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Keppanan Ravindran, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan, Mubasher Hussain, Chandra Kanta Dash, Bamisope Steve Bamisile, Muhammad Qasim, Wang Liande
Entomopathogenic fungi are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites that possess insecticidal properties. The present study reported a novel approach for the identification of insecticidal compounds produced by Lecanicillium lecanii 09 and to assess their toxicity against the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. The cyclic peptides groups of toxic substances were separated from L. lecanii 09 through submerged liquid state fermentation. The most abundant toxic metabolite, Bassianolide was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its molecular weight and purity were determined by Liquid chromatography - mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and H1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) respectively...
March 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Lesley W Chan, Daniel E Morse, Michael J Gordon
Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g., insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes...
March 16, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Benjamin D Jaffe, Peter J Landolt
Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ya-Li Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Hong-Chun Cui, Lei Zhao, Ji-Zhong Yu, Hong-Liang Li
As one of the main lepidopteran pests in Chinese tea plantations, Ectropis obliqua Warren (tea geometrids) can severely decrease yields of tea products. The olfactory system of the adult tea geometrid plays a significant role in seeking behaviors, influencing their search for food, mating partners, and even spawning grounds. In this study, a general odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene, EoblGOBP2 , was identified in the antennae of E. obliqua using reverse transcription quantification PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that EoblGOBP2 was more highly expressed in the antennae of males than in females relative to other tissues...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Madan Upadhyay, Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Bharat Shrestha, Bhaiya Khanal, Bishnu Psd Upadhyay, Jeevan B Sherchand, Prakash Ghimire
PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a detailed update in Seasonal hypercute panuveitis (SHAPU) which is a blinding disease of unknown etiology reported only from Nepal, occurring every odd year since 1975 predominantly in children. METHODS: Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1975 to late 2017). Search items included SHAPU, seasonal endophthalmitis, hypopyon uveitis, caterpillar induced uveitis alone or in combination with white moth, panuveitis, and review...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Qike Wang, Yidan Shang, Douglas S Hilton, Kiao Inthavong, Dong Zhang, Mark A Elgar
The elaborate bipectinate antennae of male moths are thought to increase their sensitivity to female sex pheromones, and so should be favoured by selection. Yet simple filamentous antennae are the most common structure among moths. The stereotypic arrangements of scales on the surface of antennae may resolve this paradox. We use computational fluid dynamics techniques to model how scales on the filamentous antennae of moths affect the passage of different particles in the airflow across the flagellum in both small and large moths...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Maria Luisa Dindo, Satoshi Nakamura
Oviposition strategies and mechanisms of host selection in parasitoids may be crucial for the success of parasitization and parasitoid production. These aspects are far less known in tachinid parasitoids than in hymenopteran parasitoids. Depending on the species, parasitoid flies may adopt direct or indirect oviposition strategies. The 'direct type' females lay eggs on or, in relatively a few species, inside the host body. This review describes cues involved in host selection by tachinid parasitoids and their oviposition strategies and presents 2 case studies in more detail, focusing on Exorista larvarum and Exorista japonica ...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Galen P Dively, P Dilip Venugopal, Dick Bean, Joanne Whalen, Kristian Holmstrom, Thomas P Kuhar, Hélène B Doughty, Terry Patton, William Cissel, William D Hutchison
Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chao Qin, Cheng-Hua Wang, Ying-Ying Wang, Shi-Qing Sun, Huan-Huan Wang, Chao-Bin Xue
Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.; Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of diamide insecticides has led to P. xylostella resistance and this presents a serious threat to vegetable production. We selected chlorantraniliprole (Rf) and flubendiamide (Rh) resistance strains of P. xylostella with resistance ratios of 684.54-fold and 677.25-fold, respectively. The Rf and Rh strains underwent 46 and 36 generations of lab-selection for resistance, respectively...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Carlos Eduardo Pereira Nunes, Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Marianne Azevedo-Silva, Marlies Sazima
Nursery pollination involves pollinators that lay eggs on the flowers they pollinate and have their brood fed on flower parts or developing ovules [1-4]. Active pollination, a ritualistic behavioral sequence shown by nursery pollinators when transferring pollen from anthers to stigmas, is known in only four plant lineages [5-8], including the classical examples of fig trees-fig wasps and yuccas-yucca moths [5, 6]. We report in detail a system in which weevils actively pollinate orchids prior to having their larvae fed on the developing fruits...
March 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Marco Tasin, Sebastian Larsson Herrera, Alan L Knight, Wilson Barros-Parada, Eduardo Fuentes Contreras, Ilaria Pertot
Semiochemicals released by plant-microbe associations are used by herbivorous insects to access and evaluate food resources and oviposition sites. Adult insects may utilize microbial-derived nutrients to prolong their lifespan, promote egg development, and offer a high nutritional substrate to their offspring. Here, we examined the behavioral role of semiochemicals from grape-microbe interactions on oviposition and field attraction of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). The volatile constituents released by grape inoculated with yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Pitt...
March 10, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Maurizio Francesco Brivio, Andrea Toscano, Simone Maria De Pasquale, Andrea De Lerma Barbaro, Stefano Giovannardi, Giovanna Finzi, Maristella Mastore
BACKGROUND: Steinernema carpocapsae is a nematocomplex widely used as alternative to chemicals for the biological control of insect pests; this nematode is symbiotically associated with the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and both contribute to the host death. Architecture and functions of structures and molecular components of the surface of nematodes and their symbionts bacteria are integral to the early interactions with their hosts; thus, we assessed the role of protein pools isolated from the surface of S...
March 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
James B Barnett, Innes C Cuthill, Nicholas E Scott-Samuel
Defended prey often use distinctive, conspicuous, colours to advertise their unprofitability to potential predators (aposematism). These warning signals are frequently made up of salient, high contrast, stripes which have been hypothesized to increase the speed and accuracy of predator avoidance learning. Limitations in predator visual acuity, however, mean that these patterns cannot be resolved when viewed from a distance, and adjacent patches of colour will blend together (pattern blending). We investigated how saliency changes at different viewing distances in the toxic and brightly coloured cinnabar moth caterpillar ( Tyria jacobaeae )...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Frida A Zink, Luke R Tembrock, Alicia E Timm, Todd M Gilligan
The silver Y moth [Autographa gamma (Linneaus) (Noctuidae: Plusiinae)] is a pervasive crop pest in its native range but has not been found in moth surveys in the United States. Specimens of A. gamma are often intercepted at U.S. ports of entry, so the risk of introduction of this invasive species is high. Currently, identification of Plusiinae adults captured in domestic surveys is done by morphlogical comparison; however, this method is time consuming and misidentifications have occurred in the past. A recent study outlined a real-time PCR assay capable of rapidly identifying individual A...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Asja Maaz, Tanja Hitzblech, Peter Arends, Antje Degel, Sabine Ludwig, Agata Mossakowski, Ronja Mothes, Jan Breckwoldt, Harm Peters
AIM: Undergraduate medical education is currently in a fundamental transition towards competency-based programs around the globe. A major curriculum reform implies a dual challenge: the change of the curriculum and the delivering organization. Both are closely interwoven. In this article, we provide practical insights into our approach of managing such a fundamental reform of the large undergraduate medical program at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. METHODS: Members of the project management team summarized the key features of the process with reference to the literature...
March 5, 2018: Medical Teacher
E A Chertkova, E V Grizanova, I M Dubovskiy
Dopamine (DA) is known as a hormone neurotrasnmitter molecule involved in several stress reactions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Following infections with the fungi Metarhizium robertsii or Beauveria bassiana and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, dopamine the concentration was measured at different time points in the haemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. The infection with M. robertsii increased (4 to 12-fold) DA concentrations in the haemolymph of the potato beetle larvae and the oral infection by B...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Chunye Zhang, Yuhua Hu, Zhen Tian, Ling Zhu, Chenping Zhang, Jiang Li
OBJECTIVE: Carcinoma cuniculatum (CC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We describe the clinicopathologic findings in a new case. STUDY DESIGN: This is a literature review and retrospective study of a case with CC. RESULTS: The clinical and imaging findings of CC are diverse; some cases might be challenging to diagnose accurately by biopsy. This article reports a case of CC that occurred in the retromolar region with involvement of the mandible...
February 3, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Joel D Arneodo, Alicia Sciocco-Cap
Light, electron microscopy and DNA analyses were performed to characterize a microsporidium infecting Rachiplusia nu larvae from a laboratory rearing in Argentina. Diplokaryotic spores were oval and measured 3.61 ± 0.29 × 1.61 ± 0.14 μM (fresh). The spore wall was composed of an electron-dense exospore and an electron-lucent endospore, ca. 30 nm and 100-120 nm thick, respectively. The polar filament was arranged in a single rank of 10-12 coils (typically 11). Microsporidian cells were found in the cytoplasm, next to the endoplasmic reticulum (especially the prespore stages) and generally surrounded by electron-lucent spaces...
February 28, 2018: Parasitology Research
Victor Gray, Betül Küçüköz, Fredrik Edhborg, Maria Abrahamsson, Kasper Moth-Poulsen, Bo Albinsson
Energy and electron transfer reactions are central to many different processes and research fields, from photosynthesis and solar energy harvesting to biological and medical applications. Herein we report a comprehensive study of the singlet and triplet energy transfer dynamics in porphyrin-anthracene coordination complexes. Seven newly synthesized pyridine functionalized anthracene ligands, five with various bridge lengths and two dendrimer structures containing three and seven anthracene units, were prepared...
March 1, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Leticia Valencia-Cuevas, Patricia Mussali-Galante, Zenón Cano-Santana, Juli Pujade-Villar, Armando Equihua-Martínez, Efraín Tovar-Sánchez
Various studies have demonstrated that the foundation species genetic diversity can have direct effects that extend beyond the individual or population level, affecting the dependent communities. Additionally, these effects may be indirectly extended to higher trophic levels throughout the entire community. Quercus castanea is an oak species with characteristics of foundation species beyond presenting a wide geographical distribution and being a dominant element of Mexican temperate forests. In this study, we analyzed the influence of population ( He ) and individual ( HL ) genetic diversity of Q...
February 2018: Current Zoology
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