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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679678/characterisation-of-40-mg-ml-and-100-mg-ml-tobramycin-formulations-for-aerosol-therapy-with-adult-mechanical-ventilation
#1
Jayesh A Dhanani, Patrician Tang, Steven C Wallis, Suzanne L Parker, Preeti Pandey, John F Fraser, Jeremy Cohen, Adrian Barnett, Jason R Roberts, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Preservative-free tobramycin is commonly used as aerosolized therapy for ventilator associated pneumonia. The comparative delivery profile of the formulations of two different concentrations (100 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml) is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the aerosol characteristics of these tobramycin formulations in a simulated adult mechanical ventilation model. METHODS: Simulated adult mechanical ventilation set up and optimal settings were used in the study...
April 18, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679606/regulatory-pitfalls-and-opportunities-when-repurposing-for-inhalation-therapy
#2
Svetlana Lyapustina
This article reviews regulatory considerations for companies wishing to develop drugs for delivery via the respiratory tract (e.g., by oral inhalation or intranasally) using molecules previously approved for a different therapeutic indication and/or a different delivery route. Conceptually, such repurposing has many medical and business advantages, but turning promising ideas into real products requires overcoming a number of practical challenges. Obtaining regulatory approval to market a candidate product comes at the end of a product development, but being aware of the regulatory requirements is necessary before the development even starts...
April 18, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679596/observational-studies-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-effectiveness-in-copd-lessons-learned
#3
Samy Suissa, Pierre Ernst
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials at times investigate findings suggested by observational studies. For example, the TORCH trial, which did not show a mortality reduction with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was motivated by some observational studies that suggested considerable reductions in mortality with these drugs. Reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. METHODS: We searched the literature to identify all observational studies, including cohort and case-control studies, investigating the effectiveness of ICS on major outcomes in COPD patients, including death and hospitalization for COPD...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679504/intraoral-frostbite-and-leidenfrost-effect
#4
Divya Vinayachandran, Saravanakarthikeyan
Intraoral frostbite as such, is an unusual occurrence. Careful literature review revealed rare cases of intraoral frostbite, attributed to intentional inhalational abuse of fluorinated hydrocarbons, dry ice, liquid nitrogen etc,.1,2 Hypothermal injuries of the gastric mucosa caused by ingestion of liquid nitrogen have been reported but none of these patients suffered from any direct injury affecting the oral mucosa.3 Here, we report the first case of intraoral frostbite causing injury to the oral mucosal tissues due to the direct contact of liquid nitrogen, highlighting the mechanism of the injury...
April 21, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678900/prevention-of-exacerbations-in-patients-with-stable-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies
#5
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Adam T Hill, Claudia C Dobler, Noor Asi, Wigdan H Farah, Qusay Haydour, Zhen Wang, Khalid Benkhadra, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies are used to treat stable bronchiectasis of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) aetiology. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the evidence of the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options in patients with stable non-CF bronchiectasis with a focus on reducing exacerbations. STUDY SELECTION: Multiple databases were searched through September 2017...
April 20, 2018: BMJ evidence-based medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678545/preparation-of-drug-loaded-small-unilamellar-liposomes-and-evaluation-of-their-potential-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#6
Vincenzo De Leo, Silvia Ruscigno, Adriana Trapani, Sante Di Gioia, Francesco Milano, Delia Mandracchia, Roberto Comparelli, Stefano Castellani, Angela Agostiano, Giuseppe Trapani, Lucia Catucci, Massimo Conese
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of liposome formulation on the ability of vesicles to penetrate a pathological mucus model obtained from COPD affected patients in order to assess the potential of such vesicles for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases by inhalation. Therefore, Small Unilamellar Liposomes (PLAIN-LIPOSOMEs), Pluronic® F127-surface modified liposomes (PF-LIPOSOMEs) and PEG 2000PE-surface modified liposomes (PEG-LIPOSOMEs) were prepared using the micelle-to-vesicle transition (MVT) method and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as model drug...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678544/influence-of-excipients-on-physical-and-aerosolization-stability-of-spray-dried-high-dose-powder-formulations-for-inhalation
#7
Nivedita Shetty, Heejun Park, Dmitry Zemlyanov, Sharad Mangal, Sonal Bhujbal, Qi Tony Zhou
The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of excipients on physical and aerosolization stability of spray dried Ciprofloxacin dry powder inhaler formulations. The model drug, Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, was co-spray dried with excipients such as disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, trehalose), mannitol and L-leucine. The spray dried samples were stored at two different relative humidity (RH) conditions of: (1) 20% and (2) 55% RH at 20°C. Ciprofloxacin co-spray dried with disaccharides and L-leucine in the mass ratio of 1:1 demonstrated an increase in fine particle fraction (FPF) as compared with the spray dried Ciprofloxacin alone when stored at 20% RH...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678179/expression-of-mate1-p-gp-octn1-and-octn2-in-epithelial-and-immune-cells-in-the-lung-of-copd-and-healthy-individuals
#8
Tove Berg, Tove Hegelund-Myrbäck, Johan Öckinger, Xiao-Hong Zhou, Marie Brännström, Michael Hagemann-Jensen, Viktoria Werkström, Janeric Seidegård, Johan Grunewald, Magnus Nord, Lena Gustavsson
BACKGROUND: Several inhaled drugs are dependent on organic cation transporters to cross cell membranes. To further evaluate their potential to impact on inhaled drug disposition, the localization of MATE1, P-gp, OCTN1 and OCTN2 were investigated in human lung. METHODS: Transporter proteins were analysed by immunohistochemistry in lung tissue from healthy subjects and COPD patients. Transporter mRNA was analysed by qPCR in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from smokers and non-smokers...
April 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678144/interferon-alpha-as-antiviral-therapy-in-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-disease-with-interstitial-pneumonia-case-report
#9
Jacek Roliński, Ewelina Grywalska, Aleksandra Pyzik, Michał Dzik, Violetta Opoka-Winiarska, Agata Surdacka, Maciej Maj, Franciszek Burdan, Michał Pirożyński, Piotr Grabarczyk, Elżbieta Starosławska
BACKGROUND: Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease (CAEBV) is defined as a severe, progressive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with active EBV infection persisting longer than 6 months and developing in patients without recognised immunodeficiency. Rarely, interstitial pneumonitis (IP) occurs as a serious complication in CAEBV patients. The standard therapeutic regimen for IP in CAEBV has not yet been defined. Although interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is known to suppress viral DNA replication by affecting its basal promoter activation process, it is rarely used in CAEBV patients...
April 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678134/health-risk-assessment-of-volatile-organic-compounds-exposure-near-daegu-dyeing-industrial-complex-in-south-korea
#10
Jianfei Shuai, Sunshin Kim, Hyeonsu Ryu, Jinhyeon Park, Chae Kwan Lee, Geun-Bae Kim, Venecio U Ultra, Wonho Yang
BACKGROUND: Studying human health in areas with industrial contamination is a serious and complex issue. In recent years, attention has increasingly focused on the health implications of large industrial complexes. A variety of potential toxic chemicals have been produced during manufacturing processes and activities in industrial complexes in South Korea. A large number of dyeing industries gathered together in Daegu dyeing industrial complex. The residents near the industrial complex could be often exposed to volatile organic compounds...
April 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677666/use-of-cleaner-burning-biomass-stoves-and-airway-macrophage-black-carbon-in-malawian-women
#11
Abigail L Whitehouse, Lisa Miyashita, Norrice M Liu, Maia Lesosky, Graham Flitz, Chifundo Ndamala, John R Balmes, Stephen B Gordon, Kevin Mortimer, Jonathan Grigg
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) from burning of biomass for cooking is associated with adverse health effects. It is unknown whether or not cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves reduce the amount of PM inhaled by women compared with traditional open fires. We sought to assess whether airway macrophage black carbon (AMBC) - a marker of inhaled dose of carbonaceous PM from biomass and fossil fuel combustion - is lower in Malawian women using a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove compared with those using open fires for cooking...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677549/mir-375-prevents-nasal-mucosa-cells-from-apoptosis-and-ameliorates-allergic-rhinitis-via-inhibiting-jak2-stat3-pathway
#12
Tao Wang, Dong Chen, Peihua Wang, Zhou Xu, Ying Li
This study aims to explore the roles, and related mechanisms of miR-375 in nasal mucosa cells apoptosis and allergic rhinitis. Here, miR-375 was found to be decreased in the epithelia of nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice and TNF-α-stimulated nasal mucosa cells, while JAK2 expression exhibited an opposite effect. Mechanistically, miR-375/JAK2 regulatory axis was identified in nasal mucosa cells via luciferase reporter, qRT-PCR, western blot and RNA immune co-precipitation (RIP) assays. Pre- or post-injection of miR-375 agomir following ovalbumin (OVA) treatment attenuated OVA-induced allergic rhinitis, characterized as the downregulation of IL-6 and TNF-α secretion, and upregulation of IL-10 secretion, these effects were attenuated by infection with JAK2 adenovirus through nasal cavity inhalation...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677197/a-novel-statistical-method-for-assessing-effective-adherence-to-medication-and-calculating-optimal-drug-dosages
#13
Garrett Greene, Richard W Costello, Breda Cushen, Imran Sulaiman, Elaine Mac Hale, Ronan M Conroy, Frank Doyle
OBJECTIVE: We derive a novel model-based metric for effective adherence to medication, and validate it using data from the INhaler Compliance Assessment device (INCATM). This technique employs dose timing data to estimate the threshold drug concentration needed to maintain optimal health. METHODS: The parameters of the model are optimised against patient outcome data using maximum likelihood methods. The model is fitted and validated by secondary analysis of two independent datasets from two remote-monitoring studies of adherence, conducted through clinical research centres of 5 Irish hospitals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677180/do-inhaled-corticosteroids-have-a-role-for-bronchiolitis
#14
Gonzalo Alarcón-Andrade, Lorena Cifuentes
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis consists of an acute small airways inflammation secondary to a viral infection and is a frequent pathology among children under 2 years. The use of inhaled corticosteroids during bronchiolitis has been proposed to reduce recurrent wheeze or asthma, however there is controversy about it. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others...
April 17, 2018: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677080/corm-401-reduces-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-an-ex-vivo-renal-porcine-model-of-the-donation-after-cardiac-death
#15
Rabindra N Bhattacharjee, Mahms Richard-Mohamed, Qizhi Sun, Aaron Haig, Ghaleb Aboalsamh, Peter Barrett, Richard Mayer, Ibrahim Alhasan, Karen Pineda-Solis, Larry Jiang, Hajed Alharbi, Manujendra Saha, Eric Patterson, Alp Sener, Gediminas Cepinskas, Anthony M Jevnikar, Patrick P W Luke
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation protects organ by reducing inflammation and cell death during transplantation processes in animal model. However, using CO in clinical transplantation is difficult due to its delivery in a controlled manner. A manganese-containing CORM-401 has recently been synthesized which can efficiently deliver 3 molar equivalents of CO. We report the ability of this anti-inflammatory CORM-401 to reduce ischemia reperfusion injury associated with prolonged cold storage of renal allografts obtained from donation after cardiac death in a porcine model of transplantation...
April 19, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676648/global-tobacco-use-old-and-new-products
#16
Ana Navas-Acien
Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke remain major but avoidable causes of premature mortality and disease worldwide. Although the age-standardized prevalence of daily smoking has declined for both men and women in many countries, the number of smokers continues to increase because of global population growth. Although cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product, the tobacco epidemic has become tremendously complex with the emergence and popularity of alternative products such as waterpipes and electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes)...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676641/toxic-and-genomic-influences-of-inhaled-nanomaterials-as-a-basis-for-predicting-adverse-outcome
#17
Penny Nymark, Pekka Kohonen, Vesa Hongisto, Roland C Grafström
An immense variety of different types of engineered nanomaterials are currently being developed and increasingly applied to consumer products. Importantly, engineered nanomaterials may pose unexplored adverse health effects because of their small size. Particularly in occupational settings, the dustiness of certain engineered nanomaterials involves risk of inhalation and influences on lung function. These facts call for quick and cost-effective safety testing practices, such as that obtained through multiparametric high-throughput screening using cultured human lung cells...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676639/effects-of-controlled-diesel-exhaust-and-allergen-exposure-on-microrna-and-gene-expression-in-humans-modulation-of-lung-inflammatory-markers-associated-with-asthma
#18
Christopher F Rider, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Oliver P Günther, Amrit Singh, Jeremy A Hirota, Scott J Tebbutt, Christopher Carlsten
RATIONALE: Air pollution may contribute to the development of allergic diseases, including asthma, by enhancing immune responses to allergen, but the effects on microRNA, messenger RNA, and inflammatory markers remain unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if acute exposure to diesel exhaust and/or allergen alters expression of microRNA and genes with effects on inflammatory markers associated with asthma. METHODS: Fifteen atopic participants were exposed in a crossover trial to inhaled filtered air or diesel exhaust (DE; 300 μg particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676626/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-herbicide-exposure-in-vietnam-era-u-s-army-chemical-corps-veterans
#19
Yasmin Cypel, Stella E Hines, Victoria J Davey, Stephanie M Eber, Aaron I Schneiderman
RATIONALE: Past research demonstrates a possible association between herbicide exposure and respiratory health. Biologic plausibility and inhalation as a mode of exposure further support the contention that herbicides may act as adverse contributors to respiratory status, especially in military personnel who were responsible for chemical maintenance and distribution during the Vietnam War. OBJECTIVES: This study examines the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and herbicide exposure among Vietnam-era U...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676623/nicotine-downregulates-the-compensatory-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#20
Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues
RATIONALE: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is well established. Angiotensin-II, by means of its type 1 receptor (angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1 R), promotes increased sympathetic activity, salt and water reabsorption, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and aldosterone and vasopressin release, contributing to tissue fibrosis, endothelium dysfunction, and hypertension...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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