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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166968/interspecies-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-in-asiatic-cheetah-using-nuclei-derived-from-post-mortem-frozen-tissue-in-absence-of-cryo-protectant-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-matured-domestic-cat-oocytes
#1
F Moulavi, S M Hosseini, N Tanhaie-Vash, S Ostadhosseini, S H Hosseini, M Hajinasrollah, M H Asghari, H Gourabi, A Shahverdi, A D Vosough, M H Nasr-Esfahani
Recent accomplishments in the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) hold tremendous promise to prevent rapid loss of animal genetic resources using ex situ conservation technology. Most of SCNT studies use viable cells for nuclear transfer into recipient oocytes. However, preparation of live cells in extreme circumstances, in which post-mortem material of endangered/rare animals is improperly retained frozen, is difficult, if not impossible. This study investigated the possibility of interspecies-SCNT (iSCNT) in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), a critically endangered subspecies, using nuclei derived from frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant at -20 °C and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157864/laser-shocked-energetic-materials-with-metal-additives-evaluation-of-chemistry-and-detonation-performance
#2
Jennifer L Gottfried, Eric J Bukowski
A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities of metal-doped energetic materials that undergo exothermic reactions in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion in the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The method enables the estimation of detonation velocities based on the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities and has previously been demonstrated for organic military explosives...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111069/mechanical-characterization-and-comparison-of-energy-storage-and-return-prostheses
#3
Stacey M Rigney, Anne Simmons, Lauren Kark
The suitability of finite element analysis (FEA) for standardizing the mechanical characterization of energy storage and return (ESAR) prostheses was investigated. A methodology consisting of both experimental and numerical analysis was proposed and trialed for the Vari-flex(®) Modular(TM), Flex-foot Cheetah and Cheetah Xtreme by Össur(®) and a 1E90 Sprinter by Ottobock(®). Gait analysis was conducted to determine suitable orientation angles for non-destructive testing (NDT) of the ESAR prostheses followed by a quasi-static inverse FEA procedure within COMSOL Multiphysics(®), where the NDT conditions were replicated to determine the homogenized material properties of the prostheses...
January 20, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103269/wildlife-population-dynamics-in-human-dominated-landscapes-under-community-based-conservation-the-example-of-nakuru-wildlife-conservancy-kenya
#4
Joseph O Ogutu, Bernard Kuloba, Hans-Peter Piepho, Erustus Kanga
Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC), located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070283/spatial-and-temporal-avoidance-of-risk-within-a-large-carnivore-guild
#5
Egil Dröge, Scott Creel, Matthew S Becker, Jassiel M'soka
Within a large carnivore guild, subordinate competitors (African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, and cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus) might reduce the limiting effects of dominant competitors (lion, Panthera leo, and spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta) by avoiding them in space, in time, or through patterns of prey selection. Understanding how these competitors cope with one other can inform strategies for their conservation. We tested how mechanisms of niche partitioning promote coexistence by quantifying patterns of prey selection and the use of space and time by all members of the large carnivore guild within Liuwa Plain National Park in western Zambia...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069967/when-protected-areas-prove-insufficient-cheetah-and-protection-reliant-species
#6
Joshua R Ginsberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031805/in-the-absence-of-a-landscape-of-fear-how-lions-hyenas-and-cheetahs-coexist
#7
Alexandra Swanson, Todd Arnold, Margaret Kosmala, James Forester, Craig Packer
Aggression by top predators can create a "landscape of fear" in which subordinate predators restrict their activity to low-risk areas or times of day. At large spatial or temporal scales, this can result in the costly loss of access to resources. However, fine-scale reactive avoidance may minimize the risk of aggressive encounters for subordinate predators while maintaining access to resources, thereby providing a mechanism for coexistence. We investigated fine-scale spatiotemporal avoidance in a guild of African predators characterized by intense interference competition...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028225/the-global-decline-of-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus-and-what-it-means-for-conservation
#8
Sarah M Durant, Nicholas Mitchell, Rosemary Groom, Nathalie Pettorelli, Audrey Ipavec, Andrew P Jacobson, Rosie Woodroffe, Monika Böhm, Luke T B Hunter, Matthew S Becker, Femke Broekhuis, Sultana Bashir, Leah Andresen, Ortwin Aschenborn, Mohammed Beddiaf, Farid Belbachir, Amel Belbachir-Bazi, Ali Berbash, Iracelma Brandao de Matos Machado, Christine Breitenmoser, Monica Chege, Deon Cilliers, Harriet Davies-Mostert, Amy J Dickman, Fabiano Ezekiel, Mohammad S Farhadinia, Paul Funston, Philipp Henschel, Jane Horgan, Hans H de Iongh, Houman Jowkar, Rebecca Klein, Peter Andrew Lindsey, Laurie Marker, Kelly Marnewick, Joerg Melzheimer, Johnathan Merkle, Jassiel M'soka, Maurus Msuha, Helen O'Neill, Megan Parker, Gianetta Purchase, Samaila Sahailou, Yohanna Saidu, Abdoulkarim Samna, Anne Schmidt-Küntzel, Eda Selebatso, Etotépé A Sogbohossou, Alaaeldin Soultan, Emma Stone, Esther van der Meer, Rudie van Vuuren, Mary Wykstra, Kim Young-Overton
Establishing and maintaining protected areas (PAs) are key tools for biodiversity conservation. However, this approach is insufficient for many species, particularly those that are wide-ranging and sparse. The cheetah Acinonyx jubatus exemplifies such a species and faces extreme challenges to its survival. Here, we show that the global population is estimated at ∼7,100 individuals and confined to 9% of its historical distributional range. However, the majority of current range (77%) occurs outside of PAs, where the species faces multiple threats...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026881/intrinsic-factors-adrenal-gland-morphology-and-disease-burden-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-south-africa
#9
Nina Gillis-Germitsch, Pamela-Rose Vybiral, Daryl Codron, Marcus Clauss, Antoinette Kotze, Emily P Mitchell
Adrenal gland weight (AW) and corticomedullary ratio (ACMR) are used as indicators of stress in animals. Captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have higher ACMRs than free-ranging ones and stress has been linked to gastritis, amyloidosis, glomerulosclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis. We reviewed age, sex, body weight (BW), kidney weight (KW), and left AW and ACMR with necropsy findings in 51 South African captive cheetahs. Eleven common histopathologic lesions were counted for each animal as measure of its disease burden...
December 27, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992457/comparative-serum-fatty-acid-profiles-of-captive-and-free-ranging-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-namibia
#10
Adrian S W Tordiffe, Bettina Wachter, Sonja K Heinrich, Fred Reyers, Lodewyk J Mienie
Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989173/iodine-rich-imidazolium-iodate-and-periodate-salts-en-route-to-single-based-biocidal-agents
#11
Chunlin He, Joseph P Hooper, Jean'ne M Shreeve
Two classes of iodine-rich salts that consist of iodine-rich cations and iodate (IO3(-)) or periodate (IO4(-)) anions were synthesized. The synthesis of analogous I3O8(-) salts was more difficult because of poor solubility and hydrolytic instability. All iodine-rich salts were fully characterized by infrared, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as elemental analyses. The molecular structures of compounds 15 and 24 were elucidated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction...
December 19, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926915/cheetah-reunion-the-challenge-of-finding-your-friends-again
#12
Tatjana Y Hubel, Justine Shotton, Simon D Wilshin, Jane Horgan, Rebecca Klein, Rick McKenna, Alan M Wilson
Animals navigate their environment using a variety of senses and strategies. This multiplicity enables them to respond to different navigational requirements resulting from habitat, scale and purpose. One of the challenges social animals face is how to reunite after periods of separation. We explore a variety of possible mechanisms used to reunite the members of a cheetah coalition dispersed within a large area after prolonged separation. Using GPS data from three cheetahs reuniting after weeks of separation, we determined that 1) the likelihood of purely coincidental reunion is miniscule 2) the reunion occurred in an area not normally frequented 3) with very little time spent in the region in advance of the reunion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913878/piroplasms-in-brown-hyaenas-parahyaena-brunnea-and-spotted-hyaenas-crocuta-crocuta-in-namibia-and-south-africa-are-closely-related-to-babesia-lengau
#13
Richard E J Burroughs, Barend L Penzhorn, Ingrid Wiesel, Nancy Barker, Ilse Vorster, Marinda C Oosthuizen
The objective of our study was identification and molecular characterization of piroplasms and rickettsias occurring in brown (Parahyaena brunnea) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) from various localities in Namibia and South Africa. Whole blood (n = 59) and skin (n = 3) specimens from brown (n = 15) and spotted hyaenas (n = 47) were screened for the presence of Babesia, Theileria, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization technique. PCR products of 52/62 (83...
February 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913453/movement-patterns-of-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-farmlands-in-botswana
#14
L K Van der Weyde, T Y Hubel, J Horgan, J Shotton, R McKenna, A M Wilson
Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas which occasionally results in human-wildlife conflict. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method...
January 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908659/public-exposure-and-number-of-conspecifics-have-no-influence-on-ovarian-and-adrenal-activity-in-the-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus
#15
Diana C Koester, David E Wildt, Janine L Brown, Karen Meeks, Adrienne E Crosier
Cheetahs in managed zoological collections do not reproduce efficiently, a problem that may be related to environmental/management stressors. In this study, we examined 17 adult female cheetahs to determine the influence of two environmental factors, (1) being housed on- or off-exhibit and (2) number of adult conspecifics (males and/or females) in nearby enclosures, on profiles and concentrations of ovarian and adrenal hormones. Secondarily, we assessed a subset of group-housed siblings (n=5 females in groups of 2 or 3) for effects of long-term cohabitation...
November 28, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898922/influence-of-pork-and-pork-by-products-on-macronutrient-and-energy-digestibility-and-palatability-in-large-exotic-felids
#16
C J Iske, C L Morris, K L Kappen
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812324/big-cat-coalitions-a-comparative-analysis-of-regional-brain-volumes-in-felidae
#17
Sharleen T Sakai, Bradley M Arsznov, Ani E Hristova, Elise J Yoon, Barbara L Lundrigan
Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802837/comparison-of-carnivore-omnivore-and-herbivore-mammalian-genomes-with-a-new-leopard-assembly
#18
Soonok Kim, Yun Sung Cho, Hak-Min Kim, Oksung Chung, Hyunho Kim, Sungwoong Jho, Hong Seomun, Jeongho Kim, Woo Young Bang, Changmu Kim, Junghwa An, Chang Hwan Bae, Youngjune Bhak, Sungwon Jeon, Hyejun Yoon, Yumi Kim, JeHoon Jun, HyeJin Lee, Suan Cho, Olga Uphyrkina, Aleksey Kostyria, John Goodrich, Dale Miquelle, Melody Roelke, John Lewis, Andrey Yurchenko, Anton Bankevich, Juok Cho, Semin Lee, Jeremy S Edwards, Jessica A Weber, Jo Cook, Sangsoo Kim, Hang Lee, Andrea Manica, Ilbeum Lee, Stephen J O'Brien, Jong Bhak, Joo-Hong Yeo
BACKGROUND: There are three main dietary groups in mammals: carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics insight into the evolution of dietary specializations in mammals. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, we were able to perform in-depth whole genome analyses of representatives of these three dietary groups. RESULTS: We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous dietary specializations, focusing on Felidae (domestic cat, tiger, lion, cheetah, and leopard), Hominidae, and Bovidae genomes...
October 11, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796106/reference-intervals-for-selected-serum-biochemistry-analytes-in-cheetahs-i-acinonyx-jubatus-i
#19
Gavin C Hudson-Lamb, Johan P Schoeman, Emma H Hooijberg, Sonja K Heinrich, Adrian S W Tordiffe
Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated...
February 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763827/serosurvey-for-selected-viral-pathogens-among-sympatric-species-of-the-african-large-predator-guild-in-northern-botswana
#20
Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
January 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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