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Kamil Krol, Justyna Jendrysek, Janusz Debski, Marek Skoneczny, Anna Kurlandzka, Joanna Kaminska, Michal Dadlez, Adrianna Skoneczna
Ribosomal RNA-encoding genes (rDNA) are the most abundant genes in eukaryotic genomes. To meet the high demand for rRNA, rDNA genes are present in multiple tandem repeats clustered on a single or several chromosomes and are vastly transcribed. To facilitate intensive transcription and prevent rDNA destabilization, the rDNA-encoding portion of the chromosome is confined in the nucleolus. However, the rDNA region is susceptible to recombination and DNA damage, accumulating mutations, rearrangements and atypical DNA structures...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Kui Liu, Sixiao Wei, Zhijiang Chen, Bin Jia, Genshe Chen, Haibin Ling, Carolyn Sheaff, Erik Blasch
This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©)...
February 12, 2017: Sensors
M V Sorokin, V I Dubinko, V A Borodin
The nucleation of islands in a supersaturated solution of surface adatoms is considered taking into account the possibility of diffusion profile formation in the island vicinity. It is shown that the treatment of diffusion-controlled cluster growth in terms of the Fokker-Planck equation is justified only provided certain restrictions are satisfied. First of all, the standard requirement that diffusion profiles of adatoms quickly adjust themselves to the actual island sizes (adiabatic principle) can be realized only for sufficiently high island concentration...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
P Sandin, M Ögren, M Gulliksson, J Smyrnakis, M Magiropoulos, G M Kavoulakis
Motivated by numerous experiments on Bose-Einstein condensed atoms which have been performed in tight trapping potentials of various geometries [elongated and/or toroidal (annular)], we develop a general method which allows us to reduce the corresponding three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the order parameter into an effectively one-dimensional equation, taking into account the interactions (i.e., treating the width of the transverse profile variationally) and the curvature of the trapping potential...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Sukdev Bag, Ramasamy Jayarajan, Rahul Mondal, Debabrata Maiti
To expand the scope of meta-functionalization, a pyrimidine-based template effective for the formation of β-aryl aldehydes and ketones, using allyl alcohols, by meta-C-H activation of benzylsulfonyl esters is described. In addition, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were generated by in situ olefination and deprotection of allyl benzyl ethers. These new functionalizations at the meta-position of an arene have also been successfully implemented in benzylphosphonate, phenethyl carbonyl, and phenethylsulfonyl ester scaffolds...
February 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Sriharsha Madhavan, John J Qu, X Hao
Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T) and Aqua (A) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)...
February 2017: Heliyon
Gary Gimmestad, Haviland Forrister, Tomas Grigas, Colin O'Dowd
The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the polar orbiter Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is an elastic backscatter lidar that produces a global uniformly-calibrated aerosol data set. Several Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) studies for CALIOP conducted with ground-based lidars and CALIOP data showed large aerosol profile disagreements, both random and systematic. In an attempt to better understand these problems, we undertook a series of ground-based lidar measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, which did not provide better agreement with CALIOP data than the earlier efforts, but rather prompted us to investigate the statistical limitations of such comparisons...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Eyal Cohen, Itay Gdor, Elisabet Romero, Shira Yochelis, Rienk van Grondelle, Yossi Paltiel
The designing of new complex structures containing semiconductor quantum dots offer means to create a variety of new meso-solids and molecules. Control of the coupling properties between the dots, accompanied by the energetic tunability of the dots themselves, pave the way towards the application and use of novel quantum properties. Here, we present our approach to alteration of interdot coupling using organic linking molecules in a system of covalently bonded, aggregated quantum dots. We used ultrafast transient absorption measurements to identify marks of exciton delocalization over nearest neighbors, to some extent...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ana M S Recchi, Davi Fernando Back, Gilson Zeni
In this paper, we report an intramolecular cyclization of benzylic-substituted propargyl alcohols promoted by iron(III) chloride and diorganyl diselenides to give 2-organoselenyl-naphthalenes via a sequential carbon-carbon/carbon-selenium bonds formation. The present reaction tolerated a wide range of substituents in both propargyl alcohols and diorganyl diselenides to give the desired 2-organoselenyl-naphthalenes in good yields with high selectivity. In addition, O-acyl protected propargyl alcohol and propargyl bromide were also subjected to this protocol giving the corresponding 2-organoselenyl-naphthalenes...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Dezhong Yao
Currently, average reference is one of the most widely adopted references in EEG and ERP studies. The theoretical assumption is the surface potential integral of a volume conductor being zero, thus the average of scalp potential recordings might be an approximation of the theoretically desired zero reference. However, such a zero integral assumption has been proved only for a spherical surface. In this short communication, three counter-examples are given to show that the potential integral over the surface of a dipole in a volume conductor may not be zero...
February 14, 2017: Brain Topography
Bridget T Kiely, Jennifer L Kohler, Hannah Y Coletti, Michele D Poe, Maria L Escolar
BACKGROUND: Newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) shows promise to improve outcomes by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment. However, diagnostic tests for MPS I are of limited value in predicting whether a child will develop severe central nervous system disease associated with Hurler syndrome, or minimal or no central nervous system involvement associated with the attenuated phenotypes (Hurler-Scheie and Scheie syndromes). Given that the optimal treatment differs between Hurler syndrome and the attenuated MPS I phenotypes, the absence of a reliable prognostic biomarker complicates clinical decision making for infants diagnosed through newborn screening...
February 14, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Silke Heinen, Marie Weinhart
For a meaningful correlation of surface coatings with their respective biological response reproducible coating procedures, well-defined surface coatings, and thorough surface characterization with respect to layer thickness and grafting density are indispensable. The same applies to polymeric monolayer coatings which are intended to be used for, e.g., fundamental studies on the volume phase transition of surface end-tethered thermoresponsive polymer chains. Planar gold surfaces are frequently used as model substrates, since they allow a variety of straightforward surface characterization methods...
February 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Andrew R J Curson, Ji Liu, Ana Bermejo Martínez, Robert T Green, Yohan Chan, Ornella Carrión, Beth T Williams, Sheng-Hui Zhang, Gui-Peng Yang, Philip C Bulman Page, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Jonathan D Todd
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is one of the Earth's most abundant organosulfur molecules, a signalling molecule(1), a key nutrient for marine microorganisms(2,3) and the major precursor for gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS, another infochemical in signalling pathways(4), is important in global sulfur cycling(2) and affects the Earth's albedo, and potentially climate, via sulfate aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei production(5,6). It was thought that only eukaryotes produce significant amounts of DMSP(7-9), but here we demonstrate that many marine heterotrophic bacteria also produce DMSP, probably using the same methionine (Met) transamination pathway as macroalgae and phytoplankton(10)...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Tom Doel, Dzhoshkun I Shakir, Rosalind Pratt, Michael Aertsen, James Moggridge, Erwin Bellon, Anna L David, Jan Deprest, Tom Vercauteren, Sébastien Ourselin
OBJECTIVES: Clinical imaging data are essential for developing research software for computer-aided diagnosis, treatment planning and image-guided surgery, yet existing systems are poorly suited for data sharing between healthcare and academia: research systems rarely provide an integrated approach for data exchange with clinicians; hospital systems are focused towards clinical patient care with limited access for external researchers; and safe haven environments are not well suited to algorithm development...
February 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Abdur Rahim Mohammad Forkan, Ibrahim Khalil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In home-based context-aware monitoring patient's real-time data of multiple vital signs (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure) are continuously generated from wearable sensors. The changes in such vital parameters are highly correlated. They are also patient-centric and can be either recurrent or can fluctuate. The objective of this study is to develop an intelligent method for personalized monitoring and clinical decision support through early estimation of patient-specific vital sign values, and prediction of anomalies using the interrelation among multiple vital signs...
February 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Alexander Hayward, Masahito Tsuboi, Christian Owusu, Alexander Kotrschal, Séverine D Buechel, Josefina Zidar, Charlie K Cornwallis, Hanne Løvlie, Niclas Kolm
Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness, and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence, and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species richness may be clouded by limitations associated with data collation from multiple independent sources...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
David B Buller, Suzanne Dobbinson, Dallas R English, Melanie Wakefield, Mary Klein Buller
Environments can be structured to reduce solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure to prevent skin cancer. A prospective randomized trial is being conducted to test whether introducing shade sails in passive recreation areas (PRAs) in public parks will increase use and decrease UV exposure in the shaded compared to unshaded PRAs. Shade effects will be compared between Melbourne, Australia and Denver, USA. The trial enrolled 145 public parks with PRAs suitable for shade construction and randomized parks to intervention or control in a 1:3 ratio...
February 7, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Emmet A Francis, Volkmar Heinrich
The efficient recruitment of immune cells is a vital cornerstone of our defense against infections and a key challenge of immunotherapeutic applications. It relies on the ability of chemotaxing cells to prioritize their responses to different stimuli. For example, immune cells are known to abandon gradients of host-cell-produced cytokines in favor of complement-derived anaphylatoxins, which then guide the cells toward nearby pathogen surfaces. The aptitude to triage stimuli depends on the cells' specific sensitivities to different chemoattractants...
February 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Meegan G Van Straaten, Beth A Cloud, Kristin D Zhao, Emma Fortune, Melissa M B Morrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Helmuth Aguirre, Luis Felipe Ventura DE Almeida, Scott Richard Shaw
This paper provides the first taxonomic revision for the euphorine genus Centistes from a Neotropical country. Twenty-three new species are described: C. achterbergi sp. n., C. acuticaudatus sp. n., C. auricephalus sp. n., C. auristigma sp. n., C. bicaudatus sp. n., C. cabecares sp. n., C. cartagoensis sp. n., C. chorotegus sp. n., C. compactus sp. n., C. curvicaudatus sp. n., C. gauldi sp. n., C. hansoni sp. n., C. hirsutus sp. n., C. janzeni sp. n., C. laticaudatus sp. n., C. longicaudatus sp. n., C. marshi sp...
January 3, 2017: Zootaxa
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