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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546004/a-transfer-rna-gene-rearrangement-in-the-lepidopteran-mitochondrial-genome
#1
Qiu-Ning Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Xin-Yue Chai, Xiao-Ming Zhao, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang
Gene arrangements in the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of insects are conserved across the major lineages, but can be rearranged within derived groups and may provide valuable phylogenetic characters. In this study, we sequenced the entire mitogenome of Parasa consocia, a moth of the family Limacodidae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea). Compared with other lepidopterans and ancestral insects, the P. consocia mitogenome features a transfer RNA gene arrangement novel among lepidopterans between the ND3 and ND5 genes: RANSEF (the underline signifies an inverted gene), which differs from the ARNSEF arrangement of ancestral insects...
May 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545993/the-effect-of-entomopathogenic-fungal-culture-filtrate-on-the-immune-response-of-the-greater-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella
#2
Louise Mc Namara, James C Carolan, Christine T Griffin, David Fitzpatrick, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3 fold and 3...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544267/genetic-variation-within-species-and-haplotypes-of-the-wiseana-lepidoptera-hepialidae-complex-and-development-of-non-sequenced-based-identification-tools-to-aid-field-studies
#3
Nicola K Richards, Sarah Mansfield, Richard J Townsend, Colin M Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Porina is the common name used to describe moths and caterpillars of the seven endemic species and three haplotypes of Wiseana in New Zealand. Several species have adapted to eating introduced pasture plants, however a paucity of defining morphological characteristics has meant that porina are grouped as indistinguishable species within a complex. This study aimed to develop non-sequencing identification methods for porina species. RESULTS: We sequenced 1, 718 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase genes for all Wiseana species and haplotypes using 75 specimens collected from 42 sites throughout New Zealand...
May 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539590/abcc2-is-associated-with-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ac-toxin-oligomerization-and-membrane-insertion-in-diamondback-moth
#4
Josue Ocelotl, Jorge Sánchez, Isabel Gómez, Bruce E Tabashnik, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
Cry1A insecticidal toxins bind sequentially to different larval gut proteins facilitating oligomerization, membrane insertion and pore formation. Cry1Ac interaction with cadherin triggers oligomerization. However, a mutation in an ABC transporter gene (ABCC2) is linked to Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella. Cry1AcMod, engineered to lack helix α-1, was able to form oligomers without cadherinbinding and effectively countered Cry1Ac resistance linked to ABCC2. Here we analyzed Cry1Ac and Cry1AcMod binding and oligomerization by western blots using brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from a strain of P...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538850/-infection-by-bordetella-pertussis-and-bordetella-parapertussis-in-cases-of-suspected-whooping-cough-2011-2015-in-mar-del-plata-argentina
#5
Silvina Lavayén, Claudia Zotta, Marcela Cepeda, Claudia Lara, Analia Rearte, Mabel Regueira
Objectives: . To classify the study population in the Argentinian National Health Surveillance System framework, determine the proportion of infection by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, and identify factors associated with the cases of suspected whooping cough attended to in the city of Mar del Plata and its outskirts during the period 2011- 2015. Materials and Methods: An observational and descriptive study was carried out. Clinical cases with suspicion of whooping cough were diagnosed by laboratory...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534171/surgery-for-colorectal-cancer-in-elderly-patients-how-can-we-improve-outcome
#6
Henning Mothes, Astrid Bauschke, Silke Schuele, Ekkehard Eigendorff, Annelore Altendorf-Hofmann, Utz Settmacher
PURPOSE: Patients over 70 years of age are characterised by diminished long-term survival rates following resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to younger patients. The aim of this study was to clarify whether reduced survival is a result of malignancy, comorbidities or the treatment received. METHODS: All patients with CRC, who were admitted to our institution over a period of 10 years, were selected from a prospectively maintained database. Disease-specific, disease-free and overall survival rates were calculated dependent on variables considered potentially relevant for the patients' prognosis...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528905/a-pheromone-antagonist-regulates-optimal-mating-time-in-the-moth-helicoverpa-armigera
#7
Hetan Chang, Yang Liu, Dong Ai, Xingchuan Jiang, Shuanglin Dong, Guirong Wang
Many insect species use multi-component sex pheromones to discriminate among potential mating partners [1-5]. In moths, pheromone blends tend to be dominated by one or two major components, but behavioral responses are frequently optimized by the inclusion of less abundant minor components [6]. An increasing number of studies have shown that female insects use these chemicals to convey their mating availability to males, who can assess the maturity of females and thus decide when to mate [7, 8]. However, little is known about the biological mechanisms that enable males to assess female reproductive status...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522415/behavioural-adaptation-of-the-rice-leaf-folder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-to-short-term-heat-stress
#8
Muhammad Adnan Bodlah, Ling-Ling Gu, Ye Tan, Xiang-Dong Liu
Under ongoing climate warming, both the degree and number of high-temperature events in summer may increase, and behavioural adaptation is an important ecological strategy employed by insects to cope with such events. The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée, is a serious insect pest of rice fields in summer. Population outbreaks have become more frequent in the last ten years. In addition to adult migration, rice leaf folders are thought to have other thermal adaptations. Therefore, the behaviours of larval and adult rice leaf folders, such as leaf folding (making shelter) and habitat selection for pupae and eggs, were observed on rice plants under heat stress...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521626/experimental-evolution-of-resistance-against-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-insect-model-host-galleria-mellonella-results-in-epigenetic-modifications
#9
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Ekaterina Grizanova, Ekaterina Chertkova, Ruediger Lehmann, Ivan Dubovskiy, Andreas Vilcinskas
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to translate environmental stimuli into heritable transgenerational phenotypic variations that can significantly influence natural selection. An intriguing example is exposure to pathogens, which imposes selection for host resistance. To test this hypothesis, we used larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as model host to experimentally select for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the most widely used bacterial agent for the biological control of pest insects...
May 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515888/unpacking-brown-food-webs-animal-trophic-identity-reflects-rampant-microbivory
#10
Shawn A Steffan, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Prarthana S Dharampal, Jonathan N Pauli, Christelle Guédot, Naohiko Ohkouchi
Detritivory is the dominant trophic paradigm in most terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems, yet accurate measurement of consumer trophic position within detrital (="brown") food webs has remained unresolved. Measurement of detritivore trophic position is complicated by the fact that detritus is suffused with microbes, creating a detrital complex of living and nonliving biomass. Given that microbes and metazoans are trophic analogues of each other, animals feeding on detrital complexes are ingesting other detritivores (microbes), which should elevate metazoan trophic position and should be rampant within brown food webs...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515868/postglacial-recolonization-shaped-the-genetic-diversity-of-the-winter-moth-operophtera-brumata-in-europe
#11
Jeremy C Andersen, Nathan P Havill, Adalgisa Caccone, Joseph S Elkinton
Changes in climate conditions, particularly during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, have long been recognized to be important for shaping patterns of species diversity. For species residing in the western Palearctic, two commonly observed genetic patterns resulting from these cycles are as follows: (1) that the numbers and distributions of genetic lineages correspond with the use of geographically distinct glacial refugia and (2) that southern populations are generally more diverse than northern populations (the "southern richness, northern purity" paradigm)...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514636/eco-evolutionary-theory-and-insect-outbreaks
#12
David J Páez, Vanja Dukic, Jonathan Dushoff, Arietta Fleming-Davies, Greg Dwyer
Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512315/midgut-bacteria-in-deltamethrin-resistant-deltamethrin-susceptible-and-field-caught-populations-of-plutella-xylostella-and-phenomics-of-the-predominant-midgut-bacterium-enterococcus-mundtii
#13
Wenhong Li, Daochao Jin, Caihua Shi, Fengliang Li
Gut bacteria play a significant role in host insect. This study evaluated detail difference of midgut bacteria in deltamethrin-resistant, deltamethrin-susceptible and field-caught populations of diamondback moth, and studied phenomics of the predominant midgut bacterium Enterococcus mundtii. Cultivable bacteria revealed that E. mundtii and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum dominated the bacterial populations from deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-susceptible larval midguts, whereas E. mundtii was predominant in field-caught population...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508064/fibulin-4-is-essential-for-maintaining-arterial-wall-integrity-in-conduit-but-not-muscular-arteries
#14
Carmen M Halabi, Thomas J Broekelmann, Michelle Lin, Vivian S Lee, Mon-Li Chu, Robert P Mecham
Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in fibulin-4 (FBLN4) lead to autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1B (ARCL1B), a multisystem disorder characterized by significant cardiovascular abnormalities, including abnormal elastin assembly, arterial tortuosity, and aortic aneurysms. We sought to determine the consequences of a human disease-causing mutation in FBLN4 (E57K) on the cardiovascular system and vascular elastic fibers in a mouse model of ARCL1B. Fbln4(E57K/E57K) mice were hypertensive and developed arterial elongation, tortuosity, and ascending aortic aneurysms...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506253/genome-wide-identification-of-lncrnas-associated-with-chlorantraniliprole-resistance-in-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#15
Bin Zhu, Manyu Xu, Haiyan Shi, Xiwu Gao, Pei Liang
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are now considered important regulatory factors, with a variety of biological functions in many species including insects. Some lncRNAs have the ability to show rapid responses to diverse stimuli or stress factors and are involved in responses to insecticide. However, there are no reports to date on the characterization of lncRNAs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella. RESULTS: Nine RNA libraries constructed from one susceptible (CHS) and two chlorantraniliprole-resistant P...
May 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502715/identification-of-mature-peptides-from-pban-and-capa-genes-of-the-moths-heliothis-peltigera-and-spodoptera-littoralis
#16
Lapo Ragionieri, Burak Özbagci, Susanne Neupert, Yuval Salts, Michael Davidovitch, Miriam Altstein, Reinhard Predel
By transcriptome analysis, we identified PBAN and CAPA precursors in the moths Spodoptera littoralis and Heliothis peltigera which are among the most damaging pests of agriculture in tropical and subtropical Africa as well as in Mediterranean countries. A combination of mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry was used to identify mature peptides processed from these precursors and to reveal their spatial distribution in the CNS. We found that the sites of expression of pban genes, the structure of PBAN precursors and the processed neuropeptides are very similar in noctuid moths...
May 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502526/long-term-preservation-of-eri-and-ailanthus-silkworms-using-frozen-gonads
#17
Hisayoshi Fukumori, Jung Lee, Tsuguru Fujii, Zenta Kajiura, Yutaka Banno
Cryopreservation of eri and ailanthus silkworms using frozen gonads was investigated. First, we evaluated the freeze tolerance of ovary and testis in the eri silkworm, which showed high tolerance. Mating between frozen ovary-transplanted females and frozen testis-transplanted males produced 163.0 eggs, yielding 105.7 larvae per moth. In a second experiment, we tested the use of the eri silkworm as a host insect for gonad transplantation from ailanthus silkworm donors. A high success ratio for laid and hatched eggs was demonstrated for ovary transplantation (97...
May 11, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500661/is-mealworm-or-shrimp-allergy-indicative-for-food-allergy-to-insects
#18
Henrike Chp Broekman, André C Knulst, Govardus de Jong, Marco Gaspari, Constance F den Hartog Jager, Geert F Houben, Kitty Cm Verhoeckx
SCOPE: The growing world population is a key driver for the exploration of sustainable protein sources to ensure food security. Mealworm and other insects are promising candidates. Previously we found that shrimp allergic patients are at risk for mealworm allergy, and that mealworm can induce a primary allergy 3.This study set out to investigate the allergenic potential of edible insects, suggested for human consumption by agencies such as WHO/FAO, in both the shrimp (potentially cross-reactive) and primary mealworm allergic population...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500568/female-sex-pheromone-of-the-cone-moth-dioryctria-mendacella-investigation-of-synergism-between-type-i-and-type-ii-pheromone-components
#19
David R Hall, Dudley Farman, Juan C Domínguez, Juan A Pajares
Polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (Type II pheromone components) have been reported to be synergists for unsaturated acetates, alcohols or aldehydes (Type I components) in the sex pheromones of several species of Lepidoptera. However, there is some debate over whether the active components are the hydrocarbons themselves or more volatile degradation products. Extracts of pheromone glands of adult females of the cone moth, Dioryctria mendacella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), contain (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (ZE9,11-14:Ac) and at least ten times as much (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene (ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500471/w-enriched-satellite-sequence-in-the-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#20
Martina Dalíková, Magda Zrzavá, Svatava Kubíčková, František Marec
The W chromosome of most lepidopteran species represents the largest heterochromatin entity in the female genome. Although satellite DNA is a typical component of constitutive heterochromatin, there are only a few known satellite DNAs (satDNAs) located on the W chromosome in moths and butterflies. In this study, we isolated and characterized new satDNA (PiSAT1) from microdissected W chromosomes of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Even though the PiSAT1 is mainly localized near the female-specific segment of the W chromosome, short arrays of this satDNA also occur on autosomes and/or the Z chromosome...
May 12, 2017: Chromosome Research
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