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Computed tomography

Kevin R Duque, Alejandro L Escalaya, Willy Zapata, Jorge G Burneo, Javier A Bustos, Isidro Gonzales, Herbert Saavedra, E Javier Pretell, Hector H Garcia
OBJECTIVE: Discordances between imaging findings of parenchymal neurocysticercosis and seizure expression have been reported, and as such the possibility that neurocysticercosis and seizures may frequently coexist by chance has been raised. In this study, we evaluate the topographic relationship between seizure foci based on semiology and electroencephalography with the location of parenchymal neurocysticercotic lesions. METHODS: Seizure information, neuroimaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and electroencephalographic data from three randomized clinical trials of individuals with parenchymal neurocysticercosis and focal seizures were analyzed...
June 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Teiko Sakurai, Hidenori Kusumoto, Tomoko Wakasa, Yoshio Ohta, Eiichi Konishi, Hiroyuki Shiono
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a rare variant of soft tissue sarcoma. The proximal type of ES occurs in various locations. We present a resected case with proximal-type ES that occurred in the chest wall and discuss the relevant literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old woman was referred for a 6-month history of a right anterior chest mass with tenderness. Chest computed tomography showed an invasive chest wall mass with calcification surrounding the third rib...
July 13, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Marco Ertreo, Hailey Choi, David Field, Jonathan W Lischalk, Emil Cohen, George E Lynskey, Theresa Caridi, Donna Buckley, Keith Unger, Alexander Y Kim
PURPOSE: To compare the use of cone-beam computed tomography versus contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the calculation of liver volume and planned dose for yttrium-90 radioembolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study retrospectively assessed 47 consecutive patients who underwent resin Y-90 radioembolization consecutively over a 2-year period at a single center. Volume calculation software was used to determine perfused lobar liver volumes from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images obtained during mapping angiography...
July 13, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Yasuyo Takeuchi, Hiroki Sakamoto, Genichi Sakaguchi, Toshio Shimada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Journal of Echocardiography
Lisa Martin, Jessica Hopkins, Georgios Malietzis, J T Jenkins, Michael B Sawyer, Ron Brisebois, Anthony MacLean, Gregg Nelson, Leah Gramlich, Vickie E Baracos
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, visceral obesity (VO), and reduced muscle radiodensity (myosteatosis) are suggested risk factors for postoperative morbidity in colorectal cancer (CRC), but usually are not concurrently assessed. Published thresholds used to define these features are not CRC-specific and are defined in relation to mortality, not postoperative outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate body composition in relation to length of hospital stay (LOS) and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Pre-surgical computed tomography (CT) images were assessed for total area and radiodensity of skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue in a pooled Canadian and UK cohort (n = 2100)...
July 13, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Wilana da Silva Moura, Kelly Chiqueto, Gustavo Menezes Pithon, Leniana Santos Neves, Renata Castro, José Fernando Castanha Henriques
INTRODUCTION: Due to potential impact of the effects of ionizing radiation used in medical and dental examinations on public health in recent years, many studies are being conducted to quantify the radiation dose values, evaluate scanners, and indicate factors that could influence or reduce radiation doses. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate, by a systematic review, the factors that influence the effective radiation dose associated with cone beam computed tomography and respective effects, and compared the effective dose of different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners with similar exposure parameters...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Dalveer Singh, Roslyn Horneman, Navjot Kaur Nagra
OBJECTIVE: Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography diagnostic computed tomography (PET/CT) is gaining an increasing role in the staging of prostate cancer and restaging in cases of biochemical recurrence. Our understanding of PSMA affinity for incidental pathological and non-pathological entities is also maturing although certain cases do present as diagnostic and management dilemmas. SUBJECT AND METHODS: We present a case of a 55 years old man with prostate adenocarcinoma, with incidentally found pancreatic and thyroid lesions showing PSMA avidity...
July 12, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Seol H Park, Minjung Seo, Hye-Jeong Choi, Kyungkyg Bae, Minseo Bang, Sungmin Jun
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of a method using the peri-tumoral halo layer (PHL) for assessing tumor size in breast cancer patients on the fluorine-18-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) scan compared to MRI and pathology. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Among 121 patients with breast cancer who underwent both 18 F-FDG PET/CT and MRI between March 2013 and June 2016, 59 patients were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were as follows: history of neoadjuvant therapy, history of pre-operative mammotome, insufficient pathologic/radiologic size report, clustered tumor, positive tumor resection margin, 18 F-FDG non-avid tumor...
July 12, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Abdullah Al-Zaghal, Dani P Yellanki, Cyrus Ayubcha, Thomas J Werner, Poul F Høilund-Carlsen, Abass Alavi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the role of computed tomography (CT)-based segmentation methodology to semi-quantify the degree of inflammation and reactive bone formation in the knee joints by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) and 18 F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/CT (18 F-NaF PET/CT) imaging, respectively. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of aging and body mass index (BMI) on these biological responses. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we examined a total of 97 subjects who had undergone both 18 F-FDG and 18 F-NaF PET/CT scanning...
July 12, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Jonah Peter, Mohsen Khosravi, Thomas J Werner, Abass Alavi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of global semi-quantitative analysis via fluorine-18-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET) at lateralizing seizure foci and diagnosing patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Seventeen patients with unilateral TLE (11 right TLE and 6 left TLE) were retrospectively selected for semi-quantitative 18 F-FDG PET analysis. Twenty-three control subjects with a Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 29 or greater were selected for comparison...
July 12, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Sayuri Tanaka, Ippei Kanazawa, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence has shown that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays roles in glucose and fat metabolism. However, the association between plasma S1P levels and fat mass, especially visceral fat mass, remains unknown. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 80 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited to investigate the association of plasma S1P levels with body fat parameters. Visceral (VFA) and subcutaneous fat (SFA) areas were evaluated by performing computed tomography scan, and fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) were examined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
July 10, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Daniel A Wollin, Rajan T Gupta, Brian Young, Eugene Cone, Adam Kaplan, Daniele Marin, Bhavik N Patel, Maciej A Mazurowski, Charles D Scales, Michael N Ferrandino, Glenn M Preminger, Michael E Lipkin
OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of plain abdominal radiography (KUB) with digital tomosynthesis (DT) to non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), the gold standard imaging modality for urinary stones. Due to radiation and cost concerns, KUB is often used for diagnosis and follow-up of nephrolithiasis. Digital tomosynthesis, a novel technique that produces high-quality radiographs with less radiation/cost than low-dose NCCT, has not been assessed in this situation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven fresh tissue cadavers were implanted with stones of known size/composition and imaged with KUB, DT and NCCT...
July 10, 2018: Urology
Raphael Jakubovic, Joel Ramjist, Shaurya Gupta, Daipayan Guha, Arjun Sahgal, F Stuart Foster, Victor X D Yang
High frequency micro-ultrasound (µUS) transducers with central frequencies up to 50 MHz facilitate dynamic visualization of patient anatomy with minimal disruption of the surgical work flow. Micro-ultrasound improves spatial resolution over conventional ultrasound imaging from millimeter to micrometer, but compromises depth penetration. This trade-off is sufficient during an open surgery in which the bone is removed and the ultrasound probe can be placed into the surgical cavity. By fusing µUS with pre-operative imaging and tracking the ultrasound probe intra-operatively using our optical topographic imaging technology, we can provide dynamic feedback during surgery, thus affecting clinical decision making...
July 10, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Kjetil Søreide, Thomas G Weiser, Rowan W Parks
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic injury is rare and optimal diagnosis and management is still debated. The aim of this study was to review the existing data and consensus on management of pancreatic trauma. METHODS: Systematic literature review until May 2018. RESULTS: Pancreas injury is reported in 0.2-0.3% of all trauma patients. Severity is scored by the organ injury scale (OIS), with new scores including physiology needing validation. Diagnosis is difficult, clinical signs subtle, and imaging by ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) non-specific with <60% sensitivity for pancreatic duct injury...
July 11, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Christina Haeuser, Pierre Goldbach, Joerg Huwyler, Wolfgang Friess, Andrea Allmendinger
Pharmaceutically elegant lyophilisates are highly desirable implying a stable and robust freeze-drying process. In order to ensure homogenous and intact cake appearance after process scale-up and transfer, characterization of lyophilisates during formulation and cycle development is required. The present study investigates different imaging techniques to characterize lyophilisates on different levels. Cake appearance of freeze-dried BSA formulations with different dextran/sucrose ratios was studied by visual inspection, 3D laser scanning, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) embedding, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Si-Qi Qiu, Monique D Dorrius, Steven J de Jongh, Liesbeth Jansen, Jakob de Vries, Carolien P Schröder, Guo-Jun Zhang, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Bert van der Vegt, Gooitzen M van Dam
PURPOSE: Around 15%-30% of patients receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for invasive breast carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) need a reoperation due to tumor-positive margins at final histopathology. Currently available intraoperative surgical margin assessment modalities all have specific limitations. Therefore, we aimed to assess the feasibility and accuracy of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) as a novel method for intraoperative margin assessment in BCS. METHODS: Lumpectomy specimens from 30 consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or DCIS were imaged using a micro-CT...
July 3, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Marco Viceconti, Enrico Dall'Ara
Driven by the raising ethical concerns surrounding animal experimentation, there is a growing interest for non-animal methods, in vitro or in silico technologies that can be used to reduce, refine, and replace animal experimentation. In addition, animal experimentation is being critically revised in regard to its ability to predict clinical outcomes. In this manuscript we describe an initial exploration where a set of in vivo imaging based subject-specific technologies originally developed to predict the risk of femoral strength and hip fracture in osteoporotic patients, were adapted to assess the efficacy of bone drugs pre-clinically on mice...
July 10, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Gry Hulsart-Billström, Ram Kumar Selvaraju, Sergio Estrada, Mark Lubberink, Veronika Asplund, Kristoffer Bergman, Richard Marsell, Sune Larsson, Gunnar Antoni
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) are vital for bone and cartilage formation, where bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is acknowledged as a growth factor in osteoblast differentiation. However, uncontrolled delivery may result in adverse clinical effects. In this study we investigated the possibility for longitudinal and non-invasive monitoring of implanted [125 I]BMP-2 retention and its relation to ossification at the site of implantation. A unilateral critically sized femoral defect was produced in the left limb of rats while the right femur was retained intact as a paired reference control...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Katsuhide Maeda, Ingela Schnittger, Daniel J Murphy, Jennifer A Tremmel, Jack H Boyd, Lynn Peng, Kozo Okada, Vedant S Pargaonkar, Frank L Hanley, Robert Scott Mitchell, Ian S Rogers
BACKGROUND: Although myocardial bridges (MBs) are traditionally regarded as incidental findings, it has been reported that adult patients with symptomatic MBs refractory to medical therapy benefit from unroofing. However, there is limited literature in the pediatric population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the indications and outcomes for unroofing in pediatric patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients with MB in our institution who underwent surgical relief...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Yong Choi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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