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Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Alison M Lee, Naomi Guppy, John Bainbridge, Hanne Jahns
The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is an endangered tiger subspecies. An adult zoo-bred female was found collapsed, and died despite supportive treatment. Hematology and biochemistry showed pancytopenia and hyperglobulinemia, and serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal band in the β-globulin region. Necropsy demonstrated hemoabdomen, multifocal lytic bone marrow lesions, splenomegaly, and hemorrhagic hepatic nodules, with left medial lobe rupture. There were mutifocal hemorrhages in the subcutis, lung, epicardium, and intestinal mucosa...
2017: Open veterinary journal
Attila Trájer, Tamás Hammer, István Kacsala, Balázs Tánczos, Nárcisz Bagi, Judit Padisák
Aedes albopictus is an important vector of several diseases including dengue- and Chikungunya fever and is a potential vector of Zika-fever. The invasion dynamics of Aedes albopictus was reconsidered by comparing the temperature-related development of the mosquito with the observed real geographical distribution in Florida and in Italy. The potential number of generations and the annual dispersal distances of the mosquito were calculated for the estimates. The estimated total dispersals are 3.6-4.6 km/year/generation in Italy and 4...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Christopher A Binckley
Understanding how interacting abiotic and biotic factors influence colonization rates into different habitat types is critical for both conserving and controlling species. For example, the rapid global spread of Asian tiger mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus, has reduced native species abundances and produced disease outbreaks. Fortunately, bacterial endospores of two Bacillus species (biospesticide) are highly lethal to Ae. albopictus larvae and have been commercially developed to reduce populations. Oviposition habitat selection is the first defense Ae...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Carol L Shields, Sara E Lally, Jerry A Shields
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
Mriganka Shekhar Sarkar, Ramesh Krishnamurthy, Jeyaraj A Johnson, Subharanjan Sen, Goutam Kumar Saha
Background: Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals' ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris), which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies...
2017: PeerJ
V N Kapsaski-Kanelli, E Evergetis, A Michaelakis, D P Papachristos, E D Myrtsi, S D Koulocheri, S A Haroutounian
Present essay explores the potentials of Citrus juice industry's by-products as alternative bioactive natural products resources. Four crude Cold Pressed Essential Oils (CPEOs), derived from orange, lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin, were studied. All CPEOs were subjected to water distillation, in order to obtain the volatile fragment, which was further fractionated with respect to distillation period in two parts, concluding to eight samples. These samples along with the four original CPEOs were assessed in relation to their phytochemical content and their repellent and larvicidal properties against Asian Tiger Mosquito...
2017: BioMed Research International
F Wang, X G Wang, C Liu, O Q Chang, Y Y Feng, L Jiang, K B Li
Nocardiosis afflicts multiple species of cultured fish, resulting in substantial economic losses to the aquaculture industry, however, lack of detailed knowledge on disease pathogenesis has hampered the development of effective prevention and control strategies. In this study, we injected a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Nocardia seriolae strain into a transparent mutant strain of Tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona) to monitor tissue pathogen accumulation and tissue damage in vivo, and to clarify the relationship between pathogenic processes and overt symptoms...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Falin Zhou, Kaimin Zhou, Jianhua Huang, Qibin Yang, Song Jiang, Lihua Qiu, Lishi Yang, Shigui Jiang
Chitinases are crucial enzymes for crustaceans. Previous researches had already revealed that chitinases play important roles in digestion, molting and defense against viruses. In the present study, a chitinase cDNA was identified from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and designated as PmChi-5. The full-length PmChi-5 cDNA was 2860 bp in size, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1731 bp that encoded a protein of 576 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 64.8 kDa. Expression of the PmChi-5 mRNA was ubiquitously detected in all selected tissues, with the highest level in the gill and hepatopancreas...
October 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Josep Rubert, Kamila Hurkova, Milena Stranska, Jana Hajslova
Tiger nuts and tiger nut milk are well-known Valencian products, and step-by-step these tubers and the tuber-based beverage are becoming more and more relevant products in international markets. However, the increasing demand and success of Valencian tiger nuts did not allow protected designation of origin (PDO) tuber to supply the domestic and international markets. Therefore, the verification of the geographical origin is highly required. In this research, the main objective was to combine an advance analytical method and chemometrics tools in order to decipher the geographical origin of 45 tiger nut samples from (i) "Xufa de València" PDO and (ii) African samples...
November 3, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Amy E Lindsey, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Antibiotics such as gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) and penicillin (a beta-lactam antibiotic) are routinely used in retinal cell and explant cultures. In many cases, these in vitro systems are testing parameters regarding photoreceptor transplantation or preparing cells for transplantation. In vivo, milligram doses of gentamicin are neurotoxic to the retina. However, little is known about the effects of antibiotics to retina in vitro and whether smaller doses of gentamicin are toxic to retinal cells. To test toxicity, retinal cells were dissociated from tiger salamander, placed in culture, and treated with either 20 μg/ml gentamicin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 100 U/ml antibiotic/antimycotic, 0...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Masato Honda, Akemi Muta, Akinari Shimazaki, Taiki Akasaka, Michiyasu Yoshikuni, Yohei Shimasaki, Yuji Oshima
Distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was investigated in tissues (plasma, blood clot, mucus, skin, liver, muscle, and gonad) of tiger puffer fish Takifugu rubripes. A single dose of PFOS was intraperitoneally injected at 0.1 mg/kg body weight with samples taken over a 14-day period. The highest concentration of PFOS was found in the plasma, 861 ng/mL at 14 days, followed by the mucus, liver, blood clot, gonads, muscles, and skin of fish. A gradual upward trend in PFOS concentration was observed in the mucus and liver whereas there was no change in the plasma, blood clot, gonad, muscle, and skin after the initial increase in PFOS concentrations following injection...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Veronica Tucci, John Liu, Anu Matorin, Asim Shah, Nidal Moukaddam
Context: Over 6% of all emergency department (ED) visits in the United States involve primary mental health or behavioral issues. The patients are stabilized in the ED but frequently require admission to an inpatient psychiatric unit or institution for longer term treatment and management. To facilitate this process, an emergency physician (EP) must first "medically clear" the patient as stable for transfer. At present, there is no interdisciplinary consensus regarding the necessary elements of the medical clearance or stability assessment process...
October 2017: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Marco Di Luca, Luciano Toma, Francesco Severini, Daniela Boccolini, Salvatore D'Avola, Diego Todaro, Alessandra Stancanelli, Francesco Antoci, Francesco La Russa, Sandro Casano, Salvatore D Sotera, Eugenio Carraffa, Veerle Versteirt, Francis Schaffner, Roberto Romi, Alessandra Torina
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus, a known worldwide vector of several mosquito-borne disease pathogens including dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, was introduced into Europe in the late 1970s through global trade. First recorded in northern Italy in 1990, this mosquito species has rapidly spread throughout the country, where it was responsible for an outbreak of chikungunya in 2007 that affected more than 200 people. As part of the VectorNet project, which is aimed at improving preparedness and responsiveness for animal and human vector-borne diseases in Europe, a mosquito targeted study was carried out on the three southernmost Italian islands...
November 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Xiaoming Yu, Lei Chen, Wenda Cui, Binbin Xing, Xin Zhuang, Guosheng Zhang
The critical swimming speed (U crit, cm s(-1)) of juvenile tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes was determined under different temperatures (15, 21, 25 and 30 °C), salinities (5, 10, 20, 32 and 40), body lengths (3.32, 4.08, 5.06 and 5.74 cm) and starvation days (1, 3, 6 and 9 days). Acute temperature change, body length and starvation significantly influenced the U crit of tiger puffers, whereas acute salinity change had no significant effect. The U crit increased as the temperature increased from 15 to 30 °C...
October 29, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Shou-Ping Hu, Zhuo Zhang, Jiao-Er Zhang, Xue-Hui Cai, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Xi-Jun He
A 2- to 4-year-old uncastrated male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altica) bred in a local wild animal park presented with generalized clinical signs including abdominal pain, fever, lethargy, and anorexia, along with subcutaneous nodules along the trunk. The patient subsequently died of chronic, progressive dyspnea despite 45 days of antibiotic treatment. At necropsy, mesenteric fat inflammation and multiple subcutaneous, peritoneal, and intraabdominal nodules were observed. The lungs demonstrated congestion and heavy coagulation, and necrotic foci were observed on the cut surface...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Deborah Bowman
Shame in healthcare remains relatively underexplored, yet it is commonplace and its impact is significant. This paper explores shame in healthcare using Nina Raine's 2011 play Tiger Country Three manifestations of shame are explored, namely (1) shame in relation to professional identity and survival in the clinical workplace; (2) shame and illness as experienced by both patients and doctors; and (3) the systemic and organisational influences on shame within healthcare systems. I suggest that the theatre is particularly well-placed to elucidate shame, and that Tiger Country demonstrates the prevalence and impact of shame on clinical work...
October 27, 2017: Medical Humanities
Roger Eritja, John R B Palmer, David Roiz, Isis Sanpera-Calbet, Frederic Bartumeus
Whereas the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has low active dispersal capabilities, its worldwide colonization has been rapid. Indirect evidence and informal reports have long implicated passive transportation in cars, but this has not previously been studied systematically given the difficulties of real-time roadside surveys. Here we report the first sampling study confirming that adult tiger mosquitoes travel with humans in cars and enabling us to estimate the frequency of these events. We combine the results with citizen science data to model the car-facilitated dispersal of Aedes albopictus at a nationwide level...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
John R B Palmer, Aitana Oltra, Francisco Collantes, Juan Antonio Delgado, Javier Lucientes, Sarah Delacour, Mikel Bengoa, Roger Eritja, Frederic Bartumeus
Recent outbreaks of Zika, chikungunya and dengue highlight the importance of better understanding the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes across multiple spatio-temporal scales. Traditional surveillance tools are limited by jurisdictional boundaries and cost constraints. Here we show how a scalable citizen science system can solve this problem by combining citizen scientists' observations with expert validation and correcting for sampling effort. Our system provides accurate early warning information about the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) invasion in Spain, well beyond that available from traditional methods, and vital for public health services...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
Vivienne L Williams, Andrew J Loveridge, David J Newton, David W Macdonald
The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead...
2017: PloS One
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