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Pedro Jordano
Species-specific traits constrain the ways organisms interact in nature. Some pairwise interactions among coexisting species simply do not occur; they are impossible to observe despite the fact that partners coexist in the same place. The author discusses these 'forbidden links' of species interaction networks. Photo: a sphingid moth, Manduca sexta visiting a flower of Tocoyena formosa (Rubiaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado; tongue and corolla tube lengths approximately 100 mm. Courtesy of Felipe Amorim. Sazatornil, F...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Pengjun Xu, Roberto Feuda, Bin Lu, Haijun Xiao, Robert I Graham, Kongming Wu
BACKGROUND: Retrotransposed genes are different to other types of genes as they originate from a processed mRNA and are then inserted back into the genome. For a long time, the contribution of this mechanism to the origin of new genes, and hence to the evolutionary process, has been questioned as retrogenes usually lose their regulatory sequences upon insertion and generally decay into pseudogenes. In recent years, there is growing evidence, notably in mammals, that retrotransposition is an important process driving the origin of new genes, but the evidence in insects remains largely restricted to a few model species...
2016: Mobile DNA
Jin Xu, Xia-Fei Wang, Peng Chen, Fang-Tao Liu, Shuai-Chao Zheng, Hui Ye, Ming-He Mo
The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control...
October 19, 2016: Genes
Antigona Ulndreaj, Apostolia Tzekou, Andrea J Mothe, Ahad Siddiqui, Rachel Dragas, Charles Tator, Emina Torlakovic, Michael Fehlings
The immune system plays a critical and complex role in the pathobiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), exerting both beneficial and detrimental effects. Increasing evidence suggests that there are injury level-dependent differences in the immune response to SCI. Patients with traumatic SCI have elevated levels of circulating autoantibodies against components of the central nervous system (CNS), but the role of these antibodies in SCI outcomes remains unknown. In rodent models of mid-thoracic SCI, antibody-mediated autoimmunity appears to be detrimental to recovery...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
P Bragagnini Rodríguez, B Stors Sastre, R Fernández Atuan, R Delgado Alvira, M A Rihuete Heras, J Gracia Romero
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the retroperitoneal-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) versus the mini posterior lumbotomy pyeloplasty (MPLP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 77 patients diagnosed with ureteropelvic junction obstruction between 2007 and 2013 was made, analyzing the surgical technique, complications and results. The anteroposterior pelvic diameter of the kidney, the thickness of the renal parenchyma, the renal function and the morphology of the renogram curve were also evaluated and compared...
January 15, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Liuyu Wu, Xiao Xiong, Xuming Wang, Tianrong Xin, Jing Wang, Zhiwen Zou, Bin Xia
The bluish yellow lappet moth, Trabala vishnou guttata is an extraordinarily important pest in China. The complete mitochondrial genome is sequenced and determined firstly, which is based on traditional PCR amplification and primer walking methods with a length of 15,281 bp, including 13 protein-coding (PCG) genes, 22 transfer RNA (rRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (tRNA) genes, and an A + T-rich region. The gene order and orientation of the T. vishnou guttata mitogenome were identical to the other sequenced Lasiocampidae species...
October 21, 2016: Genetica
Bartosz Roszniowski, Agnieszka Latka, Barbara Maciejewska, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Tomasz Olszak, Yves Briers, Giles S Holt, Miguel A Valvano, Rob Lavigne, Darren L Smith, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB_BceM_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 %) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 % identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. The lysis cassette of these related phages has a similar organization (putative antiholin, putative holin, endolysin, and spanins) and shows 29-98 % homology between specific lysis genes, in contrast to Enterobacteria phage P2, the hallmark phage of this genus...
October 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fan Xiaojun, Yang Chun, Liu Jianhong, Zhang Chang, Li Yao
The Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a serious pest of forest and shade trees in many Asian and some European countries. However, there have been few studies of L. dispar genetic information and comprehensive genetic analyses of this species are needed in order to understand its genetic and metabolic sensitivities, such as the molting mechanism during larval development. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of the Asian subspecies of the gyspy moth, after which a comprehensive analysis of chitin metabolism was undertaken...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
David H Hembry, David M Althoff
Brood pollination mutualisms-interactions in which specialized insects are both the pollinators (as adults) and seed predators (as larvae) of their host plants-have been influential study systems for coevolutionary biology. These mutualisms include those between figs and fig wasps, yuccas and yucca moths, leafflowers and leafflower moths, globeflowers and globeflower flies, Silene plants and Hadena and Perizoma moths, saxifrages and Greya moths, and senita cacti and senita moths. The high reciprocal diversity and species-specificity of some of these mutualisms have been cited as evidence that coevolution between plants and pollinators drives their mutual diversification...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Botany
Vazrick Nazari, B Christian Schmidt, Sean Prosser, Paul D N Hebert
Analysis of the DNA barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene from a specimen of the extinct Jamaican sunset moth, Urania sloanus, places this species as a sister to the Central American U. fulgens. We found that all Urania F. species were closely related (<2.8% maximum divergence at COI), with the Cuban endemic U. boisduvalii appearing as sister to the rest. The low divergence in DNA barcodes and genitalic structures indicate that the Cuban U. poeyi and eastern Brazilian U. brasiliensis are geographic segregates of U...
2016: PloS One
Mojgan Aminnejad, Massimo Cogliati, Shuyao Duan, Michael Arabatzis, Kathrin Tintelnot, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazéra, Aristea Velegraki, David Ellis, Tania C Sorrell, Wieland Meyer
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα)...
2016: PloS One
Oumar Bashir, Jerome P Claverie, Pierre Lemoyne, Charles Vincent
Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t.) based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm) using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water). A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B...
2016: PeerJ
Dong H Cha, Alejandro E Mieles, Paola F Lahuatte, Andrea Cahuana, Marie Piedad Lincango, Charlotte E Causton, Sabine Tebbich, Arno Cimadom, Stephen A Teale
We investigated the role of olfactory cues from actively fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in attraction of adult Philornis downsi and identified two synergistically attractive yeast volatiles. Larvae of this invasive fly parasitize the hatchlings of passerines and threaten the Galapagos avifauna. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from a yeast-sugar solution...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
T C Baker, A J Myrick, K C Park
High-emission-rate "mega-dispensers" have come into increasing use for sex pheromone mating disruption of moth pests over the past two decades. These commercially available dispensers successfully suppress mating and reduce crop damage when they are deployed at very low to moderate densities, ranging from 1 to 5/ha to 100-1000/ha, depending on the dispenser types and their corresponding pheromone emission rates. Whereas traditionally the emission rates for successful commercial mating disruption formulations have been measured in terms of amounts (usually milligram) emitted by the disruptant application per acre or hectare per day, we suggest that emission rates should be measured on a per-dispenser per-minute basis...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Yojana R Chikate, Vishal V Dawkar, Ranjit S Barbole, Priyadarshini V Tilak, Vidya S Gupta, Ashok P Giri
Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major crop pests and is less amenable to current pest control approaches. RNA interference (RNAi) is emerging as a potent arsenal for the insect pest control over current methods. Here, we examined the effect on growth and development in H. armigera by targeting various enzymes/proteins such as proteases like trypsins (HaTry2, 3, 4 and 6), chymotrypsin (HaChy4) and cysteine protease like cathepsin (HaCATHL); glutathione S-transferases (HaGST1a, 6 and 8); esterases (HaAce4, HaJHE); catalase (HaCAT); super-oxide-dismutase (HaCu/ZnSOD); fatty acid binding protein (HaFabp) and chitin deacetylase (HaCda5b) through dsRNA approach...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jonah A Eaton, Brian Moths, Thomas A Witten
Colloidal bodies of irregular shape rotate as they descend under gravity in solution. This rotational response provides a means of bringing a dispersion of identical bodies into a synchronized rotation with the same orientation using programed forcing. We use the notion of statistical entropy to derive bounds on the rate of synchronization. These bounds apply generally to dynamical systems with stable periodic motion with a phase ϕ(t), when subjected to an impulsive perturbation. The impulse causes a change of phase expressible as a phase map ψ(ϕ)...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Mikko Pentinsaari, Heli Salmela, Marko Mutanen, Tomas Roslin
DNA barcodes are widely used for identification and discovery of species. While such use draws on information at the DNA level, the current amassment of ca. 4.7 million COI barcodes also offers a unique resource for exploring functional constraints on DNA evolution. Here, we explore amino acid variation in a crosscut of the entire animal kingdom. Patterns of DNA variation were linked to functional constraints at the level of the amino acid sequence in functionally important parts of the enzyme. Six amino acid sites show variation with possible effects on enzyme function...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Germano L D Leite, Paula D De Paulo, José C Zanuncio, Wagner De S Tavares, Anarelly C Alvarenga, Luan R Dourado, Edilson P R Bispo, Marcus A Soares
Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Xin-Cheng Zhao, Bai-Wei Ma, Bente G Berg, Gui-Ying Xie, Qing-Bo Tang, Xian-Ru Guo
By using immunostaining and three-dimensional reconstruction, the anatomical organization of the antennal lobe glomeruli of the female cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was investigated. Eighty-one glomeruli were identified, 15 of which were not previously discovered. The general anatomical organization of the AL of female is similar to that of male and all glomeruli were classified into four sub-groups, including the female-specific glomerular complex, posterior complex, labial-palp pit organ glomerulus, and ordinary glomeruli...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Janette Vardy, Prunella Blinman, Erin B Moth
Colon cancer is common and can be considered a disease of older adults with more than half of cases diagnosed in patients aged over 70 years. Decision-making about treatment with chemotherapy for older adults may be complicated by age-related physiological changes, impaired functional status, limited social supports, concerns regarding the occurrence of and ability to tolerate treatment toxicity, and the presence of comorbidities. This is compounded by a lack of high quality evidence guiding cancer treatment decisions for older adults...
October 10, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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