diarrheal diseases, hepatitis A, cholera, and typhoid fever...
October 2015: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Christopher J Doona, Florence E Feeherry, Kenneth Kustin, Gene G Olinger, Peter Setlow, Alexander J Malkin, Terrance Leighton
Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned)...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aitor Coca, Travis DiLeo, Jung-Hyun Kim, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Experience with the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) ensembles by health care workers responding to the Ebola outbreak in the hot, humid conditions of West Africa has prompted reports of significant issues with heat stress that has resulted in shortened work periods. METHODS: A sweating thermal manikin was used to ascertain the time to achievement of a critical core temperature of 39 °C while wearing 4 different PPE ensembles similar to those recommended by the World Health Organization and Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) at 2 different ambient conditions (32 °C/92% relative humidity and 26 °C/80% relative humidity) compared with a control ensemble...
October 2015: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Florian Vogt, Katie Tayler-Smith, Andrea Bernasconi, Eliphas Makondo, Fabian Taziwa, Buhlebenkosi Moyo, Liberty Havazvidi, Srinath Satyanarayana, Marcel Manzi, Mohammed Khogali, Anthony Reid
BACKGROUND: CD4 cell count measurement remains an important diagnostic tool for HIV care in developing countries. Insufficient laboratory capacity in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is frequently mentioned but data on the impact at an individual patient level are lacking. Urban-rural discrepancies in CD4 testing have not been quantified to date. Such evidence is crucial for public health planning and to justify new yet more expensive diagnostic procedures that could circumvent access constraints in rural areas...
2015: PloS One
Félix Báez, Jorge Pérez, Gail Reed
Tramping through the Himalayan snows to treat patients after the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, internist Félix Báez could never have imagined he would be on the front lines of Ebola in Sierra Leone nine years later….much less that he would contract the deadly virus, live to tell the story and also to return to his team in Africa to continue the fight. At his side in the Geneva University Hospital, where he was airlifted, was Dr Jorge Pérez, today director of Cuba's Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute (IPK), but best known as "Cuba's AIDS doctor...
January 2015: MEDICC Review
Lauren Carruth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Global Public Health
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