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Social network analysis

Barbara Colombo, Stefania Balzarotti, Allison Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: The concept of Cognitive Reserve (CR) has been used to account for brain plasticity in older adults that may underlie the resilience against the effects of aging or pathology on cognitive abilities. This study aims at exploring the proxies of CR in a sample of healthy older adults by analyzing their spontaneous reminiscence through a discourse analysis approach. METHOD: Fifteen community-dwelling older adults were asked to participate in a video-recorded, spontaneous reminiscence interview...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
Deborah Toppenberg-Pejcic, Jane Noyes, Tomas Allen, Nyka Alexander, Marsha Vanderford, Gaya Gamhewage
A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. This article focuses on the 3 questions, out of 12 posed by World Health Organization as part of a Guideline development process, dealing most directly with communicating risk during health emergencies: community engagement, trust building, and social media...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
Douglas Yeung
This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Adanna Uloaku Nwameme, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Philip Baba Adongo
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jonathan K Noel, Thomas F Babor, James J Grady
Aims: The current study was conducted to investigate how changes in the content of a social media ad, user engagement values associated with the ad and user-generated comments (UGCs) associated with the ad can influence the appeal (i.e. source appeal, informational appeal and emotional appeal) of a social media ad. Short summary: Facebook beer ads that violated the guidelines of a relevant marketing code were rated as more emotionally appealing compared to Facebook beer ads that did not violated the guidelines...
March 15, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Alessandro Pepe, Loredana Addimando, Jamal Dagdouke, Shaher Yagi, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: Subjective wellbeing can be defined in terms of good mental state, including positive and negative evaluations that people make of their affect and lives. The aim of this study was to identify specific domains of wellbeing that are salient to Palestinian teachers living in three different contexts (West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel) and to map how components of subjective wellbeing vary between the three cohorts. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews of teachers participating in 16 focus groups and from 36 key informants (including psychologists, counsellors, school principals, lawyers)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Jenny Olofsson, Mojgan Padyab, Gunnar Malmberg
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. METHODS: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries...
2018: Global Health Action
Qindong Sun, Nan Wang, Shancang Li, Hongyi Zhou
Recently, the online social networks (OSNs) have received considerable attentions as a revolutionary platform to offer users massive social interaction among users that enables users to be more involved in their own healthcare. The OSNs have also promoted increasing interests in the generation of analytical, data models in health informatics. This paper aims at developing an obesity identification, analysis, and estimation model, in which each individual user is regarded as an online social network 'sensor' that can provide valuable health information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Daniel Fraiman, Ricardo Fraiman
The study of brain networks has developed extensively over the last couple of decades. By contrast, techniques for the statistical analysis of these networks are less developed. In this paper, we focus on the statistical comparison of brain networks in a nonparametric framework and discuss the associated detection and identification problems. We tested network differences between groups with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test we developed specifically for networks. We also propose and analyse the behaviour of a new statistical procedure designed to identify different subnetworks...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leonie A Krops, Rienk Dekker, Jan H B Geertzen, Pieter U Dijkstra
INTRODUCTION: Physically disabled people are less physically active compared with healthy people. Existing physical activity (PA) interventions are limited in reach, since they are primarily rehabilitation or school based. The current study aims to develop a community-based intervention for stimulating PA in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To systematically develop a PA-stimulating intervention, intervention mapping (six steps) was applied...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Ayako Yagahara, Keiri Hanai, Shin Hasegawa, Katsuhiko Ogasawara
BACKGROUND: After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on March 11, 2011, interest in, and fear of, radiation increased among citizens. When such accidents occur, appropriate risk communication must provided by the government. It is therefore necessary to understand the fears of citizens in the days after such accidents. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the progression of people's concerns, specifically fear, from a study of radiation-related tweets in the days after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident...
March 15, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Liang Shi, Jiangzhou Sun, Zhiting Ren, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Wenjing Yang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is imperative to social development and the promotion of well-being. Here, independent component analysis and functional network connectivity analysis methods were applied to both resting-state and divergent thinking task fMRI data from the same sample to investigate large-scale brain network connectivity underlying creativity. The results showed that the strength of the connectivity between the posterior default mode network (DMN) and right frontal-parietal network (FPN) was significantly greater whereas the right FPN and left FPN connectivity strength was weaker in the creative condition than in the control condition...
March 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
Sharon E Taverno Ross, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Patricia I Documet, Russell R Pate
BACKGROUND: Latino preschool children have higher rates of obesity than preschool children from other racial/ethnic groups; however, few effective, culturally appropriate interventions exist targeting this group. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a 10-week, promotora-mediated, home-based intervention to promote a healthy weight in Latino preschool children. METHODS: Trained promotoras (community health workers) delivered 10, 90-min weekly interactive and tailored sessions to Latino families living in Allegheny County...
March 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Quan-Hui Liu, Wei Wang, Shi-Min Cai, Ming Tang, Ying-Cheng Lai
Synergistic interactions are ubiquitous in the real world. Recent studies have revealed that, for a single-layer network, synergy can enhance spreading and even induce an explosive contagion. There is at the present a growing interest in behavior spreading dynamics on multiplex networks. What is the role of synergistic interactions in behavior spreading in such networked systems? To address this question, we articulate a synergistic behavior spreading model on a double layer network, where the key manifestation of the synergistic interactions is that the adoption of one behavior by a node in one layer enhances its probability of adopting the behavior in the other layer...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Janya McCalman, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Brown, Komla Tsey, Adele Clarke
Introduction: Spreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program-the Family Wellbeing (FWB) program-to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Jennifer Power, Gosia Mikołajczak, Adam Bourne, Graham Brown, William Leonard, Anthony Lyons, Gary W Dowsett, Jayne Lucke
Background: This paper explores associations between use of party-and-play drugs, including crystal methamphetamine, and wellbeing among HIV positive gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia. This study considers whether use of drugs in a social or sex-based setting facilitates access to social and support networks, which may in turn support wellbeing. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Australian people living with HIV (PLHIV) was conducted. There were 714 participants (79.7%) who identified as GBM. Differences between party-and-play drug users and non-users were examined using bivariate and multinomial logistic regressions...
March 16, 2018: Sexual Health
Skye N Leedahl, Alicia Sellon, Rosemary K Chapin
A variety of terms and measures have been used in the literature to denote being socially integrated, and many studies of older adults focus on only social networks or social support and often only include those living in the community. The purpose of this study was to assess multiple constructs of social integration (i.e., social networks, social capital, social support, and social engagement) for older adults in nursing homes. Data were collected from 140 older adults at 30 nursing homes in Kansas. We interviewed older adults' in-person using a survey questionnaire, and used multilevel confirmatory factor analysis to analyze the data...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Sivan Spitzer-Shohat, Efrat Shadmi, Margalit Goldfracht, Calanit Key, Moshe Hoshen, Ran D Balicer
BACKGROUND: Disparity-reduction programs have been shown to vary in the degree to which they achieve their goal; yet the causes of these variations is rarely studied. We investigated a broad-scale program in Israel's largest health plan, aimed at reducing disparities in socially disadvantaged groups using a composite measure of seven health and health care indicators. METHODS: A realistic evaluation was conducted to evaluate the program in 26 clinics and their associated managerial levels...
2018: PloS One
Ann Sheridan, Donal O'Keeffe, Barbara Coughlan, Kate Frazer, Johnathan Drennan, Mary Kemple
BACKGROUND: Social opportunities can be limited in the lives of people with enduring mental illness (EMI) due to psychiatric stigma, restricted home environments and employment barriers. Supported socialisation programmes have the potential to redress the impact of social isolation. AIM: To explore the experiences of service users with EMI taking part in a supported socialisation programme, using written diary entries. METHODS: This article reports on the qualitative component of a randomised controlled trial of supported socialisation for people with EMI (published previously in this journal)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Lindsay E Young, Kayo Fujimoto, John A Schneider
Online social networking sites (SNS)-the Internet-based platforms that enable connection and communication between users-are increasingly salient social environments for young adults and, consequently, offer tremendous opportunity for HIV behavioral research and intervention among vulnerable populations like young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing from a cohort of 525 young Black MSM (YBMSM) living in Chicago, IL, USA April 2014-May 2015, we conducted social network analysis, estimating an exponential random graph model (ERGM) to model YBMSM's group affiliations on Facebook in relation to their sex behaviors and HIV prevention traits...
March 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
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