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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918960/effects-of-knee-action-phase-and-fatigue-on-rectus-femoris-and-biceps-femoris-co-activation-during-the-eggbeater-kick
#1
Nuno Oliveira, Ross H Sanders
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of knee extension/flexion and fatigue on muscle co-activation of the Rectus Femoris (RF) and Biceps Femoris (BF) during the eggbeater kick. Ten national level male water polo players executed eggbeater kicks at maximum effort for the duration of the test. The eggbeater kick cycle was divided into four phases (FLX1, FLX2, EXT1, EXT2). Surface electromyographs were recorded from RF and BF. EMG activity normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction, muscle co-activation (CCI) and angular velocity (AV) of the right and left knee were calculated...
December 2, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918675/biomechanics-in-paralympics-implications-for-performance
#2
Floor Morriën, Matthew J D Taylor, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports. METHODS: Search terms ' Paralympic Biomechanics', 'Paralympic Sport Performance', 'Paralympic Athlete Performance', and Paralympic Athlete' were entered into the electronic database PubMed. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n=32) and/or injury prevention (n=6)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892396/a-topography-of-free-kicks-in-soccer
#3
Daniel Link, Otto Kolbinger, Hendrik Weber, Michael Stöckl
This study investigates the spatial relationship of performance variables for soccer free kicks. In order to suggest ways in which players might optimise their performance, we collected data from free kicks (<35 m to goal line) of two German Bundesliga seasons (2013/14, 2014/15) (n = 1624). In the analysis, we applied the ISO-map approach using colour gradients to visualise the mean values of a variable on a 2D-map of the pitch. Additionally, variograms were used to describe the degree of spatial dependence of the free kick variables...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886486/atom-chip-fountain-gravimeter
#4
S Abend, M Gebbe, M Gersemann, H Ahlers, H Müntinga, E Giese, N Gaaloul, C Schubert, C Lämmerzahl, W Ertmer, W P Schleich, E M Rasel
We demonstrate a quantum gravimeter by combining the advantages of an atom chip for the generation, delta-kick collimation, and coherent manipulation of freely falling Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with an innovative launch mechanism based on Bloch oscillations and double Bragg diffraction. Our high-contrast BEC interferometer realizes tens of milliseconds of free fall in a volume as little as a one centimeter cube and paves the way for measurements with sub-μGal accuracies in miniaturized, robust devices...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878826/a-multifaceted-risk-analysis-of-fathers-self-reported-physical-violence-toward-their-children
#5
Noora Ellonen, Kirsi Peltonen, Tarja Pösö, Staffan Janson
Existing research has shown that child maltreatment is carried out by both mothers and fathers. There is also an extensive body of literature analyzing reasons for mothers' violent behavior. Among fathers, reasons are less well studied, resulting in the lack of a comprehensive picture of paternal child abuse. In this study, 20 child-, parent-, and family-related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose a risk for fathers' severe violent behavior toward their children...
November 23, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875869/coarse-grained-simulations-for-flow-of-complex-soft-matter-fluids-in-the-bulk-and-in-the-presence-of-solid-interfaces
#6
V R Ahuja, J van der Gucht, W J Briels
We present a coarse-grained particle-based simulation technique for modeling flow of complex soft matter fluids such as polymer solutions in the presence of solid interfaces. In our coarse-grained description of the system, we track the motion of polymer molecules using their centers-of-mass as our coarse-grain co-ordinates and also keep track of another set of variables that describe the background flow field. The coarse-grain motion is thus influenced not only by the interactions based on appropriate potentials used to model the particular polymer system of interest and the random kicks associated with thermal fluctuations, but also by the motion of the background fluid...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872598/futsal-match-related-fatigue-affects-running-performance-and-neuromuscular-parameters-but-not-finishing-kick-speed-or-accuracy
#7
Fabio Milioni, Luiz H P Vieira, Ricardo A Barbieri, Alessandro M Zagatto, Nikolai B Nordsborg, Fabio A Barbieri, Júlio W Dos-Santos, Paulo R P Santiago, Marcelo Papoti
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2 ± 2.5 years) and initially performed an incremental protocol to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]: 50.6 ± 4.9 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)). Next, simulated games were performed, in four periods of 10 min during which heart rate and blood lactate concentration were monitored...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869529/low-fundamental-movement-skill-proficiency-is-associated-with-high-bmi-and-body-fatness-in-girls-but-not-boys-aged-6-11-years-old
#8
Michael J Duncan, Elizabeth Bryant, David Stodden
This study examined differences in children's body mass index (BMI) and body fatness (BF%) as a function of gender and fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency. Following ethics approval and parental consent, 248, 6-11 year-old children (112 boys, 136 girls) underwent assessment of 7 FMS: sprint run, side gallop, hop, kick, catch, throw and vertical jump. FMS tertiles ("high", "medium" or "low" FMS) were created based on the summed components of the FMS. Skinfold measures were used to calculate BF%. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using pedometry and maturation predicted using anthropometry...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868457/the-hillary-climber-trumps-manual-testing-an-automatic-system-for-studying-drosophila-climbing
#9
Alex M Willenbrink, Margo K Gronauer, Leon F Toebben, Daniel R Kick, Madalyn Wells, Bing Zhang
Climbing or negative geotaxis is an innate behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. There has been considerable interest in using this simple behavior to gain insights into the changes in brain function associated with aging, influence of drugs, mutated genes, and human neurological disorders. At present, most climbing tests are conducted manually and there is a lack of a simple and automatic device for repeatable and quantitative analysis of fly climbing behavior. Here we present an automatic fly climbing system, named the Hillary Climber (after Sir Edmund Hillary), that can replace the human manual tapping of vials with a mechanical tapping mechanism to provide more consistent force and reduce variability between the users and trials...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845928/topological-phases-of-the-kicked-harper-kitaev-model-with-ultracold-atoms
#10
M N Chen, Feng Mei, W Su, Huai-Qiang Wang, Shi-Liang Zhu, L Sheng, D Y Xing
We propose using ultracold atoms trapped in a one-dimensional periodically driven optical lattice to realize the Harper-Kitaev model, where the on-site energies are periodically kicked. Such a system provides a natural platform to study both Chern insulators and Majorana fermions. Based on calculating the quasienergy spectra, we find that both Floquet Majorana modes and Hall chiral edge modes could appear at the sample boundary in the gaps between the quasienergy bands. We also study the competition of topological superconductor and Chern insulator states in the model...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826280/is-mixed-practice-more-effective-than-physical-practice-alone-for-the-acquisition-of-non-dominant-side-kicking-performance
#11
Kylie A Steel, Eathan Ellem
Perceiving and executing unfamiliar movements, such as left handed/footed movement skills in sports, places additional demands on the perceptual-cognitive system of players that may increase errors. The video self-modeling (VSM) method may provide an accessible solution to this issue, therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the VSM method on the improvement of a non-preferred side kicking task. N = 28 participants engaged in one of three conditions; Mirror reversed/ physical practice (PP), best-of/ PP, or physical practice only...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825448/dormancy-illuminating-how-a-microbial-sleeping-beauty-awakens
#12
R Gary Sawers
Nitrogen limitation induces dormancy in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis. During dormancy, the bacterium neither photosynthesizes nor divides, yet it maintains low-level metabolic activity. A new study shows how provision of a nitrogen source initiates a regimented genetic program that initially kick-starts metabolism and ultimately photosynthesis.
November 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808167/exposure-to-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-alters-the-behaviour-physiology-and-stress-protein-levels-of-desert-locusts
#13
Joanna Wyszkowska, Sebastian Shepherd, Suleiman Sharkh, Christopher W Jackson, Philip L Newland
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are present throughout the modern world and are derived from many man-made sources including overhead transmission lines. The risks of extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are particularly poorly understood especially at high field strengths as they are rarely encountered at ground level. Flying insects, however, can approach close to high field strength transmission lines prompting the question as to how these high levels of exposure affect behaviour and physiology...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807168/a-defensive-kicking-behavior-in-response-to-mechanical-stimuli-mediated-by-drosophila-wing-margin-bristles
#14
Jiefu Li, Wei Zhang, Zhenhao Guo, Sophia Wu, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh-Nung Jan
: Mechanosensation, one of the fastest sensory modalities, mediates diverse behaviors including those pertinent for survival. It is important to understand how mechanical stimuli trigger defensive behaviors. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster adult flies exhibit a kicking response against invading parasitic mites over their wing margin with ultrafast speed and high spatial precision. Mechanical stimuli that mimic the mites' movement evoke a similar kicking behavior. Further, we identified a TRPV channel, Nanchung, and a specific Nanchung-expressing neuron under each recurved bristle that forms an array along the wing margin as being essential sensory components for this behavior...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769687/a-cross-validation-study-of-the-tgmd-2-the-case-of-an-adolescent-population
#15
Johann Issartel, Bronagh McGrane, Richard Fletcher, Wesley O'Brien, Danielle Powell, Sarahjane Belton
OBJECTIVES: This study proposes an extension of a widely used test evaluating fundamental movement skills proficiency to an adolescent population, with a specific emphasis on validity and reliability for this older age group. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: A total of 844 participants (n=456 male, 12.03±0.49) participated in this study. The 12 fundamental movement skills of the TGMD-2 were assessed. Inter-rater reliability was examined to ensure a minimum of 95% consistency between coders...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769560/developmental-milestones-in-type-i-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#16
Roberto De Sanctis, Giorgia Coratti, Amy Pasternak, Jacqueline Montes, Marika Pane, Elena S Mazzone, Sally Dunaway Young, Rachel Salazar, Janet Quigley, Maria C Pera, Laura Antonaci, Leonardo Lapenta, Allan M Glanzman, Danilo Tiziano, Francesco Muntoni, Basil T Darras, Darryl C De Vivo, Richard Finkel, Eugenio Mercuri
The aim of this retrospective multicentric study was to assess developmental milestones longitudinally in type I SMA infants using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination. Thirty-three type I SMA infants, who classically do not achieve the ability to sit unsupported, were included in the study. Our results confirmed that all patients had a score of 0 out of a scale of 4 on items assessing sitting, rolling, crawling, standing or walking. A score of more than 0 was only achieved in three items: head control (n = 13), kicking (n = 15) and hand grasp (n = 18)...
November 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760709/child-discipline-in-qatar-and-palestine-a-comparative-study-of-icast-r
#17
Nehal Eldeeb, Samia Halileh, Khalid A Alyafei, Rula Ghandour, Soha Dargham, Rita Giacaman, Madeeha Kamal, Sawsan Imseeh, Mona Korayem, Shiraz Nasr, Ziyad Mahfoud, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Hassan Tawfik, Margaret A Lynch, Marcellina Mian
To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range...
October 16, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753642/anterior-knee-impingement-in-a-high-level-football-punter-a-case-report-and-description-of-the-active-passive-knee-extension-test
#18
Mark F Sommerfeldt, Christopher C Kaeding
A 22-year-old football punter complained of anterior knee pain deep to his patellar tendon that occurred every time the knee of his kicking leg reached full extension during a punt. Arthroscopy confirmed anterior impingement between a fibrous tissue eminence directly anterior to his anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the intercondylar roof in full extension. With the eminence removed, full extension no longer caused impingement as demonstrated arthroscopically. He resumed punting at maximal effort 6 weeks postoperatively without pain...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748519/specific-growth-rate-and-multiplicity-of-infection-affect-high-cell-density-fermentation-with-bacteriophage-m13-for-ssdna-production
#19
Benjamin Kick, Samantha Hensler, Florian Praetorius, Hendrik Dietz, Dirk Weuster-Botz
The bacteriophage M13 has found frequent applications in nanobiotechnology due to its chemically and genetically tunable protein surface and its ability to self-assemble into colloidal membranes. Additionally, its single-stranded (ss) genome is commonly used as scaffold for DNA origami. Despite the manifold uses of M13, upstream production methods for phage and scaffold ssDNA are underexamined with respect to future industrial usage. Here, the high-cell-density phage production with Escherichia coli as host organism was studied in respect of medium composition, infection time, multiplicity of infection and specific growth rate...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748460/structures-properties-and-energy-storage-mechanisms-of-the-semi-lunar-process-cuticles-in-locusts
#20
Chao Wan, Zhixiu Hao, Xiqiao Feng
Locusts have excellent jumping and kicking abilities to survive in nature, which are achieved through the energy storage and release processes occurring in cuticles, especially in the semi-lunar processes (SLP) at the femorotibial joints. As yet, however, the strain energy-storage mechanisms of the SLP cuticles remain unclear. To decode this mystery, we investigated the microstructure, material composition, and mechanical properties of the SLP cuticle and its remarkable strain energy-storage mechanisms for jumping and kicking...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
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