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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614468/energy-expenditure-in-people-with-transtibial-amputation-walking-with-crossover-and-energy-storing-prosthetic-feet-a-randomized-within-subject-study
#1
Cody L McDonald, Patricia A Kramer, Sara J Morgan, Elizabeth G Halsne, Sarah M Cheever, Brian J Hafner
BACKGROUND: Energy storing feet are unable to reduce the energy required for normal locomotion among people with transtibial amputation. Crossover feet, which incorporate aspects of energy storing and running specific feet, are designed to maximize energy return while providing stability for everyday activities. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do crossover prosthetic feet reduce the energy expenditure of walking across a range of speeds, when compared with energy storing feet among people with transtibial amputation due to non-dysvascular causes? METHODS: A randomized within-subject study was conducted with a volunteer sample of twenty-seven adults with unilateral transtibial amputation due to non-dysvascular causes...
March 27, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607557/maternal-hemodynamics-fetal-biometry-and-dopplers-in-pregnancies-followed-up-for-suspected-fetal-growth-restriction
#2
Llinos A Roberts, Hua Zen Ling, Liona Poon, Kypros H Nicolaides, Nikos A Kametas
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether in a cohort of patients with small for gestational age (SGA) foetuses with estimated fetal weight ≤10th percentile, maternal hemodynamics, fetal biometry and Dopplers at presentation, can predict the subsequent development of abnormal fetal Dopplers or delivery with birthweight <3rd percentile. METHODS: The study population comprised of 86 singleton pregnancies with SGA fetuses presenting at a median gestational age of 32 (range 26-35) weeks...
April 1, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580796/effect-of-levosimendan-on-renal-outcome-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-and-perioperative-cardiovascular-dysfunction-a-substudy-of-a-multicenter-randomized-trial
#3
Alberto Zangrillo, Gabriele Alvaro, Alessandro Belletti, Antonio Pisano, Luca Brazzi, Maria G Calabrò, Fabio Guarracino, Tiziana Bove, Evgeny V Grigoryev, Fabrizio Monaco, Vladimir A Boboshko, Valery V Likhvantsev, Anna M Scandroglio, Gianluca Paternoster, Rosalba Lembo, Samuele Frassoni, Marco Comis, Vadim V Pasyuga, Paolo Navalesi, Vladimir V Lomivorotov
OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan might reduce the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors investigated whether levosimendan administration could reduce AKI incidence in a high-risk cardiac surgical population. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units of 14 centers in 3 countries...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564979/levosimendan-for-perioperative-cardioprotection-myth-or-reality
#4
Elpidio Santillo, Monica Migale, Carlo Massini, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer drug causing increased contractility in the myocardium and vasodilation in the vascular system. It is mainly used for the therapy of acute decompensated heart failure. Several studies on animals and humans provided evidence of the cardioprotective properties of levosimendan including preconditioning and anti-apoptotic. In view of these favorable effects, levosimendan has been tested in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for the prevention or treatment of low cardiac output syndrome...
March 21, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513736/a-new-perspective-on-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-renal-disease-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#5
Emily P Mitchell, Leon Prozesky, John Lawrence
The sustainability of captive cheetah populations is limited by high mortality due to chronic renal disease. This necropsy study, conducted on 243 captive cheetahs from one institution, investigated the relationships between focal palatine erosions, gastritis, enterocolitis, glomerulosclerosis, chronic renal infarcts, renal cortical and medullary fibrosis, and renal medullary amyloidosis at death. Associations between the individual renal lesions and death due to chronic renal disease and comparisons of lesion prevalence between captive bred and wild born and between normal and king coated cheetahs were also assessed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493803/material-matters-analysis-of-density-uncertainty-in-3d-printing-and-its-consequences-for-radiation-oncology
#6
Daniel F Craft, Stephen F Kry, Peter Balter, Mohammad Salehpour, Wendy Woodward, Rebecca M Howell
PURPOSE: Using 3D printing to fabricate patient-specific devices such as tissue compensators, boluses, and phantoms is inexpensive and relatively simple. However, most 3D printing materials have not been well characterized, including their radiologic tissue-equivalence. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the variance in Hounsfield Units (HU) for printed objects, (2) determine if HU varies over time, and (3) calculate the clinical dose uncertainty caused by these material variations...
March 1, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449038/one-year-daily-changes-in-fecal-sexual-steroids-of-two-captive-female-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-italy
#7
Valentina Vernocchi, Maria Giorgia Morselli, Massimo Faustini, Gianfranco Gabai, Laura Da Dalt, Gaia Cecilia Luvoni
The present study evaluated changes of fecal sexual steroids in two female cheetahs (Geijsha and Duchessa) in Northern Italy throughout one year. Wet feces were collected daily from two sibling animals of the same age, housed with conspecific males and managed in the same conditions, and estrogens and progestogens concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Evidence of ovarian activity based on regular fluctuation in estrogen excretion was demonstrated in both females. None of the animals was continuously cycling, as follicular activity was interrupted by anestrous periods, during the spring and early winter...
February 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422320/oral-maxillofacial-and-dental-diseases-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#8
G Steenkamp, S C Boy, P J van Staden, M N Bester
Descriptions of several oral, maxillofacial and dental conditions/diseases exist for a variety of captive large felids, but little is reported on the pathology of free roaming large felids. Apart from focal palatine erosions (FPEs) as initially described by Fitch and Fagan (1982) and some reference to absent incisor teeth, few data exist on diseases affecting the oral, maxillofacial and dental structures of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), regardless of their captivity status. This study reports 18 different conditions affecting the teeth, bone and oral cavity soft tissue of cheetahs, based on initial assessment of 256 animals over 11 years (2002-2012) in South Africa and Namibia...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396425/recent-inner-ear-specialization-for-high-speed-hunting-in-cheetahs
#9
Camille Grohé, Beatrice Lee, John J Flynn
The cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is the fastest living land mammal. Because of its specialized hunting strategy, this species evolved a series of specialized morphological and functional body features to increase its exceptional predatory performance during high-speed hunting. Using high-resolution X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT), we provide the first analyses of the size and shape of the vestibular system of the inner ear in cats, an organ essential for maintaining body balance and adapting head posture and gaze direction during movement in most vertebrates...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369722/the-occurrence-of-some-nonblood-protozoan-parasites-in-wild-and-domestic-mammals-in-south-africa
#10
Radka Lukášová, Ali Halajian, Eva Bártová, Kateřina Kobédová, Lourens H Swanepoel, M Justin O'Riain
  Relatively little is known about protozoan parasites in African animals. Here we investigated the occurrence of protozoan parasites in mammals from South Africa. Oocysts of protozoan parasites were detected in 13 of 56 (23%) fecal samples using conventional microscopic examination methods. Cryptosporidium spp. and Isospora spp. were detected in eight (14 %) and five (9 %) samples, respectively. Mixed parasitic infection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Isospora spp. was recorded in banded mongoose ( Mungos mungo)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364874/biomechanics-of-predator-prey-arms-race-in-lion-zebra-cheetah-and-impala
#11
Alan M Wilson, Tatjana Y Hubel, Simon D Wilshin, John C Lowe, Maja Lorenc, Oliver P Dewhirst, Hattie L A Bartlam-Brooks, Rebecca Diack, Emily Bennitt, Krystyna A Golabek, Roger C Woledge, J Weldon McNutt, Nancy A Curtin, Timothy G West
The fastest and most manoeuvrable terrestrial animals are found in savannah habitats, where predators chase and capture running prey. Hunt outcome and success rate are critical to survival, so both predator and prey should evolve to be faster and/or more manoeuvrable. Here we compare locomotor characteristics in two pursuit predator-prey pairs, lion-zebra and cheetah-impala, in their natural savannah habitat in Botswana. We show that although cheetahs and impalas were universally more athletic than lions and zebras in terms of speed, acceleration and turning, within each predator-prey pair, the predators had 20% higher muscle fibre power than prey, 37% greater acceleration and 72% greater deceleration capacity than their prey...
February 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316966/hiss-and-snort-call-types-of-wild-living-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-acoustic-structure-and-context
#12
Elena V Volodina, Ilya A Volodin, Elena V Chelysheva, Roland Frey
OBJECTIVES: Vocalization as part of vigilance behaviour is widespread across animal taxa, including ruminants. Calls of wild-living giraffes have never been recorded and spectrographically investigated. This study reports the acoustic structure of vigilance-related hiss and snort calls of wild-living giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis. RESULTS: The hiss and snort calls were emitted during five recording sessions produced by nine individual giraffes (8 adults and 1 subadult) in their natural environment in Namibia (3 individuals) and Kenya (6 individuals)...
January 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250465/the-distribution-and-numbers-of-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus-in-southern-africa
#13
Florian J Weise, Varsha Vijay, Andrew P Jacobson, Rebecca F Schoonover, Rosemary J Groom, Jane Horgan, Derek Keeping, Rebecca Klein, Kelly Marnewick, Glyn Maude, Jörg Melzheimer, Gus Mills, Vincent van der Merwe, Esther van der Meer, Rudie J van Vuuren, Bettina Wachter, Stuart L Pimm
Assessing the numbers and distribution of threatened species is a central challenge in conservation, often made difficult because the species of concern are rare and elusive. For some predators, this may be compounded by their being sparsely distributed over large areas. Such is the case with the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. The IUCN Red List process solicits comments, is democratic, transparent, widely-used, and has recently assessed the species. Here, we present additional methods to that process and provide quantitative approaches that may afford greater detail and a benchmark against which to compare future assessments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236714/non-invasive-identification-of-protein-biomarkers-for-early-pregnancy-diagnosis-in-the-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus
#14
Diana C Koester, David E Wildt, Morgan Maly, Pierre Comizzoli, Adrienne E Crosier
Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220006/save-iran-s-cheetah-from-extinction
#15
Jamshid Parchizadeh, Samual T Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202674/determination-of-the-diversity-of-astroviruses-in-feces-from-cats-in-florida
#16
Patricia E Lawler, Kirstin A Cook, Hannah G Williams, Linda L Archer, Karen E Schaedel, Natalie M Isaza, James F X Wellehan
Astroviruses are small, nonenveloped RNA viruses that have been linked to numerous diseases in a variety of species, including enteric disease in humans and cheetahs. Species Mamastrovirus 2, previously known as feline astrovirus, has been isolated from the feces of domestic cats and cheetahs. A total of 122 cat fecal samples from Alachua County, FL Animal Services and the Veterinary Community Outreach Program at the University of Florida were analyzed, and 35 contained astroviral RNA that was amplified and identified using consensus RT-PCR and sequence analysis...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169839/cardiopulmonary-effects-of-anaesthesia-maintained-by-propofol-infusion-versus-isoflurane-inhalation-in-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#17
Roxanne K Buck, Adrian Sw Tordiffe, Gareth E Zeiler
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiopulmonary effects of propofol total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with isoflurane in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to evaluate feasibility for field use. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 24 adult cheetahs, 12 per group. METHODS: Cheetahs were immobilized with zolazepam/tiletamine (1.2 mg kg-1 ) and medetomidine [40 μg kg-1 , both intramuscular (IM)] by darting...
November 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165868/the-effects-of-intrinsic-enrichment-on-captive-felids
#18
Juliana Damasceno, Gelson Genaro, Thomas Quirke, Shannen McCarthy, Sean McKeown, Ruth O'Riordan
Environmental enrichment is a well-known technique, which has been used to enhance the welfare of captive animals. The aim of this study is to investigate how three different forms of intrinsic enrichment, namely, a hay ball without scent, a hay ball with catnip, and a hay ball with cinnamon, influenced the behavior of six cheetah and two Sumatran tigers at Fota Wildlife Park, Ireland. Enrichment-directed behaviors, as well as pacing, locomotion, inactive, and exploratory behaviors were investigated. The results indicated that the three forms of enrichment had similar effects, in terms of enrichment-directed behavior, with cinnamon resulting in the highest levels of enrichment-directed behaviors...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121668/seasonal-recurrence-of-cowpox-virus-outbreaks-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#19
Julia Stagegaard, Andreas Kurth, Daniel Stern, Piotr Wojciech Dabrowski, Ann Pocknell, Andreas Nitsche, Livia Schrick
Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Nine cheetahs showed varying severity of clinical disease; two of them died (22%). All episodes occurred between August and October of the respective year. No other carnivores kept at the same institution nor the keepers taking care of the animals were clinically affected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110712/ultrasonographically-determined-renal-values-and-comparisons-to-serum-biochemistry-renal-variables-in-aged-semi-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#20
Robert M Kirberger, Adrian S W Tordiffe
BACKGROUND: Cheetahs in captivity have a high prevalence of chronic renal diseases. We ultrasonographically evaluated the renal volumes, a variety of renal dimensions, interarcuate artery resistive indices (RI) as well as aortic diameters and the length of the ventral aspect of the 6th lumbar vertebrae in 27 aged semi-captive anesthetized cheetahs. Renal size, dimensions and ratios were compared to urine specific gravity, serum creatinine and urea values. RESULTS: There were minimal differences for all values between left and right kidneys...
November 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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