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Weilin Li, Jian Wen, Zhongliang Xiao, Shengxia Xu
To assess the health conditions of tree trunks, it is necessary to estimate the layers and anomalies of their internal structure. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the internal part of tree trunks considering their irregular contour. In this respect, we used ground penetrating radar (GPR) for non-invasive detection of defects and deteriorations in living trees trunks. The Hilbert transform algorithm and the reflection amplitudes were used to estimate the relative dielectric constant. The point cloud data technique was applied as well to extract the irregular contours of trunks...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
Bonnie S Jones, Sara Daniel, Lindsay K Cloud
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence and characteristics of facility laws governing abortion provision specifically (targeted regulation of abortion providers [TRAP] laws); office-based surgeries, procedures, sedation or anesthesia (office interventions) generally (OBS laws); and other procedures specifically. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional legal assessments of state facility laws for office interventions in effect as of August 1, 2016. We coded characteristics for each law and compared characteristics across categories of laws...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Zhengqiang Li, Kaitao Li, Li Li, Hua Xu, Yisong Xie, Yan Ma, Donghui Li, Philippe Goloub, Yinlin Yuan, Xiaobing Zheng
Polarization observation of sky radiation is the frontier approach to improve the remote sensing of atmospheric components, e.g., aerosol and clouds. The polarization calibration of the ground-based Sun-sky radiometer is the basis for obtaining accurate degree of linear polarization (DOLP) measurement. In this paper, a DOLP calibration method based on a laboratory polarized light source (POLBOX) is introduced in detail. Combined with the CE318-DP Sun-sky polarized radiometer, a calibration scheme for DOLP measurement is established for the spectral range of 440-1640 nm...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Sumit Verma, Parul Goyal, Lokesh Guglani, Charlotte Peinhardt, Diane Pelzek, Paul E Barkhaus
OBJECTIVES: COL6A and LAMA2 are subtypes of congenital muscular dystrophy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of clinical findings, spirometry, muscle histology, muscle ultrasound, neuroimaging, and Electromyography (EMG)/Nerve Conduction Study data in genetically confirmed COL6A and LAMA2 subjects. RESULTS: We identified 8 COL6A and 6 LAMA2 subjects: the female-to-male ratio was 1.3:1 and the mean age was 11.9 ± 3.6 years. Gross motor delays since birth, proximal muscle weakness, and contractures were noted in both groups...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Selman Yeniocak, Asım Kalkan, Ozgur Sogut, Gökce Akgül Karadana, Mehmet Toptas
Objective: Since the homeless are at greater risk of encountering health problems than the general population, the reasons for and incidence of their presentations to emergency departments also vary. The purpose of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of Turkish homeless patients who brought to the emergency department by ambulance. Materials and methods: The records of homeless adult patients brought to the ED by 112 emergency service ambulance teams over a 1-year period from January to December, 2014, were examined retrospectively...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Juan Sandino, Felipe Gonzalez, Kerrie Mengersen, Kevin J Gaston
The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and spinifex (Triodia sp...
February 16, 2018: Sensors
Xinyan Qin, Gongping Wu, Jin Lei, Fei Fan, Xuhui Ye, Quanjie Mei
With the growth of the national economy, there is increasing demand for electricity, which forces transmission line corridors to become structurally complicated and extend to complex environments (e.g., mountains, forests). It is a great challenge to inspect transmission line in these regions. To address these difficulties, a novel method of autonomous inspection for transmission line is proposed based on cable inspection robot (CIR) LiDAR data, which mainly includes two steps: preliminary inspection and autonomous inspection...
February 15, 2018: Sensors
Kevin J Sanchez, Chia-Li Chen, Lynn M Russell, Raghu Betha, Jun Liu, Derek J Price, Paola Massoli, Luke D Ziemba, Ewan C Crosbie, Richard H Moore, Markus Müller, Sven A Schiller, Armin Wisthaler, Alex K Y Lee, Patricia K Quinn, Timothy S Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G Bell, Eric S Saltzman, Robert D Vaillancourt, Mike J Behrenfeld
Biogenic sources contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere, but few measurements exist to constrain climate model simulations of their importance. The chemical composition of individual atmospheric aerosol particles showed two types of sulfate-containing particles in clean marine air masses in addition to mass-based Estimated Salt particles. Both types of sulfate particles lack combustion tracers and correlate, for some conditions, to atmospheric or seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations, which means their source was largely biogenic...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristofer Lasko, Krishna Vadrevu
In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, rice residues are routinely burned after the harvest to prepare fields for the next season. Specific to Vietnam, the two prevalent burning practices include: a). piling the residues after hand harvesting; b). burning the residues without piling, after machine harvesting. In this study, we synthesized field and laboratory studies from the literature on rice residue burning emission factors for PM2.5 . We found significant differences in the resulting burning-practice specific emission factors, with 16...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yuen-Ling Chan, Douglas K Bishop
Budding yeast Dmc1 is a member of the RecA family of strand exchange proteins essential for homologous recombination (HR) during meiosis. Dmc1 mediates the steps of homology search and DNA strand exchange reactions that are central to HR. To achieve optimum activity, Dmc1 requires a number of accessory factors. Although methods for purification of Dmc1 and many of its associated factors have been described (Binz, Dickson, Haring, & Wold, 2006; Busygina et al., 2013; Chan, Brown, Qin, Handa, & Bishop, 2014; Chi et al...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Ping Tian, Kai Jiang, Zhi-Qiang Cai, Yong-Tao Wang, Sheng-de Deng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate CT and MRI characteristics of primary spinal large B cell lymphoma. METHODS: CT and MRI data of 23 patients with primary spinal large B cell lymphoma confirmed by histopathology were retrospectively analyzed from March 2011 to August 2015. Among them, including 14 males and 9 females aged from 28 to 70 years old with an average of 53.4 years old. The clinical manifestation mainly focus on pain around spinal and minority peripheral nerve symptom...
December 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Emeric Bron, Chloé Daudon, Jérôme Pety, François Levrier, Maryvonne Gerin, Pierre Gratier, Jan H Orkisz, Viviana Guzman, Sébastien Bardeau, Javier R Goicoechea, Harvey Liszt, Karin Öberg, Nicolas Peretto, Albrecht Sievers, Pascal Tremblin
Context: Previous attempts at segmenting molecular line maps of molecular clouds have focused on using position-position-velocity data cubes of a single molecular line to separate the spatial components of the cloud. In contrast, wide field spectral imaging over a large spectral bandwidth in the (sub)mm domain now allows one to combine multiple molecular tracers to understand the different physical and chemical phases that constitute giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Aims: We aim at using multiple tracers (sensitive to different physical processes and conditions) to segment a molecular cloud into physically/chemically similar regions (rather than spatially connected components), thus disentangling the different physical/chemical phases present in the cloud...
February 2018: Astronomy and Astrophysics
Elson Silva Galvão, Jane Meri Santos, Ana Teresa Lima, Neyval Costa Reis, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo Orlando, Richard Michael Stuetz
Epidemiological studies have shown the association of airborne particulate matter (PM) size and chemical composition with health problems affecting the cardiorespiratory and central nervous systems. PM also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CNN) or ice nuclei (IN), taking part in the clouds formation process, and therefore can impact the climate. There are several works using different analytical techniques in PM chemical and physical characterization to supply information to source apportionment models that help environmental agencies to assess damages accountability...
February 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Shubhra Sarkar, Nagarajan Ramanathan, Kalyanasundaram Sundararajan
Hydrogen bonded interactions of pyrrole with water and methanol have been studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and compared with the calculation performed on dimethyl ether. Computations carried out at MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory yielded two minima for the pyrrole-water and pyrrole-methanol complexes. The global and local minima correspond to the N-H∙∙∙O and O-H∙∙∙π complexes, respectively, where the N-H group of pyrrole interacts with oxygen of water/methanol and O-H of water and methanol interacts with the π cloud of pyrrole...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
A E Vizenor, A A Asa-Awuku
Our current knowledge of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and the hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) depends on the particle size and composition, explicitly, the thermodynamic properties of the aerosol solute and subsequent interactions with water. Here, we examine the CCN activation of 3 SOA systems (2 biogenic single precursor and 1 mixed precursor SOA system) in relation to gas-phase decay. Specifically, the relationship between time, gas-phase precursor decay and CCN activity of 100 nm SOA is studied...
February 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Edwin Cartlidge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Science
C L Faiola, A Buchholz, E Kari, P Yli-Pirilä, J K Holopainen, M Kivimäenpää, P Miettinen, D R Worsnop, K E J Lehtinen, A B Guenther, A Virtanen
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) impact climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and contributing to cloud formation. SOA models are based on studies of simplified chemical systems that do not account for the chemical complexity in the atmosphere. This study investigated SOA formation from a mixture of real Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) emissions including a variety of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. SOA generation was characterized from different combinations of volatile compounds as the plant emissions were altered with an herbivore stress treatment...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nadia Shardt, Janet A W Elliott
At any given temperature, pressure, and composition, a compound or a mixture of compounds will exist either in a single phase, whether solid, liquid, or vapor, or in a combination of these phases coexisting in equilibrium. For multiphase systems, it is known that the geometry of the interface impacts the equilibrium state; this effect has been well-studied in single component systems with spherical interfaces. However, multicomponent phase diagrams are usually calculated assuming a planar interface between phases...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Seyed Salman Zakariaee, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Kavous Firouznia, Guive Sharifi, Farshid Arbabi, Farhad Samiei
Background: Brain tumor is one of the most common tumors. A successful treatment might be achieved with an early identification. Pathological investigation as the gold standard method for tumor identification has some limitations. Noninvasive assessment of tumor specifications may be possible using perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) could be calculated based on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in addition to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) modality...
2018: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
George E Kapellos, Christakis A Paraskeva, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Patrick S Doyle
In the aftermath of oil spills in the sea, clouds of droplets drift into the seawater column and are carried away by sea currents. The fate of the drifting droplets is determined by natural attenuation processes, mainly dissolution into the seawater and biodegradation by oil-degrading microbial communities. Specifically, microbes have developed three fundamental strategies for accessing and assimilating oily substrates. Depending on their affinity for the oily phase and ability to proliferate in multicellular structures, microbes might either attach to the oil surface and directly uptake compounds from the oily phase, or grow suspended in the aqueous phase consuming solubilized oil, or form three-dimensional biofilms over the oil-water interface...
February 12, 2018: Bioengineering
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