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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150827/implications-of-tourist-macaque-interactions-for-disease-transmission
#1
Charlotte Carne, Stuart Semple, Ann MacLarnon, Bonaventura Majolo, Laëtitia Maréchal
During wildlife tourism, proximity or actual contact between people and animals may lead to a significant risk of anthropozoonotic disease transmission. In this paper, we use social network analysis, disease simulation modelling and data on animal health and behaviour to investigate such risks at a site in Morocco, where tourists come to see wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Measures of individual macaques' network centrality-an index of the strength and distribution of their social relationships and thus potentially their ability to spread disease-did not show clear and consistent relationships with their time spent in close proximity to, or rate of interacting with, tourists...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150402/network-science-of-biological-systems-at-different-scales-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Marko Gosak, Rene Markovič, Jurij Dolenšek, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Marko Marhl, Andraž Stožer, Matjaž Perc
Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present research highlights ranging from determination of the molecular interaction network within a cell to studies of architectural and functional properties of brain networks and biological transportation networks...
November 3, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146299/functional-connectivity-during-affective-mentalizing-in-criminal-offenders-with-psychotic-disorders-associations-with-clinical-symptoms
#3
Carla L Harenski, Vince D Calhoun, Juan R Bustillo, Brian W Haas, Jean Decety, Keith A Harenski, Michael F Caldwell, Gregory J Van Rybroek, Michael Koenigs, David M Thornton, Kent A Kiehl
Psychotic disorders are associated with neurobehavioral impairments in mental state attribution (mentalizing). These impairments are most severe in psychotic patients with elevated symptom levels, particularly negative and cognitive symptoms. There have been few studies of functional connectivity related to mentalizing in psychotic disorders and associations with symptoms. We conducted a functional MRI study of affective mentalizing in individuals with psychotic disorders and varying symptom levels (positive, negative, cognitive)...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#4
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135330/suffering-in-advanced-cancer-a-randomized-control-trial-of-a-narrative-intervention
#5
Meg Wise, Lucille R Marchand, Linda J Roberts, Ming-Yuan Chih
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer can erode patients' wellbeing. Narrative interventions have improved patients' wellbeing, but might not be feasible for widespread implementation. OBJECTIVES: (1) Test the effects of miLivingStory, a telephone-based life review and illness narrative intervention with online resources and social networking, on community-dwelling advanced cancer patients' wellbeing. (2) Explore intervention use and satisfaction. PATIENTS AND SETTING: Stage III or IV cancer patients having completed initial therapy were randomized to miLivingStory or to an active control group, miOwnResources...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132999/radiologists-and-social-media-do-not-forget-about-facebook
#6
Rebecca L Seidel, Aryan Jalilvand, Jean Kunjummen, Lea Gilliland, Richard Duszak
PURPOSE: Facebook (Facebook, Inc, Menlo Park, California, USA) is the most popular social networking platform worldwide. Facebook groups are virtual communities of people who share a common interest. Breast Imaging Radiologists is a Facebook group for radiologists with an interest in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to analyze the membership and activity of the Breast Imaging Radiologists Facebook group (BIRFG) for 2 years since its inception. METHODS: Using both the Grytics (www...
November 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132627/examining-health-disparities-by-gender-a-multimorbidity-network-analysis-of-electronic-medical-record
#7
Pankush Kalgotra, Ramesh Sharda, Julie M Croff
PROBLEM: Multimorbidity health disparities have not been well examined by gender. Co-occurring diseases may be mutually deleterious, co-occurring independently, or co-occurring from a common antecedent. Diseases linked by a common antecedent may be caused by biological, behavioral, social, or environmental factors. This paper aims to address the co-occurrences of diseases using network analysis. METHODS: In this study, we identify these multi-morbidities from a large electronic medical record (EMR) containing diagnoses, symptoms and treatment data on more than 22...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130486/rtp801-is-a-critical-factor-in-the-neurodegeneration-process-of-a53t-alpha-synuclein-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-under-chronic-restraint-stress
#8
Zhao Zhang, Shi-Feng Chu, Sha-Sha Wang, Yi-Na Jiang, Yan Gao, Peng-Fei Yang, Qi-Di Ai, Nai-Hong Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The incidence of Parkinson's disease exhibited a younger tendency in recent years with the constantly increased stressors of modern society, but this relationship remains obscured. We performed this study to investigate whether stress contributes to this tendency and identify the executor during this process. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Ten-month-old α-synuclein A53T mice, a PD mice model, were treated with chronic restraint stress (CRS) to simulate a PD-sensitive person with constant stress stimulation...
November 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130405/what-is-the-role-of-community-at-the-end-of-life-for-people-dying-in-advanced-age-a-qualitative-study-with-bereaved-family-carers
#9
Merryn Gott, Janine Wiles, Tess Moeke-Maxwell, Stella Black, Lisa Williams, Ngaire Kerse, Gabriella Trussardi
BACKGROUND: New public health approaches to palliative care prioritise the role of community at end of life. However, little is known about community support for the increasing numbers of people dying in advanced age. AIM: To explore the role of community at end of life for people dying in advanced age from the perspective of their bereaved family caregivers. DESIGN: A constructionist framework underpinned a qualitative research design. Data were analysed using critical thematic analysis...
October 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129006/preferences-for-depression-help-seeking-among-vietnamese-american-adults
#10
Jin E Kim-Mozeleski, Janice Y Tsoh, Ginny Gildengorin, Lien H Cao, Tiffany Ho, Sarita Kohli, Hy Lam, Ching Wong, Susan Stewart, Stephen J McPhee, Tung T Nguyen
Culture impacts help-seeking preferences. We examined Vietnamese Americans' help-seeking preferences for depressive symptoms, through a telephone survey (N = 1666). A vignette describing an age- and gender-matched individual with depression was presented, and respondents chose from a list of options and provided open-ended responses about their help-seeking preferences. Results showed that 78.3% would seek professional help, either from a family doctor, a mental health provider, or both; 54.4% preferred to seek help from a family doctor but not from a mental health provider...
November 11, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127336/intermediate-levels-of-network-heterogeneity-provide-the-best-evolutionary-outcomes
#11
Flávio L Pinheiro, Dominik Hartmann
Complex networks impact the diffusion of ideas and innovations, the formation of opinions, and the evolution of cooperative behavior. In this context, heterogeneous structures have been shown to generate a coordination-like dynamics that drives a population towards a monomorphic state. In contrast, homogeneous networks tend to result in a stable co-existence of multiple traits in the population. These conclusions have been reached through the analysis of networks with either very high or very low levels of degree heterogeneity...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126316/the-reciprocal-relationship-between-social-connectedness-and-mental-health-among-older-european-adults-a-share-based-analysis
#12
Ella Schwartz, Howard Litwin
Objectives: The current study aimed to understand the reciprocal relationship between social networks and mental health in old age. It explored the dynamic aspects of that relationship and assessed the influence of social networks on mental health, as well as a concurrent influence of mental health on change in social connectedness. Method: The data came from two measurement points in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The analytic sample was composed of adults aged 65 years and above (N = 14,706)...
November 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125942/conditions-for-addressing-environmental-determinants-of-health-behavior-in-intersectoral-policy-networks-a-fuzzy-set-qualitative-comparative-analysis
#13
D T J M Peters, S Verweij, K Grêaux, K Stronks, J Harting
Improving health requires changes in the social, physical, economic and political determinants of health behavior. For the realization of policies that address these environmental determinants, intersectoral policy networks are considered necessary for the pooling of resources to implement different policy instruments. However, such network diversity may increase network complexity and therefore hamper network performance. Network complexity may be reduced by network management and the provision of financial resources...
September 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125800/the-trauma-factor-examining-the-relationships-among-different-types-of-trauma-dissociation-and-psychopathology
#14
Adriano Schimmenti
Extensive research has reported a dose-response relationship between exposure to trauma and the severity of both dissociation and psychopathology. However, certain types of trauma may co-occur more frequently than others and specific combinations of traumatic experiences may relate differently to dissociative processes and psychiatric symptoms. In the current study, 359 adult participants completed questionnaires on traumatic experiences, dissociation, and psychopathology. A correlation network analysis showed that some types of trauma are more likely to co-occur and that especially traumatic experiences in attachment relationships during childhood were significantly associated with other trauma in life...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122799/qualitative-study-to-understand-the-barriers-to-recruiting-young-people-with-cancer-to-brightlight-a-national-cohort-study-in-england
#15
Charlotte Kenten, Ana Martins, Lorna A Fern, Faith Gibson, Sarah Lea, Nothando Ngwenya, Jeremy S Whelan, Rachel M Taylor
OBJECTIVES: BRIGHTLIGHT is a national evaluation of cancer services for teenagers and young adults in England. Following challenges with recruitment, our aim was to understand more fully healthcare professionals' perspectives of the challenges of recruiting young people to a low-risk observational study, and to provide guidance for future recruitment processes. DESIGN: Qualitative. SETTING: National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122200/applying-social-network-analysis-to-the-examination-of-interruptions-in-healthcare
#16
Tara McCurdie, Penelope Sanderson, Leanne M Aitken
Examinations of interruptions in healthcare often focus on a single clinical discipline, and solutions are targeted accordingly. This approach does not take into account the inter-disciplinary dependencies and other sociotechnical aspects that make up the healthcare work system, and suggested solutions may not meet the needs of all stakeholders. In this article a sociotechnical systems perspective is used to uncover the interdependencies between 16 unique work roles that result in interruptions in an intensive care unit (ICU)...
February 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119693/the-neural-representation-of-social-status-in-the-extended-face-processing-network
#17
Jessica E Koski, Jessica A Collins, Ingrid R Olson
Social status is a salient cue that shapes our judgment and memory for other people and ultimately guides our social interactions. Despite the pervasive influence of status on social behavior, how information about the status of others is represented in the brain remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that social-status information is embedded in our neural representations of other individuals. Participants learned to associate faces with names, job titles that that varied in associated status, and explicit markers of reputational status (star ratings)...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119547/interventions-to-improve-access-to-cataract-surgical-services-and-their-impact-on-equity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#18
REVIEW
Jacqueline Ramke, Jennifer Petkovic, Vivian Welch, Ilse Blignault, Clare Gilbert, Karl Blanchet, Robin Christensen, Anthony B Zwi, Peter Tugwell
BACKGROUND: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the prevalence is inequitably distributed between and within countries. Interventions have been undertaken to improve cataract surgical services, however, the effectiveness of these interventions on promoting equity is not known. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on equity of interventions to improve access to cataract services for populations with cataract blindness (and visual impairment) in LMICs...
November 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119520/connectivity-based-parcellation-of-the-amygdala-predicts-social-skills-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Annika Rausch, Wei Zhang, Christian F Beckmann, Jan K Buitelaar, Wouter B Groen, Koen V Haak
Amygdala dysfunction plays a role in the social impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but it is unclear which of its subregions are abnormal in ASD. This study compared the volume and functional connectivity (FC) strength of three FC-defined amygdala subregions between ASD and controls, and assessed their relation to social skills in ASD. A subregion associated with the social perception network was enlarged in ASD (F1 = 7.842, p = .008) and its volume correlated significantly with symptom severity (social skills: r = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112317/-prostate-cancer-is-far-more-hidden%C3%A2-perceptions-of-stigma-social-isolation-and-help-seeking-among-men-with-prostate-cancer
#20
K A Ettridge, J A Bowden, S K Chambers, D P Smith, M Murphy, S M Evans, D Roder, C L Miller
The purpose of this study was to provide in-depth insight into men's experiences of prostate cancer, specifically: perceived stigma and self-blame, social isolation, unmet need and help-seeking. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 20 men diagnosed with prostate cancer, and thematic analysis was undertaken. Some participants perceived a stigma associated with prostate cancer and cancer in general, which sometimes acted as a barrier to disclosure. Self-blame and internalisation of cause was not a prominent issue...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
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