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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785409/-de-novo-genome-and-transcriptome-resources-of-the-adzuki-bean-borer-ostrinia-scapulalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#1
B Gschloessl, F Dorkeld, P Audiot, A Bretaudeau, C Kerdelhué, R Streiff
We present a draft genome assembly with a de novo prediction and automated functional annotation of coding genes, and a reference transcriptome of the Adzuki bean borer, Ostrinia scapulalis , based on RNA sequencing of various tissues and developmental stages. The genome assembly spans 419 Mb, has a GC content of 37.4% and includes 26,120 predicted coding genes. The reference transcriptome holds 33,080 unigenes and contains a high proportion of a set of genes conserved in eukaryotes and arthropods, used as quality assessment of the reconstructed transcripts...
April 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784959/commercially-available-natural-benzyl-esters-and-their-synthetic-analogs-exhibit-different-toxicities-against-insect-pests
#2
Yan Feng, Jian Chen, Aijun Zhang
Benzyl methyl ester, also known as methyl benzoate (MB), is a volatile organic compound that exists naturally as a floral fragrance in many plants. Our behavioral bioassays show that MB and some of its naturally occurring and synthetic analogs kill insects at different life stages. Compared to commercial pesticides containing pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid, MB and some analogs are 1.3 to 3.4 times more toxic to gypsy moth larvae and brown marmorated stinkbug nymphs. The arthropod repellent DEET is also a benzyl ester, and shares the same chemical skeleton with MB...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782921/flight-duration-and-flight-muscle-ultrastructure-of-unfed-hawk-moths
#3
Bernard W M Wone, Jaika Pathak, Goggy Davidowitz
Flight muscle breakdown has been reported for many orders of insects, but the basis of this breakdown in insects with lifelong dependence on flight is less clear. Lepidopterans show such muscle changes across their lifespans, yet how this change affects the ability of these insects to complete their life cycles is not well documented. We investigated the changes in muscle function and ultrastructure of unfed aging adult hawk moths (Manduca sexta). Flight duration was examined in young, middle-aged, and advanced-aged unfed moths...
May 18, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776573/duration-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-and-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-undergoing-percutaneous-revascularization-a-meta-analysis-of-11-randomized-trials
#4
Monica Verdoia, Elvin Khedi, Claudia Ceccon, Harry Suryapranata, Giuseppe De Luca
BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) represent a context of higher thrombotic risk, where larger advantages have been achieved by the administration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). However, the indication of 1 year DAPT after coronary angioplasty for ACS has been supported by an outdated randomized trial (PCI-CURE). In addition, the initial fear of late thrombotic events emerged with first generation drug-eluting stents (DES), that suggested the need of a prolonged DAPT prescription, has been completely overcome by the recent technological evolution of DES, that have shown faster re-endothelization and lower rates of late thrombotic complications...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776407/comparative-genomics-of-the-miniature-wasp-and-pest-control-agent-trichogramma-pretiosum
#5
Amelia R I Lindsey, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Xin Wu, Dan Sun, Ellen O Martinson, Zhichao Yan, Paul F Rugman-Jones, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, Harsha Vardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Gongyin Ye, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Soojin V Yi, Richard Stouthamer, John H Werren
BACKGROUND: Trichogrammatids are minute parasitoid wasps that develop within other insect eggs. They are less than half a millimeter long, smaller than some protozoans. The Trichogrammatidae are one of the earliest branching families of Chalcidoidea: a diverse superfamily of approximately half a million species of parasitoid wasps, proposed to have evolved from a miniaturized ancestor. Trichogramma are frequently used in agriculture, released as biological control agents against major moth and butterfly pests...
May 18, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776184/engineering-single-polymer-micelle-shape-using-nonuniform-spontaneous-surface-curvature
#6
Brian Moths, T A Witten
Conventional micelles, composed of simple amphiphiles, exhibit only a few standard morphologies, each characterized by its mean surface curvature set by the amphiphiles. Here we demonstrate a rational design scheme to construct micelles of more general shape from polymeric amphiphiles. We replace the many amphiphiles of a conventional micelle by a single flexible, linear, block copolymer chain containing two incompatible species arranged in multiple alternating segments. With suitable segment lengths, the chain exhibits a condensed spherical configuration in solution, similar to conventional micelles...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769524/molecular-solar-thermal-energy-storage-in-photoswitch-oligomers-increases-energy-densities-and-storage-times
#7
Mads Mansø, Anne Ugleholdt Petersen, Zhihang Wang, Paul Erhart, Mogens Brøndsted Nielsen, Kasper Moth-Poulsen
Molecular photoswitches can be used for solar thermal energy storage by photoisomerization into high-energy, meta-stable isomers; we present a molecular design strategy leading to photoswitches with high energy densities and long storage times. High measured energy densities of up to 559 kJ kg-1 (155 Wh kg-1 ), long storage lifetimes up to 48.5 days, and high quantum yields of conversion of up to 94% per subunit are demonstrated in norbornadiene/quadricyclane (NBD/QC) photo-/thermoswitch couples incorporated into dimeric and trimeric structures...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767461/sex-differences-but-no-evidence-of-quantitative-honesty-in-the-warning-signals-of-six-spot-burnet-moths-zygaena-filipendulae-l
#8
Emmanuelle Sophie Briolat, Mika Zagrobelny, Carl Erik Olsen, Jonathan D Blount, Martin Stevens
The distinctive black and red wing pattern of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae, L.) is a classic example of aposematism, advertising their potent cyanide-based defences. While such warning signals provide a qualitatively honest signal of unprofitability, the evidence for quantitative honesty, whereby variation in visual traits could provide accurate estimates of individual toxicity, is more equivocal. Combining measures of cyanogenic glucoside content and wing colour from the perspective of avian predators, we investigate the relationship between coloration and defences in Z...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766638/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-chlorantraniliprole-on-spodoptera-cosmioides-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#9
Alejandra L Lutz, Isabel Bertolaccini, Roberto R Scotta, María C Curis, María A Favaro, Laura N Fernandez, Daniel E Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) population has increased in Bt soybean crops in Argentina. As there are no registered products for its control, the recommended insecticides for S. frugiperda are used. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the lethal concentration (LC) and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on the biological and reproductive functions of S. cosmioides, an emerging soybean pest in Argentina. RESULTS: An ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorantraniliprole was active against larvae of the second instar, and after 48 h exposure LC50 was 0...
May 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765685/discrepancies-in-the-spiking-threshold-and-frequency-sensitivity-of-nocturnal-moths-explainable-by-biases-in-the-canonical-auditory-stimulation-method
#10
Herve Thevenon, Gerit Pfuhl
The auditory stimulation method used in experiments on moth A cell(s) is generally believed to be adequate to characterize the encoding of bat echolocation signals. The stimulation method hosts, though, several biases. Their compounded effects can explain a range of discrepancies between the reported electrophysiological recordings and significantly alter the current interpretation. To test the hypothesis that the bias may significantly alter our current understanding of the moth's auditory transducer characteristics, papers using the same auditory stimulation method and reporting on either spiking threshold or spiking activity of the moth's A cells were analysed...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763455/correction-mrna-mediated-gene-supplementation-of-toll-like-receptors-as-treatment-strategy-for-asthma-in-vivo
#11
Franziska Zeyer, Benedikt Mothes, Clara Will, Melanie Carevic, Jennifer Rottenberger, Bernd Nürnberg, Dominik Hartl, Rupert Handgretinger, Sandra Beer-Hammer, Michael S D Kormann
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154001.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761037/uncovering-the-hidden-players-in-lepidoptera-biology-the-heritable-microbial-endosymbionts
#12
Anne Duplouy, Emily A Hornett
The Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread and recognisable insect orders. Due to their remarkable diversity, economic and ecological importance, moths and butterflies have been studied extensively over the last 200 years. More recently, the relationship between Lepidoptera and their heritable microbial endosymbionts has received increasing attention. Heritable endosymbionts reside within the host's body and are often, but not exclusively, inherited through the female line. Advancements in molecular genetics have revealed that host-associated microbes are both extremely prevalent among arthropods and highly diverse...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758226/phytophagous-larvae-occurring-in-central-and-southeastern-european-oak-forests-as-a-potential-host-of-entomophaga-maimaiga-entomophthorales-entomophthoraceae-a-field-study
#13
Milan Zúbrik, Daniela Pilarska, Jan Kulfan, Marek Barta, Ann E Hajek, Tonya D Bittner, Peter Zach, Danail Takov, Andrej Kunca, Slavomír Rell, Anikó Hirka, György Csóka
We evaluated the presence and impact of Entomophaga maimaiga on both target and non-target phytophagous larvae. All six study plots, with low gypsy moth population density, were situated in Central and Southeastern European oak forests and E. maimaiga had previously been reported from these plots. Totally, 45 of 4,045 (1.13%) collected non-target larvae died due to fungal infections. No non-target insect specimen was infected by E.maimaiga, although the presence of the pathogen could not be fully excluded in three cadavers...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758031/the-mass-use-of-deltamethrin-collars-to-control-and-prevent-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-a-field-effectiveness-study-in-a-highly-endemic-area
#14
Bruna Martins Macedo Leite, Manuela da Silva Solcà, Liliane Celestino Sales Santos, Lívia Brito Coelho, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim, Lucas Edel Donato, Sandra Maria de Souza Passos, Adriana Oliveira de Almeida, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis of great importance. Limitations in current VL control measures compromise efficacy, indicating the need to implement new strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated collars in dogs as a public health measure to control and prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). METHODOLOGY: An interventional study was implemented in two endemic areas in the district of Monte Gordo (Bahia-Brazil): an intervention area, in which VL seronegative dogs were collared, and a control area in which only conventional CVL control measures were applied...
May 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755369/pheromone-binding-protein-ehippbp1-is-highly-enriched-in-the-male-antennae-of-the-seabuckthorn-carpenterworm-and-is-binding-to-sex-pheromone-components
#15
Ping Hu, Chenglong Gao, Shixiang Zong, Youqing Luo, Jing Tao
The seabuckthorn carpenterworm moth Eogystia hippophaecolus is a major threat to seabuckthorn plantations, causing considerable ecological and economic losses in China. Transcriptomic analysis of E. hippophaecolus previously identified 137 olfactory proteins, including three pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs). We investigated the function of E. hippophaecolus PBP1 by studying its mRNA and protein expression profiles and its binding ability with different compounds. The highest levels of expression were in the antennae, particularly in males, with much lower levels of expression in the legs and external genitals...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753140/influence-of-surface-flattening-on-biodiversity-of-terrestrial-arthropods-during-early-stages-of-brown-coal-spoil-heap-restoration
#16
Jabbar Moradi, Pavel Potocký, Petr Kočárek, Martin Bartuška, Karel Tajovský, Filip Tichánek, Jan Frouz, Robert Tropek
Heterogeneity of environmental conditions is the crucial factor supporting biodiversity in various habitats, including post-mining sites. The effects of micro-topographic heterogeneity on biodiversity and conservation potential of arthropod communities in post-industrial habitats had not been studied before now. At one of the largest European brown coal spoil heaps, we sampled eight groups of terrestrial arthropods with different life strategies (moths, spiders, ground beetles, ants, orthopteroids, centipedes, millipedes, and woodlice), in successionally young plots (5-18 y), with a heterogeneous wavy surface after heaping, and compared the communities with plots flattened by dozing...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751568/cyanogenesis-in-arthropods-from-chemical-warfare-to-nuptial-gifts
#17
REVIEW
Mika Zagrobelny, Érika Cristina Pinheiro de Castro, Birger Lindberg Møller, Søren Bak
Chemical defences are key components in insect⁻plant interactions, as insects continuously learn to overcome plant defence systems by, e.g., detoxification, excretion or sequestration. Cyanogenic glucosides are natural products widespread in the plant kingdom, and also known to be present in arthropods. They are stabilised by a glucoside linkage, which is hydrolysed by the action of β-glucosidase enzymes, resulting in the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide and deterrent aldehydes or ketones. Such a binary system of components that are chemically inert when spatially separated provides an immediate defence against predators that cause tissue damage...
May 3, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747429/a-vision-based-counting-and-recognition-system-for-flying-insects-in-intelligent-agriculture
#18
Yuanhong Zhong, Junyuan Gao, Qilun Lei, Yao Zhou
Rapid and accurate counting and recognition of flying insects are of great importance, especially for pest control. Traditional manual identification and counting of flying insects is labor intensive and inefficient. In this study, a vision-based counting and classification system for flying insects is designed and implemented. The system is constructed as follows: firstly, a yellow sticky trap is installed in the surveillance area to trap flying insects and a camera is set up to collect real-time images. Then the detection and coarse counting method based on You Only Look Once (YOLO) object detection, the classification method and fine counting based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) using global features are designed...
May 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746729/the-evolution-of-colour-polymorphism-in-british-winter-active-lepidoptera-in-response-to-search-image-use-by-avian-predators
#19
Jamie Conor Weir
Phenotypic polymorphism in cryptic species is widespread. This may evolve in response to search image use by predators exerting negative frequency-dependent selection on intraspecific colour morphs, "apostatic selection". Evidence exists to indicate search image formation by predators and apostatic selection operating on wild prey populations, though not to demonstrate search image use directly resulting in apostatic selection. The present study attempted to address this deficiency, using British Lepidoptera active in winter as a model system...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745349/automated-moth-flight-analysis-in-the-vicinity-of-artificial-light
#20
P Gaydecki
Instrumentation and software for the automated analysis of insect flight trajectories is described, intended for quantifying the behavioural dynamics of moths in the vicinity of artificial light. For its time, this moth imaging system was relatively advanced and revealed hitherto undocumented insights into moth flight behaviour. The illumination source comprised a 125 W mercury vapour light, operating in the visible and near ultraviolet wavelengths, mounted on top of a mobile telescopic mast at heights of 5 and 7...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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