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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719023/identification-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-and-the-ligand-affinity-of-two-of-the-encoded-proteins-suggest-a-complex-olfactory-perception-system-in-periplaneta-americana
#1
P He, Z-Q Li, Y-F Zhang, L Chen, J Wang, L Xu, Y-N Zhang, M He
The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is an urban pest with a precise chemosensory system that helps it achieve complex physiological behaviours, including locating food and mating. However, its chemosensory mechanisms have not been well studied. Here, we identified 71 putative odorant carrier protein genes in P. americana, including 57 new odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and 11 chemosensory proteins (CSPs). To identify their physiological functions, we investigated their tissue expression patterns in antennae, mouthparts, legs, and the remainder of the body of both sexes, and determined that most of these genes were expressed in chemosensory organs...
July 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718239/permanent-pace-maker-implantation-through-axillary-vein-approach
#2
Bakhtawar Shah, Cheragh Hussain, Zahid Aslam Awan
BACKGROUND: Device implantation is an integral part of interventional cardiology particularly electrophysiology. In this study, we are going to shear our experience of device implantation technique at electrophysiology department Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. METHODS: The study was conducted from June 2011 to December 2015. Axillary vein was used to implant the devices but in some cases when this rout was not convenient due to any reason then subclavian vein was entered through the Seldinger technique...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717823/-interdisciplinary-pain-assessment-in-the-hospital-setting-merely-a%C3%A2-door-opener-to-multimodal-pain-therapy
#3
E Sens, M Mothes-Lasch, J F Lutz
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is characterized by a complex interaction of somatic, mental and social factors. Assessing these factors in patients with chronic pain is vital during the diagnostic work-up and when making a structured treatment plan. Interdisciplinary pain assessment (ISA) is the most promising method to deal with these challenges. This article presents our experience in performing pain assessments in the hospital setting and also illustrates the characteristic features of chronic pain patients undergoing such assessments...
July 17, 2017: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715373/new-methods-to-study-gustatory-coding
#4
Alejandra Boronat-García, Sam Reiter, Kui Sun, Mark Stopfer
The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemicals in the environment, giving rise to behaviors critical for survival. When Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRNs) detect tastant molecules, they encode information about the identity and concentration of the tastant as patterns of electrical activity that then propagate to follower neurons in the brain. These patterns constitute internal representations of the tastant, which then allow the animal to select actions and form memories. The use of relatively simple animal models has been a powerful tool to study basic principles in sensory coding...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707111/limiting-the-cost-of-mutualism-the-defensive-role-of-elongated-gynophore-in-the-leafflower-moth-mutualism
#5
Saori Furukawa, Atsushi Kawakita
Mutualisms are interactions from which both partners benefit but may collapse if mutualists' costs and benefits are not aligned. Host sanctions are one mechanism whereby hosts selectively allocate resources to the more cooperative partners and thereby reduce the fitness of overexploiters; however, many mutualisms lack apparent means of host sanctions. In mutualisms between plants and pollinating seed parasites, such as those between leafflowers and leafflower moths, pollinators consume subsets of the seeds as larval food in return for their pollination service...
July 14, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705718/antimicrobial-peptide-repertoire-of-thitarodes-armoricanus-a-host-species-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-predicted-based-on-de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-analysis
#6
Min Wang, Xianda Hu
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an entomopathogenic fungus that parasitizes the larvae of ghost moths. The fungus-caterpillar complex resulting from fungal parasitism is a medicinally and economically important traditional Chinese medicine famous for its tonic, aphrodisiac and immunomodulatory activity. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which play predominant roles in responding to infection of pathogenic microorganisms in the immune system of ghost moths, may remain behind the fungus-caterpillar complex. Thitarodes armoricanus, as a widely distributed ghost moth on the Tibetan Plateau, is the first reported and one of the most common host insects of O...
July 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705633/transcriptome-analysis-of-helicoverpa-armigera-male-hairpencils-alcohol-biosynthesis-and-requirement-for-mating-success
#7
Mengfang Du, Wenhui Zhao, Russell Jurenka, Xiaoguang Liu, Xinming Yin, Qisheng Song, Shiheng An
Many female animals use different strategies to assess male quality to increase their own reproductive fitness. In moths, females usually use chemical signals (sex pheromones) to attract males from a distance. Once males approach a female, they release close range pheromones from hairpencils to facilitate female acceptance. However, detailed mechanisms involved in male sex pheromone biosynthesis and its action in promoting female acceptance have not yet been fully characterized. This study screened a series of candidate genes via a transcriptome analysis of the male hairpencil of Helicoverpa armigera...
July 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701652/electrochemical-synthesis-of-dihydrobenzofurans-and-evaluation-of-their-insect-antifeedant-activities
#8
Masanori Morimoto, Masamitsu Urakawa, Koichiro Komai
Electrochemically synthesized dihydrobenzofurans were evaluated for their insect antifeedant activities against phytophagous insects. They were prepared through the coupling reactions of various alkenes with a phenoxy cation generated by oxidation near the cathode in the electrolytic reaction. The insect antifeedant activities of these synthetic dihydrobenzofurans were evaluated in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella) with the dual choice leaf disk bioassay method...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701559/optimal-background-matching-camouflage
#9
Constantine Michalis, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel, David P Gibson, Innes C Cuthill
Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693417/ace-an-efficient-and-sensitive-tool-to-detect-insecticide-resistance-associated-mutations-in-insect-acetylcholinesterase-from-rna-seq-data
#10
Dianhao Guo, Jiapeng Luo, Yuenan Zhou, Huamei Xiao, Kang He, Chuanlin Yin, Jianhua Xu, Fei Li
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is a substantial problem in controlling agricultural and medical pests. Detecting target site mutations is crucial to manage insecticide resistance. Though PCR-based methods have been widely used in this field, they are time-consuming and inefficient, and typically have a high false positive rate. Acetylcholinesterases (Ace) is the neural target of the widely used organophosphate (OP) and carbamate insecticides. However, there is not any software available to detect insecticide resistance associated mutations in RNA-Seq data at present...
July 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691920/artificial-i-manduca-sexta-i-forewings-for-flapping-wing-micro-aerial-vehicles-how-wing-structure-affects-performance
#11
Kenneth Moses, Simone C Michaels, Mark Willis, Roger D Quinn
A novel approach to fabricating and testing artificial insect wings has been developed. Utilizing these new techniques, locally harvested hawk moth (<i>Manduca sexta</i>) forewings are compared to engineered forewings with varying wing structures. A number of small, flexible engineered forewings were fabricated with identical planform size and shape but with variations in camber, ribbing, thickness and composition. A series of static and dynamic assessments compares the forewings in terms of structure and performance...
July 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690799/sex-biased-oviposition-by-a-nursery-pollinator-on-a-gynodioecious-host-plant-implications-for-breeding-system-evolution-and-evolution-of-mutualism
#12
Laura A D Doubleday, Lynn S Adler
Dioecy, a breeding system where individual plants are exclusively male or female, has evolved repeatedly. Extensive theory describes when dioecy should arise from hermaphroditism, frequently through gynodioecy, where females and hermaphrodites coexist, and when gynodioecy should be stable. Both pollinators and herbivores often prefer the pollen-bearing sex, with sex-specific fitness effects that can affect breeding system evolution. Nursery pollination, where adult insects pollinate flowers but their larvae feed on plant reproductive tissues, is a model for understanding mutualism evolution but could also yield insights into plant breeding system evolution...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682219/task-shifting-of-orthopaedic-surgery-to-non-physician-clinicians-in-malawi-effective-and-safe
#13
Torsten J Wilhelm, Kondwani Dzimbiri, Victoria Sembereka, Martin Gumeni, Olaf Bach, Henning Mothes
There is a shortage of orthopaedic surgeons in Malawi. Orthopaedic clinical officers (OCOs) treat trauma patients and occasionally perform major orthopaedic surgery. No studies have assessed the efficacy and safety of their work. The aim of this study was to evaluate their contribution to major orthopaedic surgery at Zomba Central Hospital. Data about orthopaedic procedures during 2006-2010 were collected from theatre books. We selected major amputations and open reductions and plating for outcome analysis and collected details from files...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676323/visual-cues-of-oviposition-sites-and-spectral-sensitivity-of-cydia-strobilella-l
#14
Johan Jakobsson, Miriam J Henze, Glenn P Svensson, Olle Lind, Olle Anderbrant
We investigated whether the spruce seed moth (Cydia strobilella L., Tortricidae: Grapholitini), an important pest in seed orchards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), can make use of the spectral properties of its host when searching for flowers to oviposit on. Spectral measurements showed that the flowers, and the cones they develop into, differ from a background of P. abies needles by a higher reflectance of long wavelengths. These differences increase as the flowers develop into mature cones. Electroretinograms (ERGs) in combination with spectral adaptation suggest that C...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675768/experimental-evolution-reveals-differences-between-phenotypic-and-evolutionary-responses-to-population-density
#15
Kathryn B McNamara, Leigh W Simmons
Group living can select for increased immunity, given the heightened risk of parasite transmission. Yet, it also may select for increased male reproductive investment, given the elevated risk of female multiple mating. Trade-offs between immunity and reproduction are well documented. Phenotypically, population density mediates both reproductive investment and immune function in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. However, the evolutionary response of populations to these traits is unknown. We created two replicated populations of P...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674826/conifer-diterpene-resin-acids-disrupt-juvenile-hormone-mediated-endocrine-regulation-in-the-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella
#16
Hyun-Woo Oh, Chan-Seok Yun, Jun Hyoung Jeon, Ji-Ae Kim, Doo-Sang Park, Hyung Won Ryu, Sei-Ryang Oh, Hyuk-Hwan Song, Yunhee Shin, Chan Sik Jung, Sang Woon Shin
Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are important components of oleoresin and greatly contribute to the defense strategies of conifers against herbivorous insects. In the present study, we determined that DRAs function as insect juvenile hormone (JH) antagonists that interfere with the juvenile hormone-mediated binding of the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC). Using a yeast two-hybrid system transformed with Met and SRC from the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella, we tested the interfering activity of 3704 plant extracts against JH III-mediated Met-SRC binding...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669710/the-genome-sequence-of-condylorrhiza-vestigialis-npv-a-novel-baculovirus-for-the-control-of-the-alamo-moth-on-populus-spp-in-brazil
#17
Maria Elita B Castro, Fernando L Melo, Marina Tagliari, Peter W Inglis, Saluana R Craveiro, Zilda Maria A Ribeiro, Bergmann M Ribeiro, Sônia N Báo
Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Lepidoptera: Cambridae), commonly known as the Brazilian poplar moth or Alamo moth, is a serious defoliating pest of poplar, a crop of great economic importance for the production of wood, fiber, biofuel and other biomaterials as well as its significant ecological and environmental value. The complete genome sequence of a new alphabaculovirus isolated from C. vestigialis was determined and analyzed. Condylorrhiza vestigialis nucleopolyhedrovirus (CoveNPV) has a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 125,767bp with a GC content of 42...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667116/a-third-type-of-resistance-of-codling-moth-against-cydia-pomonella-granulovirus-cpgv-shows-a-mixture-of-a-z-linked-and-autosomal-inheritance-pattern
#18
A J Sauer, S Schulze-Bopp, E Fritsch, K Undorf-Spahn, J A Jehle
Different isolates of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) are worldwide used to control codling moth larvae (Cydia pomonella; CM) in pome fruit production. Two types of dominantly inherited field resistances of CM to CpGV have been recently identified: Z-chromosomal type I resistance and autosomal type II resistance. In the present study, a CpGV-resistant CM field population (termed SA-GO) from North-East Germany was investigated. SA-GO individuals showed cross-resistance to CpGV isolates of genome group A (CpGV-M) and genome group E (CpGV-S), whereas genome group B (CpGV-E2) was still infective...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665262/nesterenkonia-cremea-sp-nov-a-bacterium-isolated-from-a-soda-lake
#19
Vishnuvardhan Reddy Sultanpuram, Thirumala Mothe, Sasikala Chintalapati, Venkata Ramana Chintalapati
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming bacterial strain, 10CT, was isolated from Lonar soda lake in India. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this strain was identified as belonging to the genus Nesterenkonia and was most closely related to the type strains of Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis (99.1 %, sequence similarity), Nesterenkonia aethiopica (96.9 %), Nesterenkonia flava (96.9 %) and related of the genus Nesterenkonia (<96.6 %, sequence similarity)...
June 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662168/do-placebo-expectations-influence-perceived-exertion-during-physical-exercise
#20
Hendrik Mothes, Christian Leukel, Harald Seelig, Reinhard Fuchs
This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a) the effects of exercise and b) the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE) measured every 5 minutes...
2017: PloS One
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