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Christine Senneca, Gabriel Garcia, Justin F Rosenberg, Darryl Heard, Erin Porter, Lilian Olivera, Lisa Farina
A neutered male Siberian tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica) presented with paraplegia of 5 days' duration. Thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a focal, linear T2-W hyperintense intramedullary lesion at the level of T10-11 as well as reduced size of the nucleus pulposus of the T10-11 intervertebral disc. The animal was humanely euthanatized as a result of the severity of clinical signs and the poor prognosis. Gross necropsy revealed a dark red, firm focus on the spinal cord at the level of the T11 nerve roots...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Nicholas L Payne, Carl G Meyer, James A Smith, Jonathan D R Houghton, Adam Barnett, Bonnie J Holmes, Itsumi Nakamura, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Mark A Royer, Daniel M Coffey, James M Anderson, Melanie R Hutchinson, Katsufumi Sato, Lewis G Halsey
The redistribution of species has emerged as one of the most pervasive impacts of anthropogenic climate warming, and presents many societal challenges. Understanding how temperature regulates species distributions is particularly important for mobile marine fauna such as sharks given their seemingly rapid responses to warming, and the socio-political implications of human encounters with some dangerous species. The predictability of species distributions can potentially be improved by accounting for temperature's influence on performance, an elusive relationship for most large animals...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Axel H Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A Hipsley, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Venkatraman Sriramavaratharajan, Ramar Murugan
In the present study, antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities of nanoemulsions of the leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum litseifolium Thwaites collected from two different locations in the Western Ghats namely, Kannikatty, Kalakad Mundandurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu (Cl1 ) and Karamanayar, Agasthyamalai hills, Kerala (Cl2 ), India were studied. Essential oils were extracted from the leaves and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. Slight variation in the composition of leaf essential oils was observed. Essential oil based nanoemulsions were prepared using a surfactant (Tween-80), co-surfactant (propylene glycol) and an emulsifier (lecithin) by homogenization followed by ultra-sonication...
March 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Hui-Yeng Y Yap, Nget-Hong Tan, Szu-Ting Ng, Chon-Seng Tan, Shin-Yee Fung
Naturally occurring anti-glycation compounds have drawn much interest in recent years as they show potential in reducing or preventing the risk of chronic complications for diabetic patients. In this study, annotation of the genome-transcriptome data from tiger milk mushroom ( Lignosus rhinocerus , syn. Lignosus rhinocerotis ) to PlantCyc enzymes database identified transcripts that are related to anti-diabetic properties, and these include genes that are involved in carotenoid and abscisic acid biosynthesis as well as genes that code for glyoxalase I, catalase-peroxidases, and superoxide dismutases...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kevin D Lafferty, John P McLaughlin, Daniel S Gruner, Taylor A Bogar, An Bui, Jasmine N Childress, Magaly Espinoza, Elizabeth S Forbes, Cora A Johnston, Maggie Klope, Ana Miller-Ter Kuile, Michelle Lee, Katherine A Plummer, David A Weber, Ronald T Young, Hillary S Young
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, appears to have been extirpated from Palmyra Atoll following rat eradication. Anecdotal biting reports, collection records, and regular captures in black-light traps showed the species was present before rat eradication. Since then, there have been no biting reports and no captures over 2 years of extensive trapping (black-light and scent traps). By contrast, the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, was abundant before and after rat eradication. We hypothesize that mammals were a substantial and preferred blood meal for Aedes , whereas Culex feeds mostly on seabirds...
February 2018: Biology Letters
Boriana K Tchernookova, Chad Heer, Marin Young, David Swygart, Ryan Kaufman, Michael Gongwer, Lexi Shepherd, Hannah Caringal, Jason Jacoby, Matthew A Kreitzer, Robert Paul Malchow
Small alterations in extracellular acidity are potentially important modulators of neuronal signaling within the vertebrate retina. Here we report a novel extracellular acidification mechanism mediated by glial cells in the retina. Using self-referencing H+-selective microelectrodes to measure extracellular H+ fluxes, we show that activation of retinal Müller (glial) cells of the tiger salamander by micromolar concentrations of extracellular ATP induces a pronounced extracellular H+ flux independent of bicarbonate transport...
2018: PloS One
Meike Kroneisen, Raoul Bell
Rating the relevance of words for survival in the grasslands of a foreign land often leads to a memory advantage. However, it is as yet unclear whether the survival processing effect generalizes to source memory. Here, we examined whether people have enhanced source memory for the survival context in which an item has been encountered. Participants were asked to make survival-based or moving-based decisions about items prior to a classical source memory test. A multinomial model was used to measure old-new discrimination, source memory, and guessing biases separately...
February 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Mohammad Akhoundi, Frédéric Jourdain, Fabrice Chandre, Pascal Delaunay, David Roiz
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the main vectors for the transmission of several viral pathogens, in particular, dengue, Zika and chikungunya. In the absence of vaccines and treatment, control of Aedes mosquitoes is the only means of keeping these diseases in check. Aedes control is difficult, and it is, therefore, necessary to evaluate the efficacy of novel control methods, particularly those targeting adult and exophilic Ae. albopictus populations. METHODS: We carried out the first evaluation of the effectiveness of a field trap barrier system, i...
February 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Avula Nagarjuna, Panneerselvam Karthikeyan, Dhandapani Mohan, Shambanagouda Rudragouda Marigoudar
The study was carried out to evaluate enzyme activities and histopathological changes due to the effect of acute and chronic definitive toxicity of selenium (Se) on the post larvae (PL) of giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), and green mussel (Perna viridis). The 96-h Median Lethal concentration (LC 50 ) for the PL of shrimp was 3.36 mg L -1 and the chronic value for the long-term survival endpoint in a 21-d exposure was 0.10 mg L -1 . The green mussel 96-h LC 50 was 28.41 mg L -1 and the chronic value for the long-term survival endpoint in a 30-d exposure was 3...
February 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Puya Gharahkhani, Kathryn P Burdon, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Alex W Hewitt, Matthew H Law, Louis R Pasquale, Jae H Kang, Jonathan L Haines, Emmanuelle Souzeau, Tiger Zhou, Owen M Siggs, John Landers, Mona Awadalla, Shiwani Sharma, Richard A Mills, Bronwyn Ridge, David Lynn, Robert Casson, Stuart L Graham, Ivan Goldberg, Andrew White, Paul R Healey, John Grigg, Mitchell Lawlor, Paul Mitchell, Jonathan Ruddle, Michael Coote, Mark Walland, Stephen Best, Andrea Vincent, Jesse Gale, Graham RadfordSmith, David C Whiteman, Grant W Montgomery, Nicholas G Martin, David A Mackey, Janey L Wiggs, Stuart MacGregor, Jamie E Craig
Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. To identify new risk loci for OAG, we performed a genome-wide association study in 3,071 OAG cases and 6,750 unscreened controls, and meta-analysed the results with GWAS data for intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic disc parameters (the overall meta-analysis sample size varying between 32,000 to 48,000 participants), which are glaucoma-related traits. We identified and independently validated four novel genome-wide significant associations within or near MYOF and CYP26A1, LINC02052 and CRYGS, LMX1B, and LMO7 using single variant tests, one additional locus (C9) using gene-based tests, and two genetic pathways - "response to fluid shear stress" and "abnormal retina morphology" - in pathway-based tests...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Milad Hosseinialhashemi, Babak Daneshfard, Atefe Hashemi
Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with hereditary properties. It usually occurs in young adolescents with extrapyramidal symptoms besides disturbed mental function. In this study, we present a 23-year-old neuropsychiatric patient who primarily misdiagnosed to have conversion disorder. She had 5-year history of progressive dysarthria and generalized abnormal movements. After detecting the pathognomonic sign of "eye of the tiger" diagnosis was confirmed. The patient was discharged...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
Matthew Scott Luskin, Wido Rizki Albert, Mathias W Tobler
In the original version of the Article, reference 18 was incorrectly numbered as reference 30, and references 19 to 30 were incorrectly numbered as 18 to 29. These errors have now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the manuscript.
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Elena Roselló-Soto, Mahesha M Poojary, Francisco J Barba, Mohamed Koubaa, Jose M Lorenzo, Jordi Mañes, Juan Carlos Moltó
"Horchata de chufa" is a traditional Spanish beverage produced from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.). Due to its richness in nutritional compounds, it is highly perishable and its conservation by pasteurization and/or adding preservatives is required. Although efficient, conventional thermal treatment for pasteurization induces changes in the nutritional and sensory properties. Replacing conventional pasteurization by non-thermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields, ultraviolet, and high pressure, combined with moderate temperatures (<40°C) allows a reduction of energy consumption, along with the preservation of the most thermo-sensitive molecules...
March 2018: Food Research International
Clément Tisseuil, Enkelejda Velo, Silvia Bino, Perparim Kadriaj, Kujtim Mersini, Ada Shukullari, Artan Simaku, Elton Rogozi, Beniamino Caputo, Els Ducheyne, Alessandra Della Torre, Paul Reiter, Marius Gilbert
The increasing spread of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Europe and US raises public health concern due to the species competence to transmit several exotic human arboviruses, among which dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and urges the development of suitable modeling approach to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of the mosquito. Here we developed a dynamical species distribution modeling approach forecasting Ae. albopictus eggs abundance at high spatial (0.01 degree WGS84) and temporal (weekly) resolution over 10 Balkan countries, using temperature times series of Modis data products and altitude as input predictors...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Valérie Trichon, Pierre Hiernaux, Romain Walcker, Eric Mougin
Following 25 years of below average annual rainfall in the Sahel between 1970 and 1995, the return to more humid conditions has led to rapid postdrought recovery of the woody cover. However, the increase in the woody cover is not spatially homogeneous raising questions about the resilience of some woody vegetation types. Based on the analysis of field and remote sensing data collected on the tiger bush systems in the northern Sahel in Mali, this study noted the current and persistent degradation of these systems in the Sahel since the 1970s despite the recent improvement in rainfall since the mid-1990s and the general Sahel re-greening...
February 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Xiaohong Liu, Chenglong Jiao, Yue Ma, Qiyao Wang, Yuanxing Zhang
Tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes) is becoming an economic promising aquaculture species in China. However, the development of Tiger puffer breeding industry is restricted by some serious aquatic disease such as vibriosis. An effective live attenuated vaccine MVAV6203 was developed in our previous studies by curing the virulence plasmid pEIB1 and unmarked inframe-deletion of the aroC gene from the virulent V. anguillarum. Here, we evaluated whether this live vaccine was suitable for Tiger puffer against disease caused by Vibrio genus...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
Tomas Gabriel Bas, Carolina Alejandra Oliu
The convergence of different theories (ie, catch-up effect and windows of opportunities) allows for the interpretation of different "technological innovation gaps" in Chile's biomedical industry. It is common knowledge that Chile has always had an economy almost exclusively based on services, commodities, and mainly in the exploitation of natural resources with low value added. The literature confirms that countries that concentrate their economies on the knowledge, research, development, and commercialization of technology and innovation have a better and more stable growth rate in the medium and long run...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Abdul Haleem, Orus Ilyas
Indian gaur (Bos gaurus) is one of nine species of wild oxen found in the world. They are largely confined to evergreen, semi-evergreen, and moist deciduous forests, but also occur in dry deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range. According to the IUCN Red List ( 2017 ), the estimated population of gaur in India is between 15,000 and 35,000 individuals, and probably due to this, despite the gaur's vast range of distribution, they are listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN and listed as schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act ( 1972 ) as well as in appendix-I in CITES ( 2003 )...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Bonnie J Holmes, Lisa C Pope, Samuel M Williams, Ian R Tibbetts, Mike B Bennett, Jennifer R Ovenden
Multiple paternity has been documented as a reproductive strategy in both viviparous and ovoviviparous elasmobranchs, leading to the assumption that multiple mating may be ubiquitous in these fishes. However, with the majority of studies conducted on coastal and nearshore elasmobranchs that often form mating aggregations, parallel studies on pelagic, semi-solitary species are lacking. The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) is a large pelagic shark that has an aplacental viviparous reproductive mode which is unique among the carcharhinids...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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