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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105930/genetic-diversity-among-eight-dendrolimus-species-in-eurasia-lepidoptera-lasiocampidae-inferred-from-mitochondrial-coi-and-coii-and-nuclear-its2-markers
#1
Alexander Kononov, Kirill Ustyantsev, Baode Wang, Victor C Mastro, Victor Fet, Alexander Blinov, Yuri Baranchikov
BACKGROUND: Moths of genus Dendrolimus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) are among the major pests of coniferous forests worldwide. Taxonomy and nomenclature of this genus are not entirely established, and there are many species with a controversial taxonomic position. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the most economically important Dendrolimus species in Eurasia. RESULTS: Our analysis was based on the nucleotide sequences of COI and COII mitochondrial genes and ITS2 spacer of nuclear ribosomal genes...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098189/global-identification-of-micrornas-associated-with-chlorantraniliprole-resistance-in-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#2
Bin Zhu, Xiuxia Li, Ying Liu, Xiwu Gao, Pei Liang
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is one of the most serious cruciferous pests and has developed high resistance to most insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole. Previous studies have reported several protein-coding genes that involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance, but research on resistance mechanisms at the post-transcription level is still limited. In this study, a global screen of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella was performed...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094805/the-genome-sequence-of-barbarea-vulgaris-facilitates-the-study-of-ecological-biochemistry
#3
Stephen L Byrne, Pernille Østerbye Erthmann, Niels Agerbirk, Søren Bak, Thure Pavlo Hauser, Istvan Nagy, Cristiana Paina, Torben Asp
The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two 'types', G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and their glucosinolate and saponin profiles. A key difference is the stereochemistry of hydroxylation of their common phenethylglucosinolate backbone, leading to epimeric glucobarbarins. Here we report a draft genome sequence of the G-type, and re-sequencing of the P-type for comparison...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094781/ultrastructure-of-sensilla-of-antennae-and-ovipositor-of-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-and-location-of-female-sex-pheromone-gland
#4
Min Ma, Meng-Meng Chang, Yan Lu, Chao-Liang Lei, Feng-Lian Yang
The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is a serious pest of stored grains worldwide. Presently, the best effective control against the moth is to disrupt the sexual communication between sexes. Sexual communication in moths includes two processes in which females produce and release pheromones from the sex pheromone gland and males detect and respond to them with a relatively sophisticated olfactory system in their antennae. To better understand these processes, we studied the ultrastructure of antennal and ovipositor sensilla of S...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092131/finish-line-plant-insect-interactions-mediated-by-insect-feeding-mode-and-plant-interference-a-case-study-of-brassica-interactions-with-diamondback-moth-and-turnip-aphid
#5
Mahmoud Soufbaf, Yaghoub Fathipour, Jeffrey A Harvey, Cang Hui
There are gaps in our understanding of plant responses under different insect phytophagy modes and their subsequent effects on the insect herbivores' performance at late season. Here we compared different types of insect feeding by an aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, and a lepidopteran, Plutella xylostella, and how this affected defensive metabolites in leaves of two Brassica species when plants gain maturity. Thiocyanate concentrations after P. xylostella and L. erysimi feeding activities were the same. Total phenolics was higher after the phloem feeder feeding than the folivore activity...
January 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091775/developmental-and-sex-specific-differences-in-expression-of-neuropeptides-derived-from-allatotropin-gene-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#6
Branislav Bednár, Ladislav Roller, Daniel Čižmár, Diana Mitrová, Dušan Žitňan
Allatotropin (AT) and related neuropeptides are widespread bioactive molecules that regulate development, food intake and muscle contractions in insects and other invertebrates. In moths, alternative splicing of the at gene generates three mRNA precursors encoding AT with different combinations of three structurally similar AT-like peptides (ATLI-III). We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the differential expression of these transcripts during the postembryonic development of Bombyx mori...
January 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079938/an-enigmatic-hawaiian-moth-is-a-missing-link-in-the-adaptive-radiation-of-schiedea
#7
Stephen G Weller, Ann K Sakai, Diane R Campbell, John M Powers, Sean R Peña, Matthew J Keir, Alexander K Loomis, Scott M Heintzman, Lauren Weisenberger
Shifts in pollination may drive adaptive diversification of reproductive systems within plant lineages. The monophyletic genus Schiedea is a Hawaiian lineage of 32 extant species, with spectacular diversity in reproductive systems. Biotic pollination is the presumed ancestral condition, but this key element of the life history and its role in shaping reproductive systems has remained undocumented. We observed floral visitors to two species of Schiedea and conducted field experiments to test pollinator effectiveness...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077298/the-underestimated-n-glycomes-of-lepidopteran-species
#8
Rhiannon Stanton, Alba Hykollari, Barbara Eckmair, Daniel Malzl, Martin Dragosits, Dieter Palmberger, Ping Wang, Iain B H Wilson, Katharina Paschinger
BACKGROUND: Insects are significant to the environment, agriculture, health and biotechnology. Many of these aspects display some relationship to glycosylation, e.g., in case of pathogen binding or production of humanised antibodies; for a long time, it has been considered that insect N-glycosylation potentials are rather similar and simple, but as more species are glycomically analysed in depth, it is becoming obvious that there is indeed a large structural diversity and interspecies variability...
January 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070757/rnai-induced-electrophysiological-and-behavioral-changes-reveal-two-pheromone-binding-proteins-of-helicoverpa-armigera-involved-in-the-perception-of-the-main-sex-pheromone-component-z11-16-ald
#9
Kun Dong, Liang Sun, Jing-Tao Liu, Shao-Hua Gu, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Ruo-Nan Yang, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Xi-Wu Gao, Yu-Yuan Guo, Yong-Jun Zhang
Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to play key roles in insect sex pheromone recognition; however, there is little in vivo evidence to support this viewpoint in comparison to abundant biochemical data in vitro. In the present study, two noctuid PBP genes HarmPBP1 and HarmPBP2 of the serious agricultural pest, Helicoverpa armigera were selected to be knocked down by RNA interference, and then the changes in electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male mutants to their major sex pheromone component (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) were recorded...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069731/an-old-remedy-for-a-new-problem-identification-of-ooencyrtus-kuvanae-hymenoptera-encyrtidae-an-egg-parasitoid-of-lycorma-delicatula-hemiptera-fulgoridae-in-north-america
#10
Houping Liu, Jason Mottern
Spotted Lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) is a recently introduced pest of Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle in North America. Natural enemy surveys for this pest in Pennsylvania in 2016 recovered an encyrtid egg parasitoid from both field collections and laboratory rearing of field-collected L. delicatula egg masses. Both molecular and morphological data confirm that the egg parasitoids are Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) is primarily an egg parasitoid of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066544/controlling-deposition-of-nanoparticles-by-tuning-surface-charge-of-sio2-by-surface-modifications
#11
Johnas Eklöf, Tina Gschneidtner, Samuel Lara-Avila, Kim Nygård, Kasper Moth-Poulsen
The self-assembly of nanoparticles on substrates is relevant for a variety of applications such as plasmonics, sensing devices and nanometer-sized electronics. We investigate the deposition of 60 nm spherical Au nanoparticles onto silicon dioxide (SiO2) substrates by changing the chemical treatment of the substrate and by that altering the surface charge. The deposition is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was used to characterize the surface workfunction...
November 13, 2016: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056777/age-influences-the-olfactory-profiles-of-the-migratory-oriental-armyworm-mythimna-separate-at-the-molecular-level
#12
Yue-Qiu He, Bo Feng, Qian-Shuang Guo, Yongjun Du
BACKGROUND: The oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walk) is a serious migratory pest; however, studies on its olfactory response and its underlying molecular mechanism are limited. To gain insights to the olfactory mechanism of migration, olfactory genes were identified using antennal transcriptome analysis. The olfactory response and the expression of olfactory genes for 1-day and 5-day-old moths were respectively investigated by EAG and RT-qPCR analyses. RESULTS: Putative 126 olfactory genes were identified in M...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053351/functional-analysis-of-the-abcs-of-eye-color-in-helicoverpa-armigera-with-crispr-cas9-induced-mutations
#13
Sher Afzal Khan, Michael Reichelt, David G Heckel
Many insect pigments are localized in subcellular pigment granules, and transport of pigment precursors from the cytoplasm is accomplished by ABC proteins. Drosophila melanogaster has three half-transporter genes (white, scarlet, and brown, all affecting eye pigments) and Bombyx mori has a fourth (ok). The White, Brown, Scarlet and Ok proteins each have one transmembrane and one cytoplasmic domain and they heterodimerize to form functional transporters with different substrate specificities. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create somatic and germ-line knockout mutations of these four genes in the noctuid moth Helicoverpa armigera...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053210/monitoring-mexican-rice-borer-lepidoptera-crambidae-populations-in-sugarcane-and-rice-with-conventional-and-electronic-pheromone-traps
#14
B E Wilson, J M Beuzelin, M T VanWeelden, T E Reagan, M O Way
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in Texas and Louisiana. The ability of conventional and electronic pheromone traps to monitor E. loftini in sugarcane and rice habitats was evaluated in two separate 2-yr field studies. Bucket traps baited with a synthetic female sex pheromone monitored E. loftini populations in commercial sugarcane fields in Calcasieu and Jefferson Davis Parishes throughout the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053058/mouthpart-conduit-sizes-of-fluid-feeding-insects-determine-the-ability-to-feed-from-pores
#15
Matthew S Lehnert, Andrew Bennett, Kristen E Reiter, Patrick D Gerard, Qi-Huo Wei, Miranda Byler, Huan Yan, Wah-Keat Lee
Fluid-feeding insects, such as butterflies, moths and flies (20% of all animal species), are faced with the common selection pressure of having to remove and feed on trace amounts of fluids from porous surfaces. Insects able to acquire fluids that are confined to pores during drought conditions would have an adaptive advantage and increased fitness over other individuals. Here, we performed feeding trials using solutions with magnetic nanoparticles to show that butterflies and flies have mouthparts adapted to pull liquids from porous surfaces using capillary action as the governing principle...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052510/plant-diversity-enhances-moth-diversity-in-an-intensive-forest-management-experiment
#16
Heather T Root, Jake Verschuyl, Thomas Stokely, Paul Hammond, Melissa A Scherr, Matthew G Betts
Intensive forest management (IFM) promises to help satisfy increasing global demand for wood but may come at the cost of local reductions to forest biodiversity. IFM often reduces early seral plant diversity as a result of efforts to eliminate plant competition with crop trees. If diversity is a function of bottom-up drivers, theory predicts that specialists at lower trophic levels (e.g., insect herbivores) should be particularly sensitive to reductions in plant diversity. We conducted a stand-level experiment to test bottom-up controls on moth community structure, as mediated by degrees of forest management intensity...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051132/determining-the-migration-duration-of-rice-leaf-folder-cnaphalocrocis-medinalis-guen%C3%A3-e-moths-using-a-trajectory-analytical-approach
#17
Feng-Ying Wang, Fan Yang, Ming-Hong Lu, Shan-Yu Luo, Bao-Ping Zhai, Ka-Sing Lim, Caitríona E McInerney, Gao Hu
Many moths finish their long distance migration after consecutive nights, but little is known about migration duration and distance. This information is key to predicting migration pathways and understanding their evolution. Tethered flight experiments have shown that ovarian development of rice leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis [Guenée]) moths was accelerated and synchronized by flight in the first three nights, whereby most females were then matured for mating and reproduction. Thus, it was supposed that this moth might fly three nights to complete its migration...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046073/spatio-temporal-variation-in-landscape-composition-may-speed-resistance-evolution-of-pests-to-bt-crops
#18
Anthony R Ives, Cate Paull, Andrew Hulthen, Sharon Downes, David A Andow, Ralph Haygood, Myron P Zalucki, Nancy A Schellhorn
Transgenic crops that express insecticide genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used worldwide against moth and beetle pests. Because these engineered plants can kill over 95% of susceptible larvae, they can rapidly select for resistance. Here, we use a model for a pyramid two-toxin Bt crop to explore the consequences of spatio-temporal variation in the area of Bt crop and non-Bt refuge habitat. We show that variability over time in the proportion of suitable non-Bt breeding habitat, Q, or in the total area of Bt and suitable non-Bt habitat, K, can increase the overall rate of resistance evolution by causing short-term surges of intense selection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034677/thermal-preference-and-performance-in-a-sub-antarctic-caterpillar-a-test-of-the-coadaptation-hypothesis-and-its-alternatives
#19
Tanya M Haupt, Brent J Sinclair, Steven L Chown
Physiological ecologists have long assumed that thermoregulatory behaviour will evolve to optimise physiological performance. The coadaptation hypothesis predicts that an animal's preferred body temperature will correspond to the temperature at which its performance is optimal. Here we use a strong inference approach to examine the relationship between thermal preference and locomotor performance in the caterpillars of a wingless sub-Antarctic moth, Pringleophaga marioni Viette (Tineidae). The coadaptation hypothesis and its alternatives (suboptimal is optimal, thermodynamic effect, trait variation) are tested...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031813/host-plant-associated-genetic-divergence-of-two-diatraea-spp-lepidoptera-crambidae-stemborers-on-novel-crop-plants
#20
Andrea L Joyce, Miguel Sermeno Chicas, Leopoldo Serrano Cervantes, Miguel Paniagua, Sonja J Scheffer, M Alma Solis
Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, sugarcane, and rice. Diatraea larvae were collected from these four host plants throughout the year in El Salvador and were reared on artificial diet until moths or parasitoids emerged. Adult moths were subsequently identified to species...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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