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M C Díaz-Barradas, M Zunzunegui, L Alvarez-Cansino, M P Esquivias, J Valera, H Rodríguez
Under natural conditions, light exposition for Mediterranean shrubs can be highly variable, especially during cloudy days or under a canopy, and can interfere with other environmental factors such as temperature and water availability. With the aim of decoupling the effect of radiation and temperature from water availability, we conducted an experiment where 2 perennial and 3 summer semi-deciduous shrub species were subjected to different levels of irradiation. In order to follow plant responses to light exposure, we measured gas exchange, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf mass area in spring and summer...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
Marie-Elena Kleemann, Rohit Chikkaraddy, Evgeny M Alexeev, Dean Kos, Cloudy Carnegie, Will Deacon, Alex Casalis de Pury, Christoph Große, Bart de Nijs, Jan Mertens, Alexander I Tartakovskii, Jeremy J Baumberg
Strong coupling of monolayer metal dichalcogenide semiconductors with light offers encouraging prospects for realistic exciton devices at room temperature. However, the nature of this coupling depends extremely sensitively on the optical confinement and the orientation of electronic dipoles and fields. Here, we show how plasmon strong coupling can be achieved in compact, robust, and easily assembled gold nano-gap resonators at room temperature. We prove that strong-coupling is impossible with monolayers due to the large exciton coherence size, but resolve clear anti-crossings for greater than 7 layer devices with Rabi splittings exceeding 135 meV...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
Alejandra Molina, Mark Falvey, Roberto Rondanelli
Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katie L Druce, John McBeth, Sabine N van der Veer, David A Selby, Bertie Vidgen, Konstantinos Georgatzis, Bruce Hellman, Rashmi Lakshminarayana, Afiqul Chowdhury, David M Schultz, Caroline Sanders, Jamie C Sergeant, William G Dixon
BACKGROUND: The huge increase in smartphone use heralds an enormous opportunity for epidemiology research, but there is limited evidence regarding long-term engagement and attrition in mobile health (mHealth) studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine how representative the Cloudy with a Chance of Pain study population is of wider chronic-pain populations and to explore patterns of engagement among participants during the first 6 months of the study...
November 1, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Xiaoyu Zhang, Chenguang Wang, Hong Zhao, Zehui Lu
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in the interaction of the land-atmosphere system. Nevertheless, on the regional scale, the actual weather is cloudy for half a year in most regions. Therefore, receiving all-weather LST from thermal-infrared remote sensing is necessary and urgent. In this paper, an approach with multi-temporal and spatial neighboring-pixels in combination with diurnal solar radiation and surface temperature evolution is proposed to estimate daytime all-weather LST using FY-2D data...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
Péter Takács, András Barta, David Pye, Gábor Horváth
When the sun is near the horizon, a circular band with approximately vertically polarized skylight is formed at 90° from the sun, and this skylight is only weakly reflected from the region of the water surface around the Brewster's angle (53° from the nadir). Thus, at low solar heights under a clear sky, an extended dark patch is visible on the water surface when one looks toward the north or south quarter perpendicular to the solar vertical. In this work, we study the radiance distribution of this so-called Brewster's dark patch (BDP) in still water as functions of the solar height and sky conditions...
October 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Paul E Ciesielski, Richard H Johnson, Xianan Jiang, Yunyan Zhang, Shaocheng Xie
The relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection on an intraseasonal time scale are examined with data taken during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) field campaign. Specifically, column-net, as well as vertical profiles of radiative heating rates, computed over Gan Island in the central Indian Ocean (IO) are used along with an objective analysis of large-scale fields to examine three MJO events that occurred during the 3 month period (October to December 2011) over this region...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Yunfei Fu, Yilun Chen, Rui Li, Fang Qin, Tao Xian, Lu Yu, Aoqi Zhang, Guosheng Liu, Xiangdong Zhang
Due to the thinness and small scale of cirrus clouds, its lateral boundary may be missed by conventional passive remote-sensing techniques and climate models. Here, using satellite observations in June-August from 2006 to 2011, a global dataset for the cirrus cloud lateral boundary (CCLB) was established. The results indicate that the optical properties, such as the lidar backscatter, the depolarization ratio and the optical depth, sharply decrease from cloudy regions to clear-sky regions. There are significant regional differences in optical properties and height and thickness of the CCLB...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bart de Nijs, Felix Benz, Steven J Barrow, Daniel O Sigle, Rohit Chikkaraddy, Aniello Palma, Cloudy Carnegie, Marlous Kamp, Ravishankar Sundararaman, Prineha Narang, Oren A Scherman, Jeremy J Baumberg
Nanoparticles attached just above a flat metallic surface can trap optical fields in the nanoscale gap. This enables local spectroscopy of a few molecules within each coupled plasmonic hotspot, with near thousand-fold enhancement of the incident fields. As a result of non-radiative relaxation pathways, the plasmons in such sub-nanometre cavities generate hot charge carriers, which can catalyse chemical reactions or induce redox processes in molecules located within the plasmonic hotspots. Here, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy allows us to track these hot-electron-induced chemical reduction processes in a series of different aromatic molecules...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Ming-Xi Liu, Zhan-Hong Ma, Tao Jiang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Fang-Fang Yu, Yuan-Hua Yang, Zhen-Guo Zhai
BACKGROUND: Clinical and imaging manifestations are similar in pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) and thromboembolic diseases, especially central chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE). The feasibility of utilising clinical imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differential diagnosis of PAS and CPTE has not been fully explored, especially MRI. METHODS: Patients with PAS (n=18) and central CPTE (n=20) treated at our hospital between January 2013 and September 2016 were identified retrospectively...
July 1, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
S R Baigi, S Vaden, N J Olby
BACKGROUND: Paralysis is a known risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and death in paralyzed people, but there are no data available on diagnostic criteria for UTI versus bacteriuria, their frequency, or clinical implications in chronically paralyzed dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: That chronically paralyzed dogs suffer frequent bacteriuria causing reduced duration of survival. We documented the frequency of bacteriuria, associated clinical signs, and survival rate in chronically paralyzed dogs...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Dénes Száz, Alexandra Farkas, András Barta, Balázs Kretzer, Miklós Blahó, Ádám Egri, Gyula Szabó, Gábor Horváth
According to Thorkild Ramskou's theory proposed in 1967, under overcast and foggy skies, Viking seafarers might have used skylight polarization analysed with special crystals called sunstones to determine the position of the invisible Sun. After finding the occluded Sun with sunstones, its elevation angle had to be measured and its shadow had to be projected onto the horizontal surface of a sun compass. According to Ramskou's theory, these sunstones might have been birefringent calcite or dichroic cordierite or tourmaline crystals working as polarizers...
September 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Aysegul Beyazpinar Kavaklioglu, Selma Dagci, Besey Oren
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the knowledge level of healthcare workers about blood transfusion. METHODS: The study was conducted between October 1, 2015 and November 2, 2015 with 100 healthcare personnel working in a training and research hospital. A survey consisting of 19 questions based on the literature was prepared and administered. In addition to descriptive statistical methods (frequency), Fisher's exact chi-square test and Yates' correction for continuity were used to compare qualitative data...
2017: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
Jesús Nadal, Carolina Ponz, Antoni Margalida
Breeding grounds are key areas for sustaining Common quail (Coturnix coturnix) populations as this species is characterised by short life expectancy that requires high offspring production. Annually, breeding quails make up to three breeding attempts in different places. However, the impact of climate warming on quail phenology is unknown. Here, we use a long-term study (1961-2014) of quail-ringing in Spain and data on variation in rainfall and temperature over the past 86years to evaluate how quails have responded to climate change in recent years...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Masaaki Otsuka, Toshiya Ueta, Peter A M van Hoof, Raghvendra Sahai, Isabel Aleman, Albert A Zijlstra, You-Hua Chu, Eva Villaver, Marcelo L Leal-Ferreira, Joel Kastner, Ryszard Szczerba, Katrina M Exter
We perform a comprehensive analysis of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6781 to investigate the physical conditions of each of its ionized, atomic, and molecular gas and dust components and the object's evolution, based on panchromatic observational data ranging from UV to radio. Empirical nebular elemental abundances, compared with theoretical predictions via nucleosynthesis models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, indicate that the progenitor is a solar-metallicity, 2.25-3.0 M⊙ initial-mass star. We derive the best-fit distance of 0...
August 2017: Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series
Bart de Nijs, Marlous Kamp, Istvan Szabó, Steven J Barrow, Felix Benz, Guanglu Wu, Cloudy Carnegie, Rohit Chikkaraddy, Wenting Wang, William M Deacon, Edina Rosta, Jeremy J Baumberg, Oren A Scherman
Rigid gap nano-aggregates of Au nanoparticles formed using cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) molecules are used to investigate the competitive binding of ethanol and methanol in an aqueous environment. We show it is possible to detect as little as 0.1% methanol in water and a ten times higher affinity to methanol over ethanol, making this a useful technology for quality control in alcohol production. We demonstrate strong interaction effects in the SERS peaks, which we demonstrate are likely from the hydrogen bonding of water complexes in the vicinity of the CB[n]s...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Fritz H Hengerer, Ina Conrad-Hengerer
In refractive surgery the removal of the natural lens followed by implantation of an artificial intraocular lens has been an established method to treat refractive errors. The term "clear lens exchange" separates this approach from cataract surgery, where a cloudy lens has to be removed. With regard to currently available intraocular lens technologies, there is a wide range to correct myopia, hyperopia as well as astigmatism. Trifocal or extended depth-of-focus lenses (EDOF) even with a toric component offer the patients a potential benefit to further address presbyopia, respectively...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Naoufal Chouaib, Said Jidane, Mostafa Rafai, Ahmed Belkouch, Saad Zidouh, Lahcen Belyamani
Spinal anesthesia (SA) is the first locoregional anesthesia. It can cause side effects and carry risks that need to be avoided, prevented or treated early. We here report the case of a female patient operated under spinal anesthesia who had intense headache associated with nausea and vomiting evolving in the context of fever within a few days after surgeryLumbar puncture showed cloudy liquid revealing Gram + cocci on direct examination. This allowed the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Patient's evolution was favorable after antibiotic therapy...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Franziska Glassmeier, Graham Feingold
Stratocumulus clouds (Sc) have a significant impact on the amount of sunlight reflected back to space, with important implications for Earth's climate. Representing Sc and their radiative impact is one of the largest challenges for global climate models. Sc fields self-organize into cellular patterns and thus lend themselves to analysis and quantification in terms of natural cellular networks. Based on large-eddy simulations of Sc fields, we present a first analysis of the geometric structure and self-organization of Sc patterns from this network perspective...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jonathan Fay, Alexandra A Herzlich, George J Florakis
PURPOSE: Posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy (PACD) is a rare disorder characterized by sheet-like opacification of the posterior corneal stroma, corneal thinning, and decreased corneal curvature. It is not known to be associated with progressive corneal ectasia. In this report, we examine the course of a patient with PACD who developed bilateral keratoglobus-type corneal ectasia. METHODS: The clinical history of a single patient is reviewed from birth through age 15...
December 2017: Cornea
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