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Iveta Eimontaite, Vinod Goel, Vanessa Raymont, Frank Krueger, Igor Schindler, Jordan Grafman
To answer the question of how brain pathology affects reasoning about negative emotional content, we administered a disjunctive logical reasoning task involving arguments with neutral content (e.g. Either there are tigers or women in NYC, but not both; There are no tigers in NYC; There are women in NYC) and emotionally laden content (e.g. Either there are pedophiles or politicians in Texas, but not both; There are politicians in Texas; There are no pedophiles in Texas) to 92 neurological patients with focal lesions to various parts of the brain...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Zhang Ruiling, Liu Tongkai, Ma Dezhen, Zhang Zhong
There has been a rapid global expansion of Aedes albopictus, with varying biological characters and vector competence according to geographic and evolutionary origins of the invading populations. Based on mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences from both native and invasive regions, genetic characters of Ae. albopictus were examined. Phylogenetic analyses indicate lineage differentiation in the original areas, and only one of the lineages was involved in the worldwide expansion. Multiple invasions were detected in populations in Africa and the Americas, whereas no obvious genetic structure was found in European populations...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Ramachandran Ishwarya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Suganya Subbaiah, Abdul Khudus Nazar, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Mohammed N Al-Anbr
The green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using phytochemical from marine seaweeds is a fast-growing research field in nanotechnology. Here, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was achieved using the hot water extract of Sargassum wightii. The hot water extract prepared from S. wightii (H Sw) and ZnO NPs were studied by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and XRD. Then, both products were evaluated for antibiofilm activity towards aquatic pathogens. The nanoparticles' immunostimulating potential on green tiger prawns, Penaeus semisulcatus was studied through immersion and dietary administration...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Pakkakul Sangsuriya, Walaiporn Charoensapsri, Jantiwan Sutthangkul, Saengchan Senapin, Ikuo Hirono, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Piti Amparyup
Melanization, mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system, is an important innate immune response in invertebrates. The implication of the proPO system in antiviral response and the suppression of host proPO activation by the viral protein have previously been demonstrated in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanism of viral-host interactions in the proPO cascade remains largely unexplored. Here, we characterized the viral protein, namely, WSSV164, which was initially identified from the forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that was challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)...
May 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ayodeji A Olabiyi, Fabiano B Carvalho, Nathieli B Bottari, Vera M Morsch, Ademir F Morel, Ganiyu Oboh, Maria Rosa Schetinger
BACKGROUND: Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) and walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Müll. Arg.) have been reportedly used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, prevent heart attack and improve blood circulation, reduce serum cholesterol level as well as inhibit oxidation reactions. PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of tiger nut and walnut hydro-alcoholic extracts on extracellular metabolism of ATP through the NOS/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway induced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) in kidney slices...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Qiao Zhenglei, Ma Jianzhang
In order to reduce the stress response of animals in animal transportation, it is often used to feed the animals with sedative drugs combined with compound vitamin B. In this article, we will randomly divide 16 amur tiger into the control group and the experimental group. The drug intervention is carried out in the experimental group. The sedative is mainly dexmedetomidine, combined with compound vitamin B, while control group did not feed the drug. The urine of two groups of individuals was collected before and after transportation and the cortisol content in urine was determined by radioimmunoassay as an indication of stress...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Deaglan J McHugh, Darren R Feldman
The majority of metastatic germ cell tumors (GCTs) are cured with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but 20-30% of patients will relapse after first-line chemotherapy and require additional salvage strategies. The two major salvage approaches in this scenario are high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT). Both CDCT and HDCT have curative potential in the management of relapsed/refractory GCT. However, due to a lack of conclusive randomized trials, it remains unknown whether sequential HDCT or CDCT represents the optimal initial salvage approach, with practice varying between tertiary institutions...
2018: Advances in Urology
Qiao Zhenglei, Ma Jianzhang
In order to reduce the stress response of animals in animal transportation, it is often used to feed the animals with sedative drugs combined with compound vitamin B. In this article, we will randomly divide 16 amur tiger into the control group and the experimental group. The drug intervention is carried out in the experimental group. The sedative is mainly dexmedetomidine, combined with compound vitamin B, while control group did not feed the drug. The urine of two groups of individuals was collected before and after transportation and the cortisol content in urine was determined by radioimmunoassay as an indication of stress...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Runqing Huang, Qiong Zhou, Yan Shi, Jing Zhang, Jianguo He, Junfeng Xie
Family Nodaviridae consists of two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus, and the latter is classified into four genotypes, including red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus. Type I interferons (IFNs) play a central role in the innate immune system and antiviral responses, and the interactions between IFN and NNV have been investigated in this study. We have found that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), named protein A, was capable of activating IFN promoter in fathead minnow (FHM) cells...
May 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Suwattana Visetnan, Suchao Donpudsa, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit
In shrimp, the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are involved in host innate immune defense system against pathogenic microorganisms. A five-Kazal-domain SPIPm2 is the most abundant KPIs in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and up-regulated in response to yellow head virus (YHV) infection. In this study, the role of SPIPm2 in YHV infection was investigated. The expression of SPIPm2 in hemocytes, gill and heart from 48-h YHV-infected shrimp was increased. The expression of SPIPm2 in hemocytes was significantly increased after 12 h of infection and gradually increased higher afterwards...
May 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jason Dean-Chen Yin, Alex Jingwei He
Singapore and Hong Kong, two high-income "Tiger economies" in Asia, were ranked as the top two most efficient health systems in the world. Despite remarkable similarities in history and socioeconomic development, both economies embraced rather different paths in health care reforms in the past decades, which reflect their respective sociopolitical dynamics. Rapidly ageing populations and the anxiety about future funding of health care have prompted them to embark on major health financing reforms in the recent three years...
April 30, 2018: Health Policy
Zhang Ruiling, Liu Tongkai, Huang Zhendong, Zhuang Guifen, Ma Dezhen, Zhangzhong
Aedes albopictus has been described as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. This mosquito originated from southeastern Asia and currently has a widespread presence in every continent except Antarctica. The rapid global expansion of Ae. albopictus has increased public health concerns about arbovirus-related disease threats. Adaptation, adaption to novel areas is a biological challenge for invasive species, and the underlying processes can be studied at the molecular level. In this study, genetic analysis was performed using mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5), based on both native and invasive populations...
May 2, 2018: Acta Tropica
Awatef Ahmed Ben Ramadan, Jeannette Jackson-Thompson, Chester Lee Schmaltz
BACKGROUND: The Missouri Cancer Registry collects population-based cancer incidence data on Missouri residents diagnosed with reportable malignant neoplasms. The Missouri Cancer Registry wanted to produce data that would be of interest to lawmakers as well as public health officials at the legislative district level on breast cancer, the most common non-skin cancer among females. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to measure and interactively visualize survival data of female breast cancer cases in the Missouri Cancer Registry...
May 3, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Bryan D Moyer, Justin K Murray, Joseph Ligutti, Kristin Andrews, Philippe Favreau, John B Jordan, Josie H Lee, Dong Liu, Jason Long, Kelvin Sham, Licheng Shi, Reto Stöcklin, Bin Wu, Ruoyuan Yin, Violeta Yu, Anruo Zou, Kaustav Biswas, Les P Miranda
Identification of voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 inhibitors for chronic pain therapeutic development is an area of vigorous pursuit. In an effort to identify more potent leads compared to our previously reported GpTx-1 peptide series, electrophysiology screening of fractionated tarantula venom discovered the NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide JzTx-V from the Chinese earth tiger tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao. The parent peptide displayed nominal selectivity over the skeletal muscle NaV1.4 channel. Attribute-based positional scan analoging identified a key Ile28Glu mutation that improved NaV1...
2018: PloS One
Jiayin Gu, Lan Yu, Yan Hua, Yao Ning, Bao Heng, Jinzhe Qi, Zexv Long, Mingyuan Yao, Chong Huang, Zhilin Li, Jianming Lang, Guangshun Jiang, Jianzhang Ma
A small, isolated Amur tiger population is living at the southwest Primorskii Krai in Russia and Hunchun in China region. Many of them with "dual nationality" cross the border frequently. Formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger food requirements in both Russia and China sides, while Russia side already have clear results of it. We used scat analysis combined with data on the abundance of four prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and prey preferences in Hunchun...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Ugyen Penjor, David W Macdonald, Sonam Wangchuk, Tandin Tandin, Cedric Kai Wei Tan
The survival of large carnivores is increasingly precarious due to extensive human development that causes the habitat loss and fragmentation. Habitat selection is influenced by anthropogenic as well as environmental factors, and understanding these relationships is important for conservation management. We assessed the environmental and anthropogenic variables that influence site use of clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa in Bhutan, estimated their population density, and used the results to predict the species' site use across Bhutan...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Haitao Yang, Hailong Dou, Raj Kumar Baniya, Siyu Han, Yu Guan, Bing Xie, Guojing Zhao, Tianming Wang, Pu Mou, Limin Feng, Jianping Ge
We analyzed the scats of Amur tigers and Amur leopards, and examined their annual and seasonal food habits in Northeast China to comprehend their coexistence. Wild boar had the highest annual and seasonal consumption frequencies by the tigers, while both roe deer and sika deer were mostly preyed by the leopards annually. The three species appeared to be the key preys in terms of high proportion of consumed biomass by the two felids. Our data also revealed numerous mid-sized carnivores and small mammals included in the two felids' food list...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emily Burdfield-Steel, Hannu Pakkanen, Bibiana Rojas, Juan A Galarza, Johanna Mappes
Many animals protect themselves from predation with chemicals, both self-made or sequestered from their diet. The potential drivers of the diversity of these chemicals have been long studied, but our knowledge of these chemicals and their acquisition mode is heavily based on specialist herbivores that sequester their defenses. The wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis, Linnaeus, 1758) is a well-studied aposematic species, but the nature of its chemical defenses has not been fully described . Here, we report the presence of two methoxypyrazines, 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, in the moths' defensive secretions...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Yanhai Wang, Binbin Jin, Peiwen Liu, Jing Li, Xiaoguang Chen, Jinbao Gu
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus , is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by the small interfering RNA pathway. However, the roles that the P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway play in antiviral immunity in Ae. albopictus and its midgut still need further exploration...
April 22, 2018: Viruses
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