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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#1
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927596/on-chemistry-of-%C3%AE-chitin
#2
Murat Kaya, Muhammad Mujtaba, Hermann Ehrlich, Asier M Salaberria, Talat Baran, Chris T Amemiya, Roberta Galli, Lalehan Akyuz, Idris Sargin, Jalel Labidi
The biological material, chitin, is present in nature in three allomorphic forms: α, β and γ. Whereas most studies have dealt with α- and β-chitin, only few investigations have focused on γ-chitin, whose structural and physicochemical properties have not been well delineated. In this study, chitin obtained for the first time from the cocoon of the moth (Orgyia dubia) was subjected to extensive physicochemical analyses and examined, in parallel, with α-chitin from exoskeleton of a freshwater crab and β-chitin from cuttlebone of the common cuttlefish...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921805/cytochrome-p450-diversification-and-hostplant-utilization-patterns-in-specialist-and-generalist-moths-birth-death-and-adaptation
#3
Bernarda Calla, Katherine Noble, Reed M Johnson, Kimberly K O Walden, Mary A Schuler, Hugh M Robertson, May R Berenbaum
Across insect genomes, the size of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) gene superfamily varies widely. CYPome size variation has been attributed to reciprocal adaptive radiations in insect detoxification genes in response to plant biosynthetic gene radiations driven by coevolution between herbivores and their chemically defended hostplants. Alternatively, variation in CYPome size may be due to random "birth and death" processes, whereby exponential increase via gene duplications is limited by random decay via gene death or transition via divergence...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916985/whole-plastid-transcriptomes-reveal-abundant-rna-editing-sites-and-differential-editing-status-in-phalaenopsis-aphrodite-subsp-formosana
#4
Ting-Chieh Chen, Yu-Chang Liu, Xuewen Wang, Chi-Hsuan Wu, Chih-Hao Huang, Ching-Chun Chang
BACKGROUND: RNA editing is a process of post-transcriptional level of gene regulation by nucleotide modification. Previously, the chloroplast DNA of Taiwan endemic moth orchid, P. aphrodite subsp. formosana was determined, and 44 RNA editing sites were identified from 24 plastid protein-coding transcripts of leaf tissue via RT-PCR and then conventional Sanger sequencing. However, the RNA editing status of whole-plastid transcripts in leaf and other distinct tissue types in moth orchids has not been addressed...
September 16, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916379/carboxymethyl-fenugreek-galactomannan-gellan-gum-calcium-silicate-composite-beads-for-glimepiride-delivery
#5
Hriday Bera, Srilatha Mothe, Sabyasachi Maiti, Sridhar Vanga
Novel carboxymethyl fenugreek galactomannan (CFG)-gellan gum (GG)-calcium silicate (CS) composite beads were developed for controlled glimepiride (GLI) delivery. CFG having degree of carboxymethylation of 0.71 was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, DSC and XRD analyses. Subsequently, GLI-loaded hybrids were accomplished by ionotropic gelation technique employing Ca(+2)/Zn(+2)/Al(+3) ions as cross-linkers. All the formulations demonstrated excellent drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, 48-97%) and sustained drug release behaviour (Q8h, 62-94%)...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911744/identification-of-two-novel-p450-genes-and-their-responses-to-deltamethrin-in-the-cabbage-moth-mamestra-brassicae-linnaeus
#6
Xia Zhou, Xing Fan, Yanling Gao, Jing Yang, Jin Qian, Dong Fan
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, found in virtually all living organisms, play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, pesticides, and plant toxins. In this study, we identified two novel cytochrome P450 genes from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus. They were named CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 (GenBank Accession Nos.: KX008607 and JQ901385, respectively) by the P450 Nomenclature Committee. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription revealed that CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 were highly expressed in the fat bodies and were differentially expressed at different larval developmental stages...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911742/inheritance-and-stability-of-mevinphos-resistance-in-plutella-xylostella-l-with-special-reference-to-mutations-of-acetylcholinesterase-1
#7
Chia-Li Lin, Shih-Chia Yeh, Hai-Tung Feng, Shu-Mei Dai
Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) causes enormous damage on cruciferous vegetables and can rapidly develop resistance to all kinds of insecticides. To effectively manage the insecticide resistance of P. xylostella, an understanding of its inheritance and stability is essential. Here we investigated the phenotypic and genotypic basis of mevinphos resistance by crossing two genetically pure lines of P. xylostella, an SHggt wild-type strain and an SHMTCN resistant strain carrying 892T/T, 971C/C, and 1156T/G (TCN) mutations of the acetylcholinesterase 1 gene (Pxace1)...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910290/bird-use-of-organic-apple-orchards-frugivory-pest-control-and-implications-for-production
#8
Anna M Mangan, Liba Pejchar, Scott J Werner
As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella)) and negatively through fruit damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904778/the-influence-of-herbivory-and-weather-on-the-vital-rates-of-two-closely-related-cactus-species
#9
Kristen E Sauby, John Kilmer, Mary C Christman, Robert D Holt, Travis D Marsico
Herbivory has long been recognized as a significant driver of plant population dynamics, yet its effects along environmental gradients are unclear. Understanding how weather modulates plant-insect interactions can be particularly important for predicting the consequences of exotic insect invasions, and an explicit consideration of weather may help explain why the impact can vary greatly across space and time. We surveyed two native prickly pear cactus species (genus Opuntia) in the Florida panhandle, USA, and their specialist insect herbivores (the invasive South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, and three native insect species) for five years across six sites...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900809/production-identification-and-field-evaluation-of-sex-pheromone-from-calling-females-in-diaphania-angustalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#10
Tao Ma, Zhitao Liu, Cai Wang, Shengnan Zhang, Xianhui Shi, Zhaohui Sun, Xiaoyang Chen, Caijuan Jia, Changlu Wang, Yurong He, Xiujun Wen
Insect sex pheromones play a crucial role in the mate finding and calling behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Currently, little is known about the chemical ecology of Diaphania angustalis Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a severe and important defoliator attacking the medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris. In the present study, the pheromone components of D. angustalis females were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioral methods. Distilled hexane extracts of female pheromone glands were analyzed through electroantennogram (EAG) and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD), and the active compounds were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899752/are-adult-life-history-traits-in-oriental-fruit-moth-affected-by-a-mild-pupal-heat-stress
#11
Jincheng Zheng, Xiongbin Cheng, Ary A Hoffmann, Bo Zhang, Chun-Sen Ma
Thermal stress at one life stage can affect fitness at a later stage in ectotherms with complex life cycles. Most relevant studies have focused on extreme stress levels, but here we also show substantial fitness effects in a moth when pupae are exposed to a relatively mild and sublethal heat stress. We consider the impact of a 35°C heat stress of 2h in three geographically separate populations of the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) from northern, middle and southern China. Heat stress negatively affected fecundity but increased adult heat resistance and adult longevity...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893327/new-activity-of-yamamarin-an-insect-pentapeptide-on-immune-system-of-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor
#12
K Walkowiak-Nowicka, G Nowicki, M Kuczer, G Rosiński
In insects, two types of the immune responses, cellular and humoral, constitute a defensive barrier against various parasites and pathogens. In response to pathogens, insects produce a wide range of immune agents that act on pathogens directly, such as cecropins or lysozyme, or indirectly by the stimulation of hemocyte migration or by increasing phenoloxidase (PO) activity. Recently, many new immunologically active substances from insects, such as peptides and polypeptides, have been identified. Nevertheless, in the most cases, their physiological functions are not fully known...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892141/novel-insights-on-population-and-range-edge-dynamics-using-an-unparalleled-spatiotemporal-record-of-species-invasion
#13
Kristine Grayson, Derek M Johnson
Quantifying the complex spatial dynamics taking place at range edges is critical for understanding future distributions of species, yet very few systems have sufficient data or the spatial resolution to empirically test these dynamics. This paper reviews how data from a large-scale pest management program have provided important contributions to the fields of population dynamics and invasion biology. The invasion of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is well-documented from its introduction near Boston, Massachusetts USA in 1869 to its current extent of over 900,000 km(2) in Eastern North America...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890848/urbanization-alters-communities-of-flying-arthropods-in-parks-and-gardens-of-a-medium-sized-city
#14
Edward Lagucki, Justin D Burdine, Kevin E McCluney
Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890398/functional-characterization-of-pol-iii-u6-promoters-for-gene-knockdown-and-knockout-in-plutella-xylostella
#15
Yuping Huang, Yajun Wang, Baosheng Zeng, Zhaoxia Liu, Xuejiao Xu, Qian Meng, Yongping Huang, Guang Yang, Liette Vasseur, Geoff M Gurr, Minsheng You
RNA polymerase type III (Pol-III) promoters such as U6 are commonly used to express small RNAs, including short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Functional U6 promoters are widely used in CRISPR systems, and their characterization can facilitate genome editing of non-model organisms. In the present study, six U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoters containing two conserved elements of a proximal sequence element (PSEA) and a TATA box, were identified and characterized in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) genome...
September 7, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881952/effects-of-temperature-on-development-of-lymantria-dispar-asiatica-and-lymantria-dispar-japonica-lepidoptera-erebidae
#16
Samita Limbu, Melody Keena, Fang Chen, Gericke Cook, Hannah Nadel, Kelli Hoover
Periodic introductions of the Asian subspecies of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky, in North America are threatening forests and interrupting foreign trade. Although Asian gypsy moth has similar morphology to that of European and North American gypsy moth, it has several traits that make it a greater threat, the most important being the flight capability of females. Asian gypsy moth is not yet established in North America; however, infestations have been detected multiple times in Canada and the United States...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881949/heat-tolerance-induction-of-the-indian-meal-moth-lepidoptera-pyralidae-is-accompanied-by-upregulation-of-heat-shock-proteins-and-polyols
#17
Minhyun Kim, Seunghee Lee, Yong Shik Chun, Jahyun Na, Hyeok Kwon, Wook Kim, Yonggyun Kim
The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, causes massive damage to stored grains and processed foods. Heat treatment has been widely used to control insect pests infesting stored grains. However, heat treatment may result in unsatisfactory control owing to heat tolerance of target insects. This study quantified the heat tolerance and analyzed its induction in P. interpunctella. Susceptibility of P. interpunctella to different high temperatures was assessed in all developmental stages. Heat treatment at 44 °C for 1 h caused significant mortalities to all developmental stages, with late-instar larvae exhibiting the highest tolerance...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881947/bacterial-inoculant-treatment-of-bermudagrass-alters-ovipositional-behavior-larval-and-pupal-weights-of-the-fall-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#18
Richard Murphey Coy, David W Held, Joseph W Kloepper
Nonpathogenic soil bacteria can colonize the rhizosphere and induce unique plant phenotypes that may influence plant-insect interactions. However, few studies have considered the influences of bacteria-plant interactions on insect feeding and oviposition. The objective of this study was to determine how rhizobacterial inoculation of bermudagrass affects larval development and ovipositional behaviors of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith). Eight blends of rhizobacteria known to induce root or shoot growth in grasses were applied weekly to hybrid bermudagrass for 5 wk...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878637/corrigendum-the-australian-bogong-moth-agrotis-infusa-a-long-distance-nocturnal-navigator
#19
Eric Warrant, Barrie Frost, Ken Green, Henrik Mouritsen, David Dreyer, Andrea Adden, Kristina Brauburger, Stanley Heinze
[This corrects the article on p. 77 in vol. 10, PMID: 27147998.].
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877691/alternative-moth-eye-nanostructures-antireflective-properties-and-composition-of-dimpled-corneal-nanocoatings-in-silk-moth-ancestors
#20
Mikhail Kryuchkov, Jannis Lehmann, Jakob Schaab, Vsevolod Cherepanov, Artem Blagodatski, Manfred Fiebig, Vladimir L Katanaev
Moth-eye nanostructures are a well-known example of biological antireflective surfaces formed by pseudoregular arrays of nipples and are often used as a template for biomimetic materials. Here, we provide morphological characterization of corneal nanostructures of moths from the Bombycidae family, including strains of domesticated Bombyx mori silk-moth, its wild ancestor Bombyx mandarina, and a more distantly related Apatelodes torrefacta. We find high diversification of the nanostructures and strong antireflective properties they provide...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
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