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nitroreductase cancer

Mimi M Yang, William R Wilson, Zimei Wu
This paper aims to develop and evaluate a pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomal (pPSL) system for tumor-targeted intracellular delivery of SN25860, a weakly acidic, poorly water-soluble dinitrobenzamide mustard prodrug which is activated by the E. coli nitroreductase nfB. pPSL and non pH-sensitive liposomes (nPSL), as reference, were formulated by thin-film hydration; an active drug loading method was developed with the aid of solubilizers. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in an nfsB-transfected EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma cell line...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Claudia Karnthaler-Benbakka, Diana Groza, Bettina Koblmüller, Alessio Terenzi, Katharina Holste, Melanie Haider, Dina Baier, Walter Berger, Petra Heffeter, Christian R Kowol, Bernhard K Keppler
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which have revolutionized cancer therapy over the past 15 years, are limited in their clinical application due to serious side effects. Therefore, we converted two approved TKIs (sunitinib and erlotinib) into 2-nitroimidazole-based hypoxia-activatable prodrugs. Kinetics studies showed very different stabilities over 24 h; however, fast reductive activation via E. coli nitroreductase could be confirmed for both panels. The anticancer activity and signaling inhibition of the compounds against various human cancer cell lines were evaluated in cell culture...
October 5, 2016: ChemMedChem
Alexandra M Mowday, Amir Ashoorzadeh, Elsie M Williams, Janine N Copp, Shevan Silva, Matthew R Bull, Maria R Abbattista, Robert F Anderson, Jack U Flanagan, Christopher P Guise, David F Ackerley, Jeff B Smaill, Adam V Patterson
The clinical stage anti-cancer agent PR-104 has potential utility as a cytotoxic prodrug for exogenous bacterial nitroreductases expressed from replicating vector platforms. However substrate selectivity is compromised due to metabolism by the human one- and two-electron oxidoreductases cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3). Using rational drug design we developed a novel mono-nitro analog of PR-104A that is essentially free of this off-target activity in vitro and in vivo...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Thillai V Sekar, Ramasamy Paulmurugan
Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a promising therapeutic approach for treating cancers of various phenotypes. This strategy is independent of various other chemotherapeutic drugs used for treating cancers where the drugs are mainly designed to target endogenous cellular mechanisms, which are different in various cancer subtypes. In GDEPT an external enzyme, which is different from the cellular proteins, is expressed to convert the injected prodrug in to a toxic metabolite, that normally kill cancer cells express this protein...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Thanawat Pattananandecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Yodsawee Duangjitcharoen, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Prasit Suwannalert, Sartjin Peerajan, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
Context Inulin, a non-digestible carbohydrate isolated from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae), has been shown to alter the gut beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria. Inulin also influences the activities of intestinal microbiota that could prevent the colon cancer development. Objective This study determines the effect of hydrolysed inulin with different degrees of polymerisation on alteration of intestinal microbiota and their activities on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Vanessa V Gwenin, Paramasivan Poornima, Jennifer Halliwell, Patrick Ball, George Robinson, Chris D Gwenin
Directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a form of cancer chemotherapy in which bacterial prodrug-activating enzymes, or their encoding genes, are directed to the tumour before administration of a prodrug. The prodrug can then be activated into a toxic drug at the tumour site, reducing off-target effects. The bacterial nitroreductases are a class of enzymes used in this therapeutic approach and although very promising, the low turnover rate of prodrug by the most studied nitroreductase enzyme, NfnB from Escherichia coli (NfnB_Ec), is a major limit to this technology...
December 1, 2015: Biochemical Pharmacology
Anzhelika G Vorobyeva, Michael Stanton, Aurélien Godinat, Kjetil B Lund, Grigory G Karateev, Kevin P Francis, Elizabeth Allen, Juri G Gelovani, Emmet McCormack, Mark Tangney, Elena A Dubikovskaya
Bacterial nitroreductases (NTRs) have been widely utilized in the development of novel antibiotics, degradation of pollutants, and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) of cancer that reached clinical trials. In case of GDEPT, since NTR is not naturally present in mammalian cells, the prodrug is activated selectively in NTR-transformed cancer cells, allowing high efficiency treatment of tumors. Currently, no bioluminescent probes exist for sensitive, non-invasive imaging of NTR expression. We therefore developed a "NTR caged luciferin" (NCL) probe that is selectively reduced by NTR, producing light proportional to the NTR activity...
2015: PloS One
James A Sullivan, Jie Lun Tong, Martin Wong, Ambika Kumar, Hajrah Sarkar, Sarah Ali, Ikran Hussein, Iqra Zaman, Emma Louise Meredith, Nuala A Helsby, Longqin Hu, Shane R Wilkinson
All living cells are subject to agents that promote DNA damage. A particularly lethal lesion are interstrand cross-links (ICL), a property exploited by several anti-cancer chemotherapies. In yeast and humans, an enzyme that plays a key role in repairing such damage are the PSO2/SNM1 nucleases. Here, we report that Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis, possesses a bona fide member of this family (called TbSNM1) with expression of the parasite enzyme able to suppress the sensitivity yeast pso2Δ mutants display towards mechlorethamine, an ICL-inducing compound...
May 2015: Molecular Microbiology
Jose M Bruno-Barcena, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril
Prebiotics are ingredients selectively fermented by the intestinal microbiota that promote changes in the microbial community structure and/or their metabolism, conferring health benefits to the host. Studies show that β (1-4) galacto-oligosaccharides [β (1-4) GOS], lactulose and fructo-oligosaccharides increase intestinal concentration of lactate and short chain fatty acids, and stool frequency and weight, and they decrease fecal concentration of secondary bile acids, fecal pH, and nitroreductase and β-glucuronidase activities suggesting a clear role in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention...
January 2015: Journal of Functional Foods
Faranak Salman Nouri, Xing Wang, Arash Hatefi
Over the past decade, various enzyme/prodrug systems such as thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV), yeast cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (yCD/5-FC) and nitroreductase/CB1954 (NTR/CB1954) have been used for stem cell mediated suicide gene therapy of cancer. Yet, no study has been conducted to compare and demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using one system over another. Knowing that each enzyme/prodrug system has its own strengths and weaknesses, we utilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a medium to perform for the first time a comparative study that illustrated the impact of subtle differences among these systems on the therapeutic outcome...
February 28, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jin Zhang, Vijay Kale, Mingnan Chen
As one targeting strategy of prodrug delivery, gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) promises to realize the targeting through its three key features in cancer therapy-cell-specific gene delivery and expression, controlled conversion of prodrugs to drugs in target cells, and expanded toxicity to the target cells' neighbors through bystander effects. After over 20 years of development, multiple GDEPT systems have advanced into clinical trials. However, no GDEPT product is currently marketed as a drug, suggesting that there are still barriers to overcome before GDEPT becomes a standard therapy...
January 2015: AAPS Journal
Kavita Sharma, Harinath Chakrapani
Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gaseous free radical which mediates numerous biological processes. At elevated levels, NO is found to be toxic to cancers and hence, a number of strategies for site-directed delivery of NO to cancers are in development during the past two decades. More recently, the focus of research has been to, in conjunction with other cancer drugs deliver NO to cancers for its secondary effects including inhibition of cellular drug efflux pumps. Among the various approaches toward site-selective delivery of exogenous NO sources, enzyme activated nitric oxide donors belonging to the diazeniumdiolate category afford unique advantages including exquisite control of rates of NO generation and selectivity of NO production...
December 1, 2014: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Yang Zhan, Bin Yu, Zhen Wang, Yu Zhang, Hai-Hong Zhang, Hao Wu, Xiao Feng, Ran-Shen Geng, Wei Kong, Xiang-Hui Yu
Breast cancers especially in late and metastatic stages remain refractory to treatment despite advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapy. Suicide gene therapy based on adenoviral technology will be promising strategies for such advanced diseases. We previously showed that co-expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Coli.NTR) by an hTERT-driven adenovirus vector resulted in additive anti-tumor effects in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
2014: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Laura K Green, Mathew A Storey, Elsie M Williams, Adam V Patterson, Jeff B Smaill, Janine N Copp, David F Ackerley
Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes that can efficiently catalyse the oxygen-independent reduction of prodrugs originally developed to target tumour hypoxia offer great potential for expanding the therapeutic range of these molecules to aerobic tumour regions, via the emerging cancer strategy of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). Two promising hypoxia prodrugs for GDEPT are the dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and the nitrochloromethylbenzindoline prodrug nitro-CBI-DEI. We describe here use of a nitro-quenched fluorogenic probe to identify MsuE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a novel nitroreductase candidate for GDEPT...
2013: Cancers
Ewan M McNeil, Ann-Marie Ritchie, David W Melton
Nitrofurans are commonly used for the treatment of trypanosomal diseases including Chagas disease. More recently, following the fortuitous discovery that nifurtimox was clinically active against neuroblastoma, nitrofuran compounds are being investigated for activity against cancer. Herein, we show that nitrofuran compounds are similarly potent to human malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, a recently discovered nitrofuran compound, NFN1, was 50- to 175-fold more potent than nifurtimox against human melanoma and neuroblastoma cell lines...
November 2013: DNA Repair
Kavita Sharma, Kundan Sengupta, Harinath Chakrapani
Due to the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in numerous and diverse physiological processes, site-directed delivery of therapeutic NO in order to minimize unwanted side-effects is necessary. O(2)-(4-Nitrobenzyl) diazeniumdiolates are designed as substrates for Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR), an enzyme that is frequently used to facilitate directed delivery of cytotoxic species to cancers. O(2)-(4-Nitrobenzyl) diazeniumdiolates are found to be stable in aqueous buffer but are metabolized by NTR to produce NO...
November 1, 2013: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Laura K Green, Sophie P Syddall, Kendall M Carlin, Glenn D Bell, Christopher P Guise, Alexandra M Mowday, Michael P Hay, Jeffrey B Smaill, Adam V Patterson, David F Ackerley
BACKGROUND: The nitro-chloromethylbenzindoline prodrug nitro-CBI-DEI appears a promising candidate for the anti-cancer strategy gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy, based on its ability to be converted to a highly cytotoxic cell-permeable derivative by the nitroreductase NfsB from Escherichia coli. However, relative to some other nitroaromatic prodrugs, nitro-CBI-DEI is a poor substrate for E. coli NfsB. To address this limitation we evaluated other nitroreductase candidates from E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
2013: Molecular Cancer
Stephanie L Swift, Guillermo C Rivera, Vincent Dussupt, Regina M Leadley, Lucy C Hudson, Corrina Ma de Ridder, Robert Kraaij, Julie E Burns, Norman J Maitland, Lindsay J Georgopoulos
Gene therapy represents an attractive strategy for the non-invasive treatment of prostate cancer, where current clinical interventions show limited efficacy. Here, we evaluate the use of the insect virus, baculovirus (BV), as a novel vector for human prostate cancer gene therapy. Since prostate tumours represent a heterogeneous environment, a therapeutic approach that achieves long-term regression must be capable of targeting multiple transformed cell populations. Furthermore, discrimination in the targeting of malignant compared to non-malignant cells would have value in minimising side effects...
2013: PloS One
Rong Gui, Dengqing Li, Guannan Qi, Ali Suhad, Xinmin Nie
The nitroreductase oxidored-nitro domain containing protein 1 (NOR1) gene may be involved in the chemical carcinogenesis of hepatic cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We have previously demonstrated that NOR1 overexpression is capable of converting the monofunctional alkylating agent 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB1954) into a toxic form by reducing the 4-nitro group of CB1954. Toxic CB1954 is able to enhance cell killing in the NPC cell line CNE1; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
September 2012: Oncology Letters
Marie Stiborová, Václav Martínek, Eva Frei, Volker M Arlt, Heinz H Schmeiser
Aristolochic acid (AA), a plant nephrotoxin and carcinogen, causes aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and its associated urothelial malignancy, and is hypothesized to be responsible for Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). The major component of AA, aristolochic acid I (AAI), is the predominant compound responsible for these diseases. The reductive activation of AAI leads to the formation of covalent DNA adducts. The most abundant DNA adduct, 7-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)aristolactam I, causes characteristic AT→TA transversions found in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene in tumors from AAN and BEN patients...
July 2013: Current Drug Metabolism
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