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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439240/apolipophorin-iii-acts-as-a-positive-regulator-of-plasmodium-development-in-anopheles-stephensi
#1
Rini Dhawan, Kuldeep Gupta, Mithilesh Kajla, Parik Kakani, Tania P Choudhury, Sanjeev Kumar, Vikas Kumar, Lalita Gupta
Apolipophorin III (ApoLp-III) is a well-known hemolymph protein having a functional role in lipid transport and immune responses of insects. Here we report the molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles stephensi Apolipophorin-III (AsApoLp-III) gene. This gene consists of 679 nucleotides arranged into two exons of 45 and 540 bp that give an ORF encoding 194 amino acid residues. Excluding a putative signal peptide of the first 19 amino acid residues, the 175-residues in mature AsApoLp-III protein has a calculated molecular mass of 22 kDa...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434859/tissue-specific-emission-of-e-%C3%AE-bergamotene-helps-resolve-the-dilemma-when-pollinators-are-also-herbivores
#2
Wenwu Zhou, Anke Kügler, Erica McGale, Alexander Haverkamp, Markus Knaden, Han Guo, Franziska Beran, Felipe Yon, Ran Li, Nathalie Lackus, Tobias G Köllner, Julia Bing, Meredith C Schuman, Bill S Hansson, Danny Kessler, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
More than 87% of flowering plant species are animal-pollinated [1] and produce floral scents and other signals to attract pollinators. These floral cues may however also attract antagonistic visitors, including herbivores [2]. The dilemma is exacerbated when adult insects pollinate the same plant that their larvae consume. It remains largely unclear how plants maximize their fitness under these circumstances. Here we show that in the night-flowering wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, the emission of a sesquiterpene, (E)-α-bergamotene, in flowers increases adult Manduca sexta moth-mediated pollination success, while the same compound in leaves is known to mediate indirect defense against M...
April 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433751/elevated-chaperone-proteins-are-a-feature-of-winter-freeze-avoidance-by-larvae-of-the-goldenrod-gall-moth-epiblema-scudderiana
#3
Guijun Zhang, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey
Winter survival for many insect species includes a need to maintain metabolic homeostasis and structural/functional integrity of macromolecules not only over a wide range of cold temperatures but also in response to rapid temperature change. Chaperones are well-known to protect/stabilize protein structure with regard to heat stress but less is known about their potential involvement in long-term protection of the proteome at subzero temperatures. The present study assessed the participation of chaperone proteins in the cold hardiness of larvae of the goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae), monitoring changes in nine proteins over the winter months as well as their responses to laboratory cold acclimation or anoxia exposure...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432814/do-males-choose-their-mates-in-the-lekking-moth-achroia-grisella-influence-of-female-body-mass-and-male-reproductive-status-on-male-mate-choice
#4
Marlène Goubault, Rebecca Burlaud
Lekking males aggregate to attract females and contribute solely to egg fertilization, without any further parental care. Evolutionary theory therefore predicts them to be non-choosy towards their mates, because any lost mating opportunities would outweigh the benefits associated with such preferences. Nevertheless, due to time costs, the production of energetically costly sexual displays, and potential sperm limitation, the mating effort of lekking males is often considerable. These factors, combined with the fact that many females of varying quality are likely to visit leks, could favor the evolution of male mate preferences...
April 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423427/influence-of-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-the-insecticidal-efficacy-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-against-larvae-of-ephestia-kuehniella-lepidoptera-pyralidae-on-wheat
#5
Christos G Athanassiou, Nickolas G Kavallieratos, Christos I Rumbos, Demetrius C Kontodimas
A series of laboratory bioassays were conducted for the evaluation of the insecticidal efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under various temperature-relative humidity (r.h.) conditions. The fungus was applied at four doses (0, 8 × 106, 8 × 108, and 8 × 1010 conidia ml-1) on wheat and insect mortality was assessed after exposure of 1, 2, 7, and 14 d...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423417/multi-species-mating-disruption-in-cranberries-ericales-ericaceae-early-evidence-using-a-flowable-emulsion
#6
Shawn A Steffan, Elissa M Chasen, Annie E Deutsch, Agenor Mafra-Neto
Pheromone-based mating disruption has proven to be a powerful pest management tactic in many cropping systems. However, in the cranberry system, a viable mating disruption program does not yet exist. There are commercially available pheromones for several of the major pests of cranberries, including the cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and blackheaded fireworm, Rhopobota naevana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Previous studies have shown that mating disruption represents a promising approach for R...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423183/long-term-species-loss-and-homogenization-of-moth-communities-in-central-europe
#7
Anu Valtonen, Anikó Hirka, Levente Szőcs, Matthew P Ayres, Heikki Roininen, György Csóka
As global biodiversity continues to decline steeply, it is becoming increasingly important to understand diversity patterns at local and regional scales. Changes in land use and climate, nitrogen deposition and invasive species are the most important threats to global biodiversity. Because land use changes tend to benefit a few species but impede many, the expected outcome is generally decreasing population sizes, decreasing species richness at local and regional scales, and increasing similarity of species compositions across sites (biotic homogenization)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421281/hearing-diversity-in-moths-confronting-a-neotropical-bat-assemblage
#8
Ariadna Cobo-Cuan, Manfred Kössl, Emanuel C Mora
The tympanal ear is an evolutionary acquisition which helps moths survive predation from bats. The greater diversity of bats and echolocation strategies in the Neotropics compared with temperate zones would be expected to impose different sensory requirements on the neotropical moths. However, even given some variability among moth assemblages, the frequencies of best hearing of moths from different climate zones studied to date have been roughly the same: between 20 and 60 kHz. We have analyzed the auditory characteristics of tympanate moths from Cuba, a neotropical island with high levels of bat diversity and a high incidence of echolocation frequencies above those commonly at the upper limit of moths' hearing sensitivity...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418070/a-signature-of-tree-health-shifts-in-the-microbiome-and-the-ecological-drivers-of-horse-chestnut-bleeding-canker-disease
#9
Britt Koskella, Sean Meaden, William J Crowther, Roosa Leimu, C Jessica E Metcalf
Host susceptibility to pathogens can be shaped by genetic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. The ability to predict the spread of disease therefore requires an integrated understanding of these factors, including effects of pests on pathogen growth and competition between pathogens and commensal microbiota for host resources. We examined interactions between the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, the bacterial causal agent of bleeding canker disease Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi, and the bark-associated microbiota of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417422/selection-of-an-artificial-diet-for-laboratory-rearing-of-opogona-sacchari-lepidoptera-tineidae-bojer-1856
#10
A Coelho, J M Milanez, R de Andrade Moral, C G B Demétrio, J R P Parra
The banana moth Opogona sacchari (Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) is a polyphagous pest that can cause serious damage, in particular to banana crops in southern Brazil. The insect is a quarantine pest in several countries, including Argentina, the main consumer market for bananas from southern Brazil. Little information is available about the biology and ecology of this moth, such as a suitable diet for laboratory rearing. In order to provide support for integrated pest management of the pest, this study furnished data for selecting two diets suitable for continuous laboratory rearing of O...
April 17, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415223/scattering-enhanced-absorption-and-interference-produce-a-golden-wing-color-of-the-burnished-brass-moth-diachrysia-chrysitis
#11
Dejan Pantelić, Svetlana Savić-Šević, Dejan V Stojanović, Srećko Ćurčić, Aleksandar J Krmpot, Mihailo Rabasović, Danica Pavlović, Vladimir Lazović, Vojislav Milošević
Here we report how interference and scattering-enhanced absorption act together to produce the golden wing patches of the burnished brass moth. The key mechanism is scattering on rough internal surfaces of the wing scales, accompanied by a large increase of absorption in the UV-blue spectral range. Unscattered light interferes and efficiently reflects from the multilayer composed of the scales and the wing membranes. The resulting spectrum is remarkably similar to the spectrum of metallic gold. Subwavelength morphology and spectral and absorptive properties of the wings are described...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412460/characterization-of-transcriptome-in-the-indian-meal-moth-plodia-interpunctella-lepidoptera-pyralidae-and-gene-expression-analysis-during-developmental-stages
#12
Pei-An Tang, Hai-Jing Wu, Hao Xue, Xing-Rong Ju, Wei Song, Qi-Lin Zhang, Ming-Long Yuan
The Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a worldwide pest that causes serious damage to stored foods. Although many efforts have been conducted on this species due to its economic importance, the study of genetic basis of development, behavior and insecticide resistance has been greatly hampered due to lack of genomic information. In this study, we used high throughput sequencing platform to perform a de novo transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses across four different developmental stages of P...
April 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409427/environment-polluting-conventional-chemical-control-compared-to-an-environmentally-friendly-ipm-approach-for-control-of-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l-in-china-a-review
#13
Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Farooq, Wajid Nasim, Waseem Akram, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Waqar Jaleel, Xun Zhu, Haichen Yin, Shuzhong Li, Shah Fahad, Saddam Hussain, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan, Fengliang Jin
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is recognized as a widely distributed destructive insect pest of Brassica worldwide. The management of this pest is a serious issue, and an estimated annual cost of its management has reached approximately US$4 billion. Despite the fact that chemicals are a serious threat to the environment, lots of chemicals are applied for controlling various insect pests especially P. xylostella. An overreliance on chemical control has not only led to the evolution of resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies but also has polluted various components of water, air, and soil ecosystem...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408977/mitogenomes-of-giant-skipper-butterflies-reveal-an-ancient-split-between-deep-and-shallow-root-feeders
#14
Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Xiao-Ling Fan, Rongjiang Wang, Min Wang, Nick V Grishin
Background: Giant-Skipper butterflies from the genus Megathymus are North American endemics. These large and thick-bodied Skippers resemble moths and are unique in their life cycles. Grub-like at the later stages of development, caterpillars of these species feed and live inside yucca roots. Adults do not feed and are mostly local, not straying far from the patches of yucca plants. Methods: Pieces of muscle were dissected from the thorax of specimens and genomic DNA was extracted (also from the abdomen of a specimen collected nearly 60 years ago)...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408968/effect-of-ring-strain-on-the-charge-transport-of-a-robust-norbornadiene-quadricyclane-based-molecular-photoswitch
#15
Behabitu E Tebikachew, Haipeng B Li, Alessandro Pirrotta, Karl Börjesson, Gemma C Solomon, Joshua Hihath, Kasper Moth-Poulsen
Integrating functional molecules into single-molecule devices is a key step toward the realization of future computing machines based on the smallest possible components. In this context, photoswitching molecules that can make a transition between high and low conductivity in response to light are attractive candidates. Here we present the synthesis and conductance properties of a new type of robust molecular photothermal switch based on the norbornadiene (NB)-quadricyclane (QC) system. The transport through the molecule in the ON state is dominated by a pathway through the π-conjugated system, which is no longer available when the system is switched to the OFF state...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402435/comparative-effect-of-three-neurotoxic-insecticides-with-different-modes-of-action-on-adult-males-and-females-of-three-tortricid-moth-pests
#16
Miguel A Navarro-Roldán, Jesús Avilla, Dolors Bosch, Joan Valls, César Gemeno
Insecticides are the dominant pest management method in fruit and vegetable crops worldwide owing to their quick effect, low cost, and relatively easy application, but they bear negative effects on human health and the environment. Insecticide mode of action (MoA), target species, and sex are variables that could affect insecticide-induced mortality. We recorded the mortality caused by three neurotoxic insecticides with different modes of action (chlorpyrifos [organophosphate, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor], λ-cyhalothrin [pyrethroid, sodium channel modulator], and thiacloprid [neonicotinoid, nicotinic acetylcholinesterase receptor agonist]) applied topically to adult males and females of three economically important tortricid species [Cydia pomonella (L...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402383/loss-channels-in-triplet-triplet-annihilation-photon-upconversion-importance-of-annihilator-singlet-and-triplet-surface-shapes
#17
Victor Gray, Ambra Dreos, Paul Erhart, Bo Albinsson, Kasper Moth-Poulsen, Maria Abrahamsson
Triplet-triplet annihilation photon upconversion (TTA-UC) can, through a number of energy transfer processes, efficiently combine two low frequency photons into one photon of higher frequency. TTA-UC systems consist of one absorbing species (the sensitizer) and one emitting species (the annihilator). Herein, we show that the structurally similar annihilators, 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA, 1), 9-(4-phenylethynyl)-10-phenylanthracene (2) and 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA, 3) have very different upconversion efficiencies, 15...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401359/ultrastructure-of-fat-body-cells-and-malpighian-tubule-cells-in-overwintering-scoliopteryx-libatrix-noctuoidea
#18
Saška Lipovšek, Franc Janžekovič, Tone Novak
The herald moths, Scoliopteryx libatrix, overwinter in hypogean habitats. The ultrastructure of their fat body (FB) cells and Malpighian tubule (MT) epithelial cells was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and essential biometric and biochemical measurements were performed. The FB was composed of adipocytes and sparse urocytes. The ultrastructure of both cells did not change considerably during this natural starvation period, except for rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) which became more abundant in March females...
April 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399190/expression-of-the-insect-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-impi-in-the-fat-body-of-galleria-mellonella-exposed-to-infection-with-beauveria-bassiana
#19
Lidiia Vertyporokh, Iwona Wojda
The inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) discovered in Galleria mellonella is currently the only specific inhibitor of metalloproteinases found in animals. Its role is to inhibit the activity of metalloproteinases secreted by pathogenic organisms as virulence factors to degrade immune-relevant polypeptides of the infected host. This is a good example of an evolutionary arms race between the insect hosts and their natural pathogens. In this report, we analyze the expression of a gene encoding an inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) in fat bodies of the greater wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella infected with an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana...
April 11, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392286/-a-comparison-of-the-adaptations-of-strains-of-lymantria-dispar-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus-to-hosts-from-spatially-isolated-populations
#20
V V Martemyanov, J D Podgwaite, I A Belousova, S V Pavlushin, J M Slavicek, O A Baturina, M R Kabilov, A V Ilyinykh
The adaptation of pathogens to either their hosts or to environmental conditions is the focus of many current ecological studies. In this work we compared the ability of six spatially-distant Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) strains (three from eastern North America and three from central Asia) to induce acute infection in gypsy moth larvae. We also sequenced the complete genome of one Asian (LdMNPV-27/0) and one North American (LdMNPV-45/0) strain which were used for bioassay...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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