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Jian Wang, Radovan Krejci, Scott Giangrande, Chongai Kuang, Henrique M J Barbosa, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Jennifer Comstock, Florian Ditas, Jost Lavric, Hanna E Manninen, Fan Mei, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Beat Schmid, Rodrigo A F Souza, Stephen R Springston, Jason M Tomlinson, Tami Toto, David Walter, Daniela Wimmer, James N Smith, Markku Kulmala, Luiz A T Machado, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O Andreae, Tuukka Petäjä, Scot T Martin
The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Yuan Yang, Li Luo, Hai-Pu Li, Qiang Wang, Zhao-Guang Yang, Chen-Lu Long
In this study, cloud point extraction (CPE) combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determinate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in environmental water. AgNPs dispersed in water could be extracted into surfactant phase based on optimized CPE parameters which including pH, incubation temperature and equilibration time, the content of nonionic surfactants (Triton X-114, TX-114) and Na2S3O3. Good separation results of AgNPs and ionic silver Ag(I) in aqueous environment was obtained with the addition of Na2S3O3 when the concentration of Ag(I) was lower than ten times of AgNPs...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Nail Altunay, Ramazan Gürkan, Ulaş Orhan
Acrylamide is a toxic species for human health, and is a Maillard reaction product which forms spontaneously in heat treatment process of foods. Therefore, a simple, fast and cost-effective method was developed for the indirect determination of acrylamide in processed foods particularly consumed by children. The method is based on ion-pairing of acrylamide with fluorescein (F(2-)) in presence of Ni(II) ions at pH 9.0, and then extraction of the formed ternary complex into micellar phase of poly(ethyleneglycol-mono-p-nonylphenylether) (PONPE 7...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Hubertus J A van Hedel, Nadine Häfliger, Corinna N Gerber
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to distinguish between restorative and compensatory mechanisms underlying (pediatric) neurorehabilitation, as objective measures assessing selective voluntary motor control (SVMC) are scarce. METHODS: We aimed to quantify SVMC of elbow movements in children with brain lesions. Children played an airplane game with the glove-based YouGrabber system. Participants were instructed to steer an airplane on a screen through a cloud-free path by correctly applying bilateral elbow flexion and extension movements...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Yadvinder Malhi, Cécile A J Girardin, Gregory R Goldsmith, Christopher E Doughty, Norma Salinas, Daniel B Metcalfe, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E Silva-Espejo, Jhon Del Aguilla-Pasquell, Filio Farfán Amézquita, Luiz E O C Aragão, Rossella Guerrieri, Françoise Yoko Ishida, Nur H A Bahar, William Farfan-Rios, Oliver L Phillips, Patrick Meir, Miles Silman
Why do forest productivity and biomass decline with elevation? To address this question, research to date generally has focused on correlative approaches describing changes in woody growth and biomass with elevation. We present a novel, mechanistic approach to this question by quantifying the autotrophic carbon budget in 16 forest plots along a 3300 m elevation transect in Peru. Low growth rates at high elevations appear primarily driven by low gross primary productivity (GPP), with little shift in either carbon use efficiency (CUE) or allocation of net primary productivity (NPP) between wood, fine roots and canopy...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Yang Liu, Saad M Khan, Juexin Wang, Mats Rynge, Yuanxun Zhang, Shuai Zeng, Shiyuan Chen, Joao V Maldonado Dos Santos, Babu Valliyodan, Prasad P Calyam, Nirav Merchant, Henry T Nguyen, Dong Xu, Trupti Joshi
BACKGROUND: With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and significant reductions in sequencing costs, it is now possible to sequence large collections of germplasm in crops for detecting genome-scale genetic variations and to apply the knowledge towards improvements in traits. To efficiently facilitate large-scale NGS resequencing data analysis of genomic variations, we have developed "PGen", an integrated and optimized workflow using the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) high-performance computing (HPC) virtual system, iPlant cloud data storage resources and Pegasus workflow management system (Pegasus-WMS)...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Ivan Pelivanov, Łukasz Ambroziński, Anton Khomenko, Ermias G Koricho, Gary L Cloud, Mahmoodul Haq, Matthew O'Donnell
Damage induced in polymer composites by various impacts must be evaluated to predict a component's post-impact strength and residual lifetime, especially when impacts occur in structures related to human safety (in aircraft, for example). X-ray tomography is the conventional standard to study an internal structure with high resolution. However, it is of little use when the impacted area cannot be extracted from a structure. In addition, X-ray tomography is expensive and time-consuming. Recently, we have demonstrated that a kHz-rate laser-ultrasound (LU) scanner is very efficient both for locating large defects and evaluating the material structure...
June 2016: Photoacoustics
Markus Ostarek, Gabriella Vigliocco
Previous research has shown that processing words with an up/down association (e.g., bird, foot) can influence the subsequent identification of visual targets in congruent location (at the top/bottom of the screen). However, as facilitation and interference were found under similar conditions, the nature of the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. We propose that word comprehension relies on the perceptual simulation of a prototypical event involving the entity denoted by a word in order to provide a general account of the different findings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Woon Yong Sohn, Valérie Brenner, Eric Gloaguen, Michel Mons
Conformer-selective IR gas phase spectroscopy and high level quantum chemistry methods have been used to characterise the diversity of local NH-π interactions between the π ring of a phenylalanine aromatic residue and the nearby main chain amide groups. The study of model systems shows how the amide NH stretch vibrational features, in the 3410-3460 cm(-1) frequency range, can be used to monitor the strength of these local π H-bonds, which is found to depend on both the backbone conformation and the aromatic side chain orientation...
October 20, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Justin A Lemkul, Alexander D MacKerell
Mg2+ ions are important in biological systems, particularly in stabilizing compact RNA folds. Mg2+ is strongly polarizing, and representing its interactions in heterogeneous environments is a challenge for empirical force field development. To date, the most commonly used force fields in molecular dynamics simulations utilize a pairwise-additive approximation for electrostatic interactions, which cannot account for the significant polarization response in systems containing Mg2+. In the present work, we refine the interactions of Mg2+ with water, Cl- ions, and nucleic acid moieties using a polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator model...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Feng Chen, Jun Jiang, Dan-Dan Tian, Qi Wen, Yong-Hui Li, Jun-Qing Zhang, Chen Cheng, Tengfei Wang
Cardiovascular disease still remains the primary cause of death worldwide and the obesity is becoming recognized as one of the most critical contributing risk factors. The increased prevalence of obesity casts a cloud over the global health and the whole societies will still be burdened in the future. Therefore, prevention and therapy of obesity is a beneficial strategy for the prevention of chronic cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota takes part in human health and disease including obesity...
October 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
W Tipkantha, P Thuwanut, B Siriaroonrat, P Comizzoli, K Chatdarong
Clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) produced high proportion of abnormal spermatozoa (mainly tail defects) that can limit sperm movement and conception. The study aimed to better identify the origin of those defects using a demembranation approach. Ejaculates (1-2 ejaculations/male; n = 9) were allocated to simple washing (control; resulting in 11.7% ± 1.9% coiled tails) and processed through colloid centrifugation to reduce the number of sperm with tail defects (treatment, resulting in 5.9% ± 0.9% coiled tails)...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Shu-Ping Lin, Chen-Lung Yang, Han-Chung Pi, Thao-Minh Ho
BACKGROUND: The emergence of advanced IT and cloud services has beneficially supported the information-intensive tourism industry, simultaneously caused extreme competitions in attracting customers through building efficient service platforms. On response, numerous nations have implemented cloud platforms to provide value-added sightseeing information and personal intelligent service experiences. Despite these efforts, customers' actual perspectives have yet been sufficiently understood...
2016: SpringerPlus
Keith W Muir, Gary A Ford, Claudia-Martina Messow, Ian Ford, Alicia Murray, Andrew Clifton, Martin M Brown, Jeremy Madigan, Rob Lenthall, Fergus Robertson, Anand Dixit, Geoffrey C Cloud, Joanna Wardlaw, Janet Freeman, Philip White
OBJECTIVE: The Pragmatic Ischaemic Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) trial was a multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial comparing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone with IVT and adjunctive intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in patients who had acute ischaemic stroke with large artery occlusive anterior circulation stroke confirmed on CT angiography (CTA). DESIGN: Eligible patients had IVT started within 4.5 hours of stroke symptom onset. Those randomised to additional MT underwent thrombectomy using any Conformité Européene (CE)-marked device, with target interval times for IVT start to arterial puncture of <90 min...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Anne M Jurek, George Maldonado
PURPOSE: When learning bias analysis, epidemiologists are taught to quantitatively adjust for multiple biases by correcting study results in the reverse order of the error sequence. To understand the error sequence for a particular study, one must carefully examine the health study's epidemiologic data-generating process. In this article, we describe the unique data-generating process of a man-made disaster epidemiologic study. METHODS: We described the data-generating process and conducted a bias analysis for a study associating September 11, 2001 dust cloud exposure and self-reported newly physician-diagnosed asthma among rescue-recovery workers and volunteers...
September 21, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Kathleen Charlebois, Nicole Palmour, Bartha Maria Knoppers
This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption...
2016: PloS One
Binbin Shi, Wei Wei, Yihuai Wang, Wanneng Shu
In high-density sensor networks, scheduling some sensor nodes to be in the sleep mode while other sensor nodes remain active for monitoring or forwarding packets is an effective control scheme to conserve energy. In this paper, a Coverage-Preserving Control Scheduling Scheme (CPCSS) based on a cloud model and redundancy degree in sensor networks is proposed. Firstly, the normal cloud model is adopted for calculating the similarity degree between the sensor nodes in terms of their historical data, and then all nodes in each grid of the target area can be classified into several categories...
October 14, 2016: Sensors
Rafael Pérez-Torres, César Torres-Huitzil, Hiram Galeana-Zapién
The tracking of frequently visited places, also known as stay points, is a critical feature in location-aware mobile applications as a way to adapt the information and services provided to smartphones users according to their moving patterns. Location based applications usually employ the GPS receiver along with Wi-Fi hot-spots and cellular cell tower mechanisms for estimating user location. Typically, fine-grained GPS location data are collected by the smartphone and transferred to dedicated servers for trajectory analysis and stay points detection...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Xuezhong Zhang, Yuqing Zhang, Lisheng Liu, Alberto Zanchetti
OBJECTIVE: There is some debate as to optimal BP goals with antihypertensive treatment derived mostly in post-hoc analysis of large trials. Because there was limited number of subjects and outcomes within the larger study which may cloud the analytical accuracy of the findings. We suggest a new method to estimate the J-curve. DESIGN AND METHOD: Felodipine Event Reduction (FEVER) study randomized 9711 Chinese hypertensive patients to more or less intense anti-hypertensive treatment with 159,844 BP measurements...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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