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Branched-chain amino acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802074/altered-amino-acid-concentrations-in-nafld-impact-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#1
Melania Gaggini, Fabrizia Carli, Chiara Rosso, Emma Buzzigoli, Milena Marietti, Veronica Della Latta, Demetrio Ciociaro, Maria Lorena Abate, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Amalia Gastaldelli
Plasma concentrations of amino acids (AA), in particular branched chain (BCAA), are often found increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, if this is due to increased muscular protein catabolism, obesity and/or increased insulin resistance (IR) or impaired tissue metabolism is not known. Thus, we evaluated a) if subjects with NAFLD non-obese (NAFLD-NO), compared to obese (NAFLD-Ob) display altered plasma AA compared to controls (CT); b) if AA concentrations are associated to IR and liver histology...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800113/biomarker-research-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-metabolite-profiling
#2
REVIEW
Jesper F Havelund, Niels H H Heegaard, Nils J K Færgeman, Jan Bert Gramsbergen
Biomarker research in Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been dominated by measuring dopamine metabolites or alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid. However, these markers do not allow early detection, precise prognosis or monitoring of disease progression. Moreover, PD is now considered a multifactorial disease, which requires a more precise diagnosis and personalized medication to obtain optimal outcome. In recent years, advanced metabolite profiling of body fluids like serum/plasma, CSF or urine, known as "metabolomics", has become a powerful and promising tool to identify novel biomarkers or "metabolic fingerprints" characteristic for PD at various stages of disease...
August 11, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799767/a-comprehensive-metabolomics-study-to-assess-longitudinal-biochemical-changes-and-potential-early-biomarkers-in-nod-mice-that-progress-to-diabetes
#3
Peter Buchwald, Alejandro Tamayo-Garcia, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy, Marta Garcia-Contreras, Armando J Mendez, Camillo Ricordi
A global non-targeted longitudinal metabolomics study was carried out in male and female NOD mice to characterize the time-profile of the changes in the metabolic signature caused by onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and identify possible early biomarkers in T1D progressors. Metabolomics profiling of samples collected at five different time-points identified 676 and 706 biochemicals in blood and feces, respectively. Several metabolites were expressed at significantly different levels in progressors at all time-points, and their proportion increased strongly following onset of hyperglycemia...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799697/methylmalonate-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-mediated-metabolite-homeostasis-essentially-regulate-conidiation-polarized-germination-and-pathogenesis-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#4
Justice Norvienyeku, Zhenhui Zhong, Lili Lin, Xie Dang, Meilian Chen, Xiaolian Lin, Honghong Zhang, Wilfred Mabeche Anjago, Lianyu Lin, Waheed Abdul, Zonghua Wang
Plants generate multitude of aldehydes under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Ample demonstrations have shown that rice-derived aldehydes enhance the resistance of rice against the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. However, how the fungal pathogen nullifies the inhibitory effects of host aldehydes to establish compatible interaction remains unknown. Here we identified and evaluated the in vivo transcriptional activities of M. oryzae aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes. Transcriptional analysis of M...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798381/transcriptional-hallmarks-of-cancer-cell-lines-reveal-an-emerging-role-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism
#5
Ieva Antanavičiūtė, Valeryia Mikalayeva, Ieva Ceslevičienė, Gintarė Milašiūtė, Vytenis Arvydas Skeberdis, Sergio Bordel
A comparative analysis between cancer cell lines and healthy dividing cells was performed using data (289 microarrays and 50 RNA-seq samples) from 100 different cancer cell lines and 6 types of healthy stem cells. The analysis revealed two large-scale transcriptional events that characterize cancer cell lines. The first event was a large-scale up-regulation pattern associated to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, putatively driven by the interplay of the SP1 transcription factor and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway; the second event was the failure to overexpress a diverse set of genes coding membrane and extracellular proteins...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797298/community-characteristics-of-the-gut-microbiomes-of-competitive-cyclists
#6
Lauren M Petersen, Eddy J Bautista, Hoan Nguyen, Blake M Hanson, Lei Chen, Sai H Lek, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock
BACKGROUND: Changes in diet and exercise can alter the gut microbiome of humans and mice; however, few studies to date have assessed the microbiomes of highly fit athletes. In this pilot study, we used metagenomic whole genome shotgun (mWGS) and metatranscriptomic (RNA-Seq) sequencing to show what organisms are both present and active in the gut microbiomes of both professional and amateur level competitive cyclists and to determine if any significant differences exist between these two groups...
August 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794210/metabolomic-evaluation-of-the-consequences-of-plasma-cystathionine-elevation-in-adults-with-stable-angina-pectoris
#7
Barbara N DeRatt, Maria A Ralat, Vegard Lysne, Fariba Tayyari, Indu Dhar, Arthur S Edison, Timothy J Garrett, Øivind Midttun, Per Magne Ueland, Ottar Kjell Nygård, Jesse F Gregory
Background: An elevated circulating cystathionine concentration, which arises in part from insufficiencies of vitamin B-6, B-12, or folate, has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter involved in vasodilation, neuromodulation, and inflammation. Most endogenously produced H2S is formed by pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes by noncanonical reactions of the transsulfuration pathway that yield H2S concurrently form lanthionine and homolanthionine...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782269/molecular-evolution-of-acetohydroxyacid-synthase-in-bacteria
#8
Yadi Liu, Yanyan Li, Xiaoyuan Wang
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in bacteria. Since it does not exist in animal and plant cells, AHAS is an attractive target for developing antimicrobials and herbicides. In some bacteria, there is a single copy of AHAS, while in others there are multiple copies. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the origin and evolutionary pathway of various AHASs in bacteria. In this study, all the available protein sequences of AHAS in bacteria were investigated, and an evolutionary model of AHAS in bacteria is proposed, according to gene structure, organization and phylogeny...
August 6, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774709/treatment-with-antioxidants-ameliorates-oxidative-damage-in-a-mouse-model-of-propionic-acidemia
#9
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Esmeralda Alonso-Barroso, Belén Pérez, Michael P Murphy, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of propionic acidemia (PA), a life threatening disease caused by the deficiency of propionyl CoA-carboxylase, in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, odd-number chain fatty acids and cholesterol. Patients develop multisystemic complications including seizures, extrapyramidal symptoms, basal ganglia deterioration, pancreatitis and cardiomyopathy. The accumulation of toxic metabolites results in mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage, all of which have been documented in patients' samples and in a hypomorphic mouse model...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768654/effect-of-the-interaction-between-diet-composition-and-the-ppm1k-genetic-variant-on-insulin-resistance-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-markers-during-weight-loss-results-from-the-nutrient-gene-interactions-in-human-obesity-implications-for-dietary-guidelines-nugenob-randomized
#10
Leticia Goni, Lu Qi, Marta Cuervo, Fermín I Milagro, Wim H Saris, Ian A MacDonald, Dominique Langin, Arne Astrup, Peter Arner, Jean-Michel Oppert, Mathilde Svendstrup, Ellen E Blaak, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Torben Hansen, J Alfredo Martínez
Background: Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The common rs1440581 T allele in the protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K) gene has been related to elevated BCAA concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: In the present study, we tested whether dietary fat and carbohydrate intakes influenced the association between the rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant and glucose-metabolism traits during weight loss...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766127/metabolic-profiling-of-gestational-diabetes-in-obese-women-during-pregnancy
#11
Sara L White, Dharmintra Pasupathy, Naveed Sattar, Scott M Nelson, Debbie A Lawlor, Annette L Briley, Paul T Seed, Paul Welsh, Lucilla Poston
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Antenatal obesity and associated gestational diabetes (GDM) are increasing worldwide. While pre-existing insulin resistance is implicated in GDM in obese women, the responsible metabolic pathways remain poorly described. Our aim was to compare metabolic profiles in blood of obese pregnant women with and without GDM 10 weeks prior to and at the time of diagnosis by OGTT. METHODS: We investigated 646 women, of whom 198 developed GDM, in this prospective cohort study, a secondary analysis of UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT), a multicentre randomised controlled trial of a complex lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women...
August 1, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764052/flavour-production-by-saprochaete-and-geotrichum-yeasts-and-their-close-relatives
#12
Eric Grondin, Alain Shum Cheong Sing, Steve James, Carmen Nueno-Palop, Jean Marie François, Thomas Petit
In this study, a total of 30 yeast strains belonging to the genera Dipodascus, Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Magnusiomyces and Saprochaete were investigated for volatile organic compound production using HS-SPME-GC/MS analysis. The resulting flavour profiles, including 36 esters and 6 alcohols compounds, were statistically evaluated by cluster and PCA analysis. Two main groups of strains were extracted from this analysis, namely a group with a low ability to produce flavour and a group producing mainly alcohols...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760433/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-in-treatment-of-liver-cirrhosis-updated-views-on-how-to-attenuate-their-harmful-effects-on-cataplerosis-and-ammonia-formation
#13
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) supplementation is common for patients with liver cirrhosis due to decreased levels of BCAA in the blood plasma of these patients, which plays a role in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and cachexia. The unique pharmacologic properties of BCAA also are a factor for use as supplementation in this population. In the present article, BCAA is shown to provide nitrogen to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) for synthesis of glutamate, which is a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) in the brain and muscles...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757203/biallelic-mutations-in-lipt2-cause-a-mitochondrial-lipoylation-defect-associated-with-severe-neonatal-encephalopathy
#14
Florence Habarou, Yamina Hamel, Tobias B Haack, René G Feichtinger, Elise Lebigot, Iris Marquardt, Kanetee Busiah, Cécile Laroche, Marine Madrange, Coraline Grisel, Clément Pontoizeau, Monika Eisermann, Audrey Boutron, Dominique Chrétien, Bernadette Chadefaux-Vekemans, Robert Barouki, Christine Bole-Feysot, Patrick Nitschke, Nicolas Goudin, Nathalie Boddaert, Ivan Nemazanyy, Agnès Delahodde, Stefan Kölker, Richard J Rodenburg, G Christoph Korenke, Thomas Meitinger, Tim M Strom, Holger Prokisch, Agnes Rotig, Chris Ottolenghi, Johannes A Mayr, Pascale de Lonlay
Lipoate serves as a cofactor for the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases functioning in energy metabolism (α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase [α-KGDHc] and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDHc]), or amino acid metabolism (branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase). Mitochondrial lipoate synthesis involves three enzymatic steps catalyzed sequentially by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (LIPT2), lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1). Mutations in LIAS have been associated with nonketotic hyperglycinemia-like early-onset convulsions and encephalopathy combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753661/amino-acid-metabolic-signaling-influences-aedes-aegypti-midgut-microbiome-variability
#15
Sarah M Short, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Hannah J MacLeod, Octavio A C Talyuli, George Dimopoulos
The mosquito midgut microbiota has been shown to influence vector competence for multiple human pathogens. The microbiota is highly variable in the field, and the sources of this variability are not well understood, which limits our ability to understand or predict its effects on pathogen transmission. In this work, we report significant variation in female adult midgut bacterial load between strains of A. aegypti which vary in their susceptibility to dengue virus. Composition of the midgut microbiome was similar overall between the strains, with 81-92% of reads coming from the same five bacterial families, though we did detect differences in the presence of some bacterial families including Flavobacteriaceae and Entobacteriaceae...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752051/repletion-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-reverses-mtorc1-signaling-but-not-improved-metabolism-during-dietary-protein-dilution
#16
Adriano Maida, Jessica S K Chan, Kim A Sjøberg, Annika Zota, Dieter Schmoll, Bente Kiens, Stephan Herzig, Adam J Rose
OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750610/an-exploratory-study-on-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-bcaa-preparation-used-in-combination-with-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#17
Munenori Takata, Eisuke Amiya, Masafumi Watanabe, Yumiko Hosoya, Atsuko Nakayama, Takayuki Fujiwara, Masanobu Taya, Gaku Oguri, Kanako Hyodo, Naoko Takayama, Nami Takano, Tomoe Mashiko, Yukari Uemura, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is generally complicated with patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and its presence negatively affects the course of heart failure, however effective nutritional intervention had not been elucidated yet. The primary objective of this study is to explore whether the addition of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) preparation for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) of patients with CHF further improves cardiopulmonary functions, skeletal muscle functions, and metabolism in comparison with conventional CR...
July 27, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744267/the-staphylococcus-aureus-%C3%AE-acetolactate-synthase-als-confers-resistance-to-nitrosative-stress
#18
Sandra M Carvalho, Anne de Jong, Tomas G Kloosterman, Oscar P Kuipers, Lígia M Saraiva
Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that colonizes the human nasal cavity and is a major cause of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In the nasal cavity, S. aureus thrives with high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) produced by the innate immune effectors and has available for growth slow-metabolizing free hexoses, such as galactose. Here, we have used deep sequencing transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq) and (1)H-NMR to uncover how S. aureus grown on galactose, a major carbon source present in the nasopharynx, survives the deleterious action of NO...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743072/molecular-modeling-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-of-archaeal-leucyl-trna-synthetase-in-complex-with-different-mischarged-trna-in-editing-conformation
#19
A V Rayevsky, M Sharifi, M A Tukalo
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play important roles in maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis. Some aaRSs accomplish this via editing mechanisms, among which leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) edits non-cognate amino acid norvaline mainly by post-transfer editing. However, the molecular basis for this pathway for eukaryotic and archaeal LeuRS remain unclear. In this study, a complex of archaeal P. horikoshii LeuRS (PhLeuRS) with misacylated tRNA(Leu) was modeled wherever tRNA's acceptor stem was oriented directly into the editing site...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741271/supplementation-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-ameliorates-hypoalbuminemia-prevents-sarcopenia-and-reduces-fat-accumulation-in-the-skeletal-muscles-of-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#20
Yoichiro Kitajima, Hirokazu Takahashi, Takumi Akiyama, Kenichiro Murayama, Shinji Iwane, Takuya Kuwashiro, Kenichi Tanaka, Seiji Kawazoe, Naofumi Ono, Takahisa Eguchi, Keizo Anzai, Yuichiro Eguchi
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis induces marked metabolic disorders, protein-energy malnutrition, and sarcopenia. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on systemic glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle, and prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 21) were enrolled into a longitudinal study in which their diets were supplemented with BCAAs...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
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