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Helen H Yeung
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March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
C N Ezisi, B I Eze, O Okoye, O Arinze
Objective: To assess the awareness of work-related ocular health hazards and utilization of personal protective eye devices (PPEDs) among stone quarry workers in Abakaliki, southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional survey of stone quarry industry workers in Abakiliki, conducted between March and April, 2012, data on participants' socio-demographics, job characteristics, PPED awareness, and utilization were collected. Descriptive and analytical statistics were performed...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Fotouh R Mansour, Neil D Danielson
Solvent-terminated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ST-DLLME) is a special mode of DLLME in which a demulsifying solvent is injected into the cloudy mixture of sample/extractant to break the emulsion and induce phase separation. The demulsification process starts by flocculation of the dispersed microdroplets by Ostwald ripening or coalescence to form larger droplets. Then, the extractant either floats or sinks depending on its density as compared with that for the aqueous sample. The demulsifier should have high surface activity and low surface tension in order to be capable of inducing phase separation...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Catherine S Forster, Elizabeth Jackson, Qing Ma, Michael Bennett, Samir S Shah, Stuart L Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between urinary tract infection (UTI) and colonization (UTC) in patients with neurogenic bladders who require clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is difficult. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations (uNGAL) are increased in UTIs. Our objective was to determine the predictive accuracy of uNGAL for UTI in CIC-dependent children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of CIC-dependent patients from August, 2015 to November, 2016...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Ronald A J M Bierings, Frideric L P van Sonderen, Nomdo M Jansonius
PURPOSE: To determine (i) whether, compared to controls, visual complaints of glaucoma patients are more pronounced under extreme luminance conditions than in the optimal luminance condition and (ii) whether complaints belonging to different extreme luminance conditions are associated. METHODS: We developed a luminance-specific questionnaire and sent it to 221 glaucoma patients (response rate 81%); controls (182) were primarily their spouses. Median (interquartile range) mean deviation of the visual field of the patients' better eye was -4...
March 9, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Olivier Penacchio, P George Lovell, Julie M Harris
Countershading is a pattern of coloration thought to have evolved in order to implement camouflage. By adopting a pattern of coloration that makes the surface facing towards the sun darker and the surface facing away from the sun lighter, the overall amount of light reflected off an animal can be made more uniformly bright. Countershading could hence contribute to visual camouflage by increasing background matching or reducing cues to shape. However, the usefulness of countershading is constrained by a particular pattern delivering 'optimal' camouflage only for very specific lighting conditions...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Caroline J Muller, David M Romps
Idealized simulations of tropical moist convection have revealed that clouds can spontaneously clump together in a process called self-aggregation. This results in a state where a moist cloudy region with intense deep convection is surrounded by extremely dry subsiding air devoid of deep convection. Because of the idealized settings of the simulations where it was discovered, the relevance of self-aggregation to the real world is still debated. Here, we show that self-aggregation feedbacks play a leading-order role in the spontaneous genesis of tropical cyclones in cloud-resolving simulations...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ismael Kelly-Pérez, Emilia M Méndez-Aguilar, Carlos Gerardo Treviño-Palacios, Neil C Bruce, Luis R Berriel-Valdos, Haroun Al-Hohamedi, Thomas Bende
The gradual process in which the crystalline lens is cloudy due to the appearance of elements giving rise to variations in the refractive index is known as cataract. Clinical assessment is usually complicated because it considers patient's perception, and individuals with similar development have different visual deficits. This work presents a model which considers the fluctuations in the refractive index as spherical particles produce measurable scatter radial profiles patterns on the retina. Measurements for two different wavelengths simultaneously provide information on particle size and a quantitative assessment by measurement of the fluctuations of the refractive index...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Alireza Bazmandegan-Shamili, Shayessteh Dadfarnia, Ali Mohammad Haji Shabani, Masoud Rohani Moghadam, Mahboubeh Saeidi
A simple, environmentally benign and rapid method based on temperature-controlled liquid-liquid microextraction using a deep eutectic solvent was developed for the simultaneous extraction/preconcentration of diazinon and fenitrothion. The method involved the addition of deep eutectic solvent to the aqueous sample followed by heating the mixture in a 75°C water bath until the solvent was completely dissolved in the aqueous phase. Then, the resultant solution was cooled in an ice bath and a cloudy solution was formed...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Ying Zhang, Jiabin Xuan, Huijie Zhao, Ping Song, Yi Zhang, Wujian Xu
We propose a method for eliminating the atmospheric effect in polarimetric imaging remote sensing by using polarimetric imagers to simultaneously detect ground targets and skylight, which does not need calibrated targets. In addition, calculation efficiencies are improved by the skylight division method without losing estimation accuracy. Outdoor experiments are performed to obtain the polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of painted surfaces and skylight under different weather conditions...
March 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Sergio Henrique Bastos Damous, George Felipe Bezerra Darce, Renato Silveira Leal, Adilson Rodrigues Costa, Pedro Henrique Alves Ferreira, Celso de Oliveira Bernini, Edivaldo Massazo Utiyama
INTRODUCTION: Severe injuries of the pancreatic head and duodenum in haemodynamically unstable patients are complex management. The purpose of this study is to report a case of complex pancreatic trauma induced by gunshot and managed with surgical approaches at three different times. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Exploratory laparotomy was indicated after initial emergency room care, with findings of cloudy blood-tinged fluid and blood clots on the mesentery near the hepatic angle, on the region of the 2nd portion of the duodenum and at the pancreatic head...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Luca Ferrero, Grisa Mocnik, Sergio Cogliati, Asta Gregoric, Roberto Colombo, Ezio Bolzacchini
Light Absorbing Aerosols (LAA) absorb sunlight and heat the atmosphere. This work presents a novel methodology to experimentally quantify the heating rate (HR) induced by LAA into an atmospheric layer. Multi-wavelength aerosol absorption measurements were coupled with spectral measurements of the direct, diffuse and surface reflected radiation to obtain highly-time resolved measurements of HR apportioned in the context of LAA species (Black Carbon, BC; Brown Carbon, BrC; dust), sources (fossil fuel, FF; and biomass burning, BB), and as a function of cloudiness...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Idaira Pacheco-Fernández, Verónica Pino, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Juan H Ayala, Ana M Afonso
A novel ionic liquid (IL)-based microextraction method has been developed for the determination of four hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs) in urine samples. The water soluble IL-based surfactant selected as extraction solvent is decylguanidinium chloride (C10 Gu-Cl), the cytotoxicity and micellar behavior of which were evaluated. The proposed salt-induced IL-based preconcentration method simply consists in adding NaClO4 to the aqueous medium containing the IL to promote its water insolubility...
February 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Changfeng Sun, Yu Liu, Huiming Song, Qiufang Cai, Qiang Li, Lu Wang, Ruochen Mei, Congxi Fang
Sunshine is as essential as temperature and precipitation for tree growth, but sunshine duration reconstructions based on tree rings have not yet been conducted in China. In this study, we presented a 497-year sunshine duration reconstruction for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau using a width chronology of Abies forrestii from the central Hengduan Mountains. The reconstruction accounted for 53.5% of the variance in the observed sunshine during the period of 1961-2013 based on a stable and reliable linear regression...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Samuli Helama, Laura Arppe, Kari Mielikäinen, Markku Oinonen
Arctic moistening will affect the circumpolar forested riparian ecosystems. Upward trends observed for precipitation in high latitudes illustrate that the moistening may be underway to influence the woody biomass production near the inland waters, lakes and streams with effects on carbon pools and fluxes. Although the flooding and waterlogging tolerance of seedlings has been investigated, our understanding of responses in mature trees is still limited. Here we employ tree-ring δ13 C and width data from a subarctic riparian setting in Lapland, where artificially high lake level (HLL) has already altered the ecophysiological and growth responses of riparian Pinus sylvestris trees to external drivers under conditions simulating moister environment...
February 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Takahiro Nonaka, Noriko Tsurui, Teruhisa Mannen, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Kentaro Shiraki
This paper describes a new pH-responsive peptide tag that adds a protein reversible precipitation and redissolution character. This peptide tag is a part of a cell surface protein B (CspB) derived from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Proinsulin that genetically fused with a peptide of N-terminal 6, 17, 50, or 250 amino acid residues of CspB showed that the reversible precipitation and redissolution depended on the pH. The transition occurred within a physiological and narrow pH range. A CspB50 tag comprising 50 amino acid residues of N-terminal CspB was further evaluated as a representative using other pharmaceutical proteins...
February 9, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Aaron Saguil, Shawn Kane, Michael Mercado, Rebecca Lauters
Herpes zoster, or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. There are an estimated 1 million cases in the Unites States annually, with an individual lifetime risk of 30%. Patients with conditions that decrease cell-mediated immunity are 20 to 100 times more likely to develop herpes zoster. Patients may present with malaise, headache, low-grade fever, and abnormal skin sensations for two to three days before the classic maculopapular rash appears. The rash is usually unilateral, confined to a single dermatome, and typically progresses to clear vesicles that become cloudy and crust over in seven to 10 days...
November 15, 2017: American Family Physician
Chao Zhao, Peisi Xie, Ting Yong, Hailin Wang, Arthur Chung, Zongwei Cai
With the continuous exposure of environmental pollutants in organisms, determination of abundance variation and spatial distribution of lipids might expand our understanding of toxicological mechanisms occurring in kidney. Herein, an integrated method involving mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-MS imaging (MALDI-MSI) was developed for the study of nephrotoxicity in mice exposed to 10 and 100 μg bisphenol S (BPS)/kg body weight/day. The BPS exposure remarkable perturbed abundances of 91 potential markers that mainly involved in five metabolic pathways...
February 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jiansheng Huang, Hao Liu, Kedong Yin
Red tides represent a major environmental issue in coastal waters globally. However, few studies have examined the relationship between red tides and meteorological factors. Thus, we used a 32-year time-series of frequent red tide events in Tolo Harbour and Channel, to study their relationship with meteorological factors. Most red tides are dominated by dinoflagellates in March, while most diatom red tides in May. Dinoflagellate and diatom red tides respond differently to different meteorological factors. Warming air temperatures in spring favor the generation of dinoflagellate red tides, while precipitation hinders them...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Junjie Yi, Biniam Kebede, Kristiani Kristiani, Tara Grauwet, Ann Van Loey, Marc Hendrickx
Cloud loss, enzymatic browning, and flavor changes are important quality defects of cloudy fruit juices determining consumer acceptability. The development of clean label options to overcome such quality problems is currently of high interest. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of kiwifruit puree (clean label ingredient) and high pressure homogenization on quality changes of cloudy apple juice using a multivariate approach. The use of kiwifruit puree addition and high pressure homogenization resulted in a juice with improved uniformity and cloud stability by reducing particle size and increasing viscosity and yield stress (p < 0...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
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