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Ion Channels

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102360/modification-of-distinct-ion-channels-differentially-modulates-ca-2-dynamics-in-primary-cultured-rat-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#1
Xichun Li, Liping Shen, Fang Zhao, Xiaohan Zou, Yuwei He, Fan Zhang, Chunlei Zhang, Boyang Yu, Zhengyu Cao
Primary cultured cardiomyocytes show spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations (SCOs) which not only govern contractile events, but undergo derangements that promote arrhythmogenesis through Ca(2+) -dependent mechanism. We systematically examined influence on SCOs of an array of ion channel modifiers by recording intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes using Ca(2+) specific fluorescence dye, Fluo-8/AM. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) activation elongates SCO duration and reduces SCO frequency while inhibition of VGSCs decreases SCO frequency without affecting amplitude and duration...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102026/piperine-a-pungent-alkaloid-from-black-pepper-inhibits-b-lymphocyte-activation-and-effector-functions
#2
David A Soutar, Carolyn D Doucette, Robert S Liwski, David W Hoskin
Piperine has several well-documented anti-inflammatory properties; however, little is known regarding its effect on humoral immunity. In this study, we describe the immunosuppressive effect of piperine on B lymphocytes, which are integral to the humoral immune response. Mouse B cells were cultured in the absence or presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations (25, 50, and 100 μM) of piperine during T-dependent or T-independent stimulation. Piperine inhibited B cell proliferation by causing G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in association with reduced expression of cyclin D2 and D3...
January 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101241/potential-role-of-melastatin-related-transient-receptor-potential-cation-channel-subfamily-m-gene-expression-in-the-pathogenesis-of-urinary-bladder-cancer
#3
Gülay Güleç Ceylan, Ebru Etem Önalan, Tuncay Kuloğlu, Gülten Aydoğ, İbrahim Keleş, Şenol Tonyali, Cavit Ceylan
Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Ion channels and calcium homeostasis are involved in almost all basic cellular mechanisms. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM) takes its name from the melastatin protein, which is classified as potential tumor suppressor. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous studies in the literature investigating the role of these ion channels in bladder cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether bladder cancer is associated with mRNA expression levels of TRPM ion channel genes, and whether there is the potential to conduct further studies to establish novel treatment modalities...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100053/the-grateful-infrared-sequential-protein-structural-changes-resolved-by-infrared-difference-spectroscopy
#4
Tilman Kottke, Víctor A Lórenz-Fonfría, Joachim Heberle
The catalytic activity of proteins is a function of structural changes. Very often these are as minute as protonation changes, hydrogen bonding changes, and amino acid side chain reorientations. To resolve these, a methodology is afforded that not only provides the molecular sensitivity but allows for tracing the sequence of these hierarchical reactions at the same time. This feature article showcases results from time-resolved IR spectroscopy on channelrhodopsin (ChR), light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain protein, and cryptochrome (CRY)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099777/positive-selection-on-sperm-ion-channels-in-a-brooding-brittle-star-consequence-of-life-history-traits-evolution
#5
A A-T Weber, L Abi-Rached, N Galtier, A Bernard, J I Montoya-Burgos, A Chenuil
Closely related species are key models to investigate mechanisms leading to reproductive isolation and early stages of diversification, also at the genomic level. The brittle star cryptic species complex Ophioderma longicauda encompasses the sympatric broadcast spawning species C3 and the internal brooding species C5. Here we used de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly in two closely related species displaying contrasting reproductive modes to compare their genetic diversity and to investigate the role of natural selection in reproductive isolation...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099463/the-differential-effects-of-anesthetics-on-bacterial-behaviors
#6
Matthew Chamberlain, Sophia Koutsogiannaki, Matthew Schaefers, Hasan Babazada, Renyu Liu, Koichi Yuki
Volatile anesthetics have been in clinical use for a long period of time and are considered to be promiscuous by presumably interacting with several ion channels in the central nervous system to produce anesthesia. Because ion channels and their existing evolutionary analogues, ion transporters, are very important in various organisms, it is possible that volatile anesthetics may affect some bacteria. In this study, we hypothesized that volatile anesthetics could affect bacterial behaviors. We evaluated the impact of anesthetics on bacterial growth, motility (swimming and gliding) and biofilm formation of four common bacterial pathogens in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099415/structure-of-a-eukaryotic-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel
#7
Minghui Li, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Shu Wang, Ioannis Michailidis, Ye Gong, Deyuan Su, Huan Li, Xueming Li, Jian Yang
Cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels are essential for vision and olfaction. They belong to the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily but their activities are controlled by intracellular cyclic nucleotides instead of transmembrane voltage. Here we report a 3.5-Å-resolution single-particle electron cryo-microscopy structure of a cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel from Caenorhabditis elegans in the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-bound open state. The channel has an unusual voltage-sensor-like domain, accounting for its deficient voltage dependence...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099171/an-approach-to-estimate-spatial-distribution-of-analyte-within-cells-using-spectrally-resolved-fluorescence-microscopy
#8
Dharmendar Kumar Sharma, Mir Irfanullah, Santanu Kumar Basu, Sheri Madhu, Suman De, Sameer Jadhav, Mangalampalli Ravikanth, Arindam Chowdhury
While fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool amongst chemists and biologists for the detection of various analyte within cellular environments, non-uniform spatial distribution of sensors within cells often restricts extraction of reliable information on relative abundance of analytes in different subcellular regions. As an alternative to existing sensing methodologies such as ratiometric or FRET imaging, where relative proportion of analyte with respect to the sensor can be obtained within cells, we propose a methodology using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy, via which both the relative abundance of sensor as well as their relative proportion with respect to the analyte can be simultaneously extracted for local subcellular regions...
January 18, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098409/trpv4-contributes-to-resting-membrane-potential-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-implications-in-cell-volume-regulation
#9
Vanina Netti, Juan Fernández, Maia Kalstein, Alejandro Pizzoni, Gisela Di Giusto, Valeria Rivarola, Paula Ford, Claudia Capurro
Neural activity alters osmotic gradients favoring cell swelling in retinal Müller cells. This swelling is followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD), partially mediated by an efflux of KCl and water. The transient receptor potential channel 4 (TRPV4), a nonselective calcium channel, has been proposed as a candidate for mediating intracellular Ca(2+) elevation induced by swelling. We previously demonstrated in a human Müller cell line (MIO-M1) that RVD strongly depends on ion channel activation and, consequently, on membrane potential (Vm )...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097755/a-solution-processable-liquid-crystalline-semiconductor-for-low-temperature-annealed-air-stable-n-channel-field-effect-transistors
#10
Resul Ozdemir, Donghee Choi, Mehmet Ozdemir, Hyekyoung Kim, Sinem Tuncel Kostakoğlu, Mustafa Erkartal, Hyungsug Kim, Choongik Kim, Hakan Usta
A new solution-processable and air-stable liquid-crystalline n-channel organic semiconductor (α,ω-2OD-TIFDMT) employing a donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type of π-conjugation has been designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. The new semiconductor exhibits a low LUMO energy (-4.19 eV) and a narrow optical band gap (1.35 eV). Typical pseudo focal-conic fan-shaped texture of a hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline (LC) phase was observed over a wide temperature range. The spin-coated semiconductor thin-films shows the formation of large (~0...
January 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097513/stable-control-of-firing-rate-mean-and-variance-by-dual-homeostatic-mechanisms
#11
Jonathan Cannon, Paul Miller
Homeostatic processes that provide negative feedback to regulate neuronal firing rates are essential for normal brain function. Indeed, multiple parameters of individual neurons, including the scale of afferent synapse strengths and the densities of specific ion channels, have been observed to change on homeostatic time scales to oppose the effects of chronic changes in synaptic input. This raises the question of whether these processes are controlled by a single slow feedback variable or multiple slow variables...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097492/activation-of-trpm2-and-trpv1-channels-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-by-nadph-oxidase-and-protein-kinase-c-molecular-pathways-a-patch-clamp-study
#12
Mustafa Nazıroğlu
Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of neuropathic pain induced by excessive oxidative stress production and overload calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remain substantially unidentified. The transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are activated with different stimuli including oxidative stress. TRPM2 and TRPV1 have been shown to be involved in induction of neuropathic pain. However, the activation mechanisms of TRPM2 and TRPV1 via NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways are poorly understood...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097003/application-of-a-systems-pharmacology-model-for-translational-prediction-of-herg-mediated-qtc-prolongation
#13
Verena Gotta, Zhiyi Yu, Frank Cools, Karel van Ammel, David J Gallacher, Sandra A G Visser, Frederick Sannajust, Pierre Morissette, Meindert Danhof, Piet H van der Graaf
Drug-induced QTc interval prolongation (Δ QTc) is a main surrogate for proarrhythmic risk assessment. A higher in vivo than in vitro potency for hERG-mediated QTc prolongation has been suggested. Also, in vivo between-species and patient populations' sensitivity to drug-induced QTc prolongation seems to differ. Here, a systems pharmacology model integrating preclinical in vitro (hERG binding) and in vivo (conscious dog Δ QTc) data of three hERG blockers (dofetilide, sotalol, moxifloxacin) was applied (1) to compare the operational efficacy of the three drugs in vivo and (2) to quantify dog-human differences in sensitivity to drug-induced QTc prolongation (for dofetilide only)...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096411/hepatitis-e-virus-orf3-is-a-functional-ion-channel-required-for-release-of-infectious-particles
#14
Qiang Ding, Brigitte Heller, Juan M V Capuccino, Bokai Song, Ila Nimgaonkar, Gabriela Hrebikova, Jorge E Contreras, Alexander Ploss
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis globally. Of HEV's three ORFs, the function of ORF3 has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that via homophilic interactions ORF3 forms multimeric complexes associated with intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes. HEV ORF3 shares several structural features with class I viroporins, and the function of HEV ORF3 can be maintained by replacing it with the well-characterized viroporin influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 protein...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096396/tuning-the-ion-selectivity-of-two-pore-channels
#15
Jiangtao Guo, Weizhong Zeng, Youxing Jiang
Organellar two-pore channels (TPCs) contain two copies of a Shaker-like six-transmembrane (6-TM) domain in each subunit and are ubiquitously expressed in plants and animals. Interestingly, plant and animal TPCs share high sequence similarity in the filter region, yet exhibit drastically different ion selectivity. Plant TPC1 functions as a nonselective cation channel on the vacuole membrane, whereas mammalian TPC channels have been shown to be endo/lysosomal Na(+)-selective or Ca(2+)-release channels. In this study, we performed systematic characterization of the ion selectivity of TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTPC1) and compared its selectivity with the selectivity of human TPC2 (HsTPC2)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096238/activation-of-trpa1-channel-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-induces-vegf-secretion-in-human-prostate-cancer-stromal-cells
#16
Sandra Derouiche, Pascal Mariot, Marine Warnier, Eric Vancauwenberghe, Gabriel Bidaux, Pierre Gosset, Brigitte Mauroy, Jean-Louis Bonnal, Christian Slomianny, Philippe Delcourt, Etienne Dewailly, Natalia Prevarskaya, Morad Roudbaraki
Accruing evidence indicates that exposure to environmental compounds may adversely impact human health and promote carcinogenesis. Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent widely used as a preservative in personal care products, has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor in hormone-dependent tissues. Here we demonstrate a new molecular mechanism by which TCS stimulates the secretion by human prostate cancer stromal cells of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a factor known to promote tumour growth...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094958/magnetic-nanoparticle-based-mechanical-stimulation-for-restoration-of-mechano-sensitive-ion-channel-equilibrium-in-neural-networks
#17
Andy Tay, Dino Di Carlo
Techniques offering remote control of neural activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and specificity are invaluable for deciphering the physiological roles of different classes of neurons in brain development and disease. Here, we first confirm that micro-fabricated substrates with enhanced magnetic field gradients allow for wireless stimulation of neural circuits dosed with magnetic nanoparticles using calcium indicator dyes. We also investigate the mechanism of mechano-transduction in this system and identify that N-type mechano-sensitive calcium ion channels play a key role in signal generation in response to magnetic force...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094946/competing-e2-and-sn2-mechanisms-for-the-f-ch3ch2i-reaction
#18
Li Yang, Jiaxu Zhang, Jing Xie, Xinyou Ma, Linyao Zhang, Chenyang Zhao, William Louis Hase
Anti-, syn-E2 and inv-, ret-SN2 reaction channels for the gas-phase reaction of F- + CH3CH2I were characterized with a variety of electronic structure calculations. A geometrical analysis confirmed the synchronous E2-type transition states for the elimination of current reaction, instead of nonconcerted processes through E1cb-like and E1-like mechanisms. Importantly, the controversy concerning reactant complex for anti-E2 and inv-SN2 paths have been clarified in the present work. A positive barrier of + 19...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094922/nano-photoelectrochemical-cell-arrays-with-spatially-isolated-oxidation-and-reduction-channels
#19
Hang-Ah Park, Siyuan Liu, Youngseok Oh, Paul A Salvador, Gregory S Rohrer, Mohammad F Islam
Photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy is explored for many diverse applications but suffers from poor efficiencies due to limited solar absorption, inadequate charge carrier separation, redox half-reactions occurring in close proximity, and/or long ion diffusion lengths. We have taken a drastically different approach to the design of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) to spatially isolate reaction sites at the nanoscale to different materials and flow channels, suppressing carrier recombination and back-reaction of intermediates while shortening ion diffusion paths and, importantly, avoiding mixed product generation...
January 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094304/the-different-expression-of-trpm7-and-magt1-impacts-on-the-proliferation-of-colon-carcinoma-cells-sensitive-or-resistant-to-doxorubicin
#20
Alessandra Cazzaniga, Claudia Moscheni, Valentina Trapani, Federica I Wolf, Giovanna Farruggia, Azzurra Sargenti, Stefano Iotti, Jeanette A M Maier, Sara Castiglioni
The processes leading to anticancer drug resistance are not completely unraveled. To get insights into the underlying mechanisms, we compared colon carcinoma cells sensitive to doxorubicin with their resistant counterpart. We found that resistant cells are growth retarded, and show staminal and ultrastructural features profoundly different from sensitive cells. The resistant phenotype is accompanied by the upregulation of the magnesium transporter MagT1 and the downregulation of the ion channel kinase TRPM7...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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