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Bi polar

Satoshi Okada, Mid Eum Lee, Erfei Bi, Hay-Oak Park
Cdc42 is a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that plays a central role in polarity development in diverse cell types. Since the activity of Cdc42 is dynamically controlled in time and space, it is required to develop a biosensor to monitor its activation in vivo. In this chapter, we describe the construction and usage of a simple and robust biosensor for monitoring active Cdc42 in budding yeast. This affinity-based biosensor uses a red fluorescent protein fused to a Cdc42- and Rac-interactive binding motif from one of the Cdc42 effector proteins...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
Hwa-Seon Seo, Raymond Habas, Chenbei Chang, Jianbo Wang
Convergent extension (CE) is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism that underlies numerous processes in vertebrate development, and its disruption can lead to human congenital disorders such as neural tube closure defects. The dynamic, oriented cell intercalation during CE is regulated by a group of core proteins identified originally in flies to coordinate epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP). The existing model explains how core PCP proteins, including Van Gogh (Vang) and Dishevelled (Dvl), segregate into distinct complexes on opposing cell cortex to coordinate polarity among static epithelial cells...
March 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Ching-Hwa Ho, Ya-Han Chen, Yung-Kang Kuo, C W Liu
The semiconductor optoelectronic properties of an inorganic (Bi(Bi2S3)9I3)2/3 hexagonal nano-/micro-rod are firstly explored herein. Transmittance and thermoreflectance measurements show that (Bi(Bi2S3)9I3)2/3 hexagonal rods possess an indirect gap of 0.73 eV and a direct gap of 1.08 eV, respectively. Hot-probe measurements of (Bi(Bi2S3)9I3)2/3 reveal the p-type semiconductor behavior and high thermoelectric voltage. Polarized Raman measurements of the m-plane (Bi(Bi2S3)9I3)2/3 (along c and perpendicular to the c axis) identify the structural anisotropy of the hexagonal nano-/micro-rod...
March 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hao Yan, Umesh Bhattarai, Zhi-Fo Guo, Fu-Sen Liang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate translation by targeting mRNAs. In their biogenesis, precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) are cleaved by RNase Dicer to give mature miRNAs. Herein, we report a new strategy to regulate miRNA biogenesis by using bi-functional small molecules that block Dicer catalyzed pre-miRNA cleavage. The bi-functional molecules consist of a pre-miRNA binding unit connected by a linker to a Dicer inhibiting unit. Recognition of a target pre-miRNA by the RNA binding unit brings the Dicer inhibitor unit into close proximity to the pre-miRNA cleavage site where it inhibits Dicer...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ana Maria Toma, Alexandra Pop, Anca Silvestru, Tobias Rüffer, Heinrich Lang, Michael Mehring
New diorganobismuth(iii) bromides of type [RN(CH2C6H4)2]BiBr [R = C6H5CH2 (1), C6H5CH2CH2 (2), and CH3OCH2CH2 (3)], based on the heterocyclic butterfly-like tetrahydro-dibenzo[c,f][1,5]azabismocine framework, were prepared starting from the corresponding RN(CH2C6H4Br-2)2 in a succession of reactions including ortho-lithiation and treatment of the dilithio derivative with BiBr3 in a 1 : 1 molar ratio. Further exchange reactions between bromides and appropriate metal halides or ammonium fluoride resulted in the formation of [RN(CH2C6H4)2]BiX [X = Cl and I for R = C6H5CH2 (4 and 5) and C6H5CH2CH2 (6 and 7) and X = F (8), Cl (9), and I (10) for R = CH3OCH2CH2]...
March 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Neil M Drummond, Gabrielle Hayduk-Costa, Alexandra Leguerrier, Anthony N Carlsen
Increased reaction times (RT) during choice-RT tasks stem from a requirement for additional processing as well as reduced motor-specific preparatory activation. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate primary motor cortex excitability, increasing (anodal stimulation) or decreasing (cathodal stimulation) excitability in underlying cortical tissue. The present study investigated whether lateralized differences in choice-RT would result from the concurrent modulation of left and right motor cortices using bi-hemispheric tDCS...
2017: PloS One
Weiyi Wang, Danni Liu, Shuai Hao, Fengli Qu, Yongjun Ma, Gu Du, Abdullah M Asiri, Yadong Yao, Xuping Sun
It is highly desired but still remains a key challenge to develop iron-based large-surface-area arrays as heterogeneous water oxidation catalysts that perform efficiently and durably under mild pH conditions for solar-to-hydrogen conversion. In this work, we report the in situ derivation of an iron phosphate-borate nanosheet array on carbon cloth (Fe-Pi-Bi/CC) from an iron phosphide nanosheet array via oxidative polarization in a potassium borate (KBi) solution. As a 3D catalyst electrode for water oxidation at mild pH, such a Fe-Pi-Bi/CC shows high activity and strong long-term electrochemical durability, and it only demands an overpotential of 434 mV to drive a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm(-2) with maintenance of its activity for at least 20 h in 0...
March 6, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Roman Khymyn, Ivan Lisenkov, Vasyl Tiberkevich, Boris A Ivanov, Andrei Slavin
The development of compact and tunable room temperature sources of coherent THz-frequency signals would open a way for numerous new applications. The existing approaches to THz-frequency generation based on superconductor Josephson junctions (JJ), free electron lasers, and quantum cascades require cryogenic temperatures or/and complex setups, preventing the miniaturization and wide use of these devices. We demonstrate theoretically that a bi-layer of a heavy metal (Pt) and a bi-axial antiferromagnetic (AFM) dielectric (NiO) can be a source of a coherent THz signal...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carlotta Ciaramelli, Marco Fumagalli, Simona Viglio, Anna Maria Bardoni, Davide Piloni, Federica Meloni, Paolo Iadarola, Cristina Airoldi
This report describes the application of NMR spectroscopy to the profiling of metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) of lung transplant recipients without bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) (stable, S, n = 10), and with BOS at different degrees of severity (BOS 0p, n = 10; BOS I, n = 10). Through the fine-tuning of a number of parameters concerning both sample preparation/processing and variations of spectra acquisition modes, an efficient and reproducible protocol was designed for the screening of metabolites in a pulmonary fluid that should reflect the status of airway inflammation/injury...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Xuqiang Ji, Liang Cui, Danni Liu, Shuai Hao, Jingquan Liu, Fengli Qu, Yongjun Ma, Gu Du, Abdullah M Asiri, Xuping Sun
The exploration of high-performance and cost-effective water oxidation catalysts operating under mild conditions is still urgent and challenging. In this communication, a nickel-borate nanoarray supported on carbon cloth (Ni-Bi/CC) has been fabricated through oxidative polarization of a nickel oxide nanoarray on CC (NiO/CC) in a borate electrolyte (pH 9.2). As a 3D electrode, this Ni-Bi/CC exhibits superior catalytic activity for water oxidation in 0.1 M potassium borate (K-Bi) solution, yielding a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 470 mV...
February 28, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
N Bono, S Meghezi, M Soncini, M Piola, D Mantovani, Gianfranco Beniamino Fiore
In the past decades, vascular tissue engineering has made great strides towards bringing engineered vascular tissues to the clinics and, in parallel, obtaining in-lab tools for basic research. Herein, we propose the design of a novel dual-mode bioreactor, useful for the fabrication (construct mode) and in vitro stimulation (culture mode) of collagen-based tubular constructs. Collagen-based gels laden with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were molded directly within the bioreactor culture chamber. Based on a systematic characterization of the bioreactor culture mode, constructs were subjected to 10% cyclic strain at 0...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
J Pina, Daniela Sarmento, Marco Accoto, Pier Luigi Gentili, Luigi Vaccaro, Adelino Galvão, J Sérgio Seixas de Melo
Excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) in Indigo and its monohexyl-substituted derivative (Ind and NHxInd, respectively) in solution was investigated experimentally as a function of solvent viscosity, polarity, and temperature, and theoretically by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Although a single emission band is observed, the fluorescence decays (collected at different wavelengths along the emission band using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC)) are biexponential, with two identical decay times but different pre-exponential factors, which is consistent with the existence of excited-state keto and enol species...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Helder Maiato, Ana Margarida Gomes, Filipe Sousa, Marin Barisic
Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression...
February 17, 2017: Biology
Zhao Pan, Jun Chen, Xingxing Jiang, Zheshuai Lin, Linxing Zhang, Longlong Fan, Yangchun Rong, Lei Hu, Hui Liu, Yang Ren, Xiaojun Kuang, Xianran Xing
Zero thermal expansion (ZTE) behavior is rare but important for both fundamental studies and practical applications of functional materials. Until now, most available ZTE materials are either electrical insulating oxides or conductive metallic compounds. Very few ZTE materials exhibit the semiconductor feature. Here we report a ZTE in a semiconducting ferroelectric of 0.6PbTiO3-0.4Bi(Co0.55Ti0.45)O3-δ. Its unit cell volume exhibits a negligible change over a broad temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C...
February 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Xuping Sun
Developing earth-abundant electrocatalysts for efficient and stable water oxidation under near neutral conditions is of great importance but still remains a key challenge. In this Communication, we demonstrate the development of an interconnected network of shell-core Co-Bi-Pi@CoP via anodic polarization of CoP nanoarray in potassium borate aqueous electrolyte (KBi). This 3D Co-Bi-Pi@CoP exhibits super high catalytic activity for water oxidation at pH 9.2 and needs overpotential of only 410 mV to drive a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm-2, with a high turnover frequency of 819 h-1 at overpotential of 610 mV...
February 11, 2017: ChemSusChem
Su Yeong Lee, Won Seok Yun, J D Lee
Schottky barrier height and carrier polarity are seminal concepts for a practical device application of the interface between semiconductor and metal electrode. Investigation of those concepts is usually made by a conventional method such as the Schottky-Mott rule, incorporating the metal work function and semiconductor electron affinity, or the Fermi level pinning effect, resulting from the metal-induced gap states. Both manners are, however, basically applied to the bulk semiconductor metal contacts. To explore few-layer black phosphorus metal contacts far from the realm of bulk, we propose a new method to determine the Schottky barrier by scrutinizing the layer-by-layer phosphorus electronic structure from the first-principles calculation combined with the state-of-the-art band unfolding technique...
March 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthew J Stower, Federica Bertocchini
In the animal kingdom, gastrulation, the process by which the primary germ layers are formed involves a dramatic transformation in the topology of the cells that give rise to all of the tissues of the adult. Initially formed as a mono-layer, this tissue, the epiblast, becomes subdivided through the internalization of cells, thereby forming a two (bi-laminar) or three (tri-laminar) layered embryo. This morphogenetic process coordinates the development of the fundamental body plan and the three-body axes (antero-posterior, dorso-ventral, and left-right) and begins a fundamental segregation of cells toward divergent developmental fates...
February 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Piotr Paluch, Natalia Potrzebowska, Agnieszka M Ruppert, Marek J Potrzebowski
In this work for the first time we show the power of solid state NMR spectroscopy in structural analysis of alumina and catalysts supported on the alumina surface employing very fast (60kHz) magic angle spinning (MAS) technique. In the methodological part we demonstrate that under such MAS condition, cross-polarization (CP) from proton to aluminum is an efficient process when a very weak (27)Al RF field is applied. The mechanism of CP transfer and the Hartmann-Hahn (H-H) matching conditions were tested for (27)Al RF fields equal to 3...
January 26, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Darrin J Lee, Ali Izadi, Mikhail Melnik, Stacey Seidl, Angela Echeverri, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
Temporal lobe epilepsy often leads to hippocampal sclerosis and persistent cognitive deficits, including difficulty with learning and memory. Hippocampal theta oscillations are critical in optimizing hippocampal function and facilitating plasticity. We hypothesized that pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus would disrupt oscillations and behavioral performance and that electrical neuromodulation to entrain theta would improve cognition specifically in injured rats. Rats received a pilocarpine (n=30) or saline injection (n=27) and unilateral bi-polar electrodes were implanted into the medial septum and hippocampus the following day...
February 2017: Epilepsy Research
Prakash Ramakrishnan, Sangaraju Shanmugam, Jae Hyun Kim
A cost-effective dual heteroatoms doped three-dimensional carbon nanofoam wrapped iron mono-sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles (nps), FeS-C acts as an efficient bi-functional catalyst for Lithium oxygen (Li-O2) battery application. The Li-O2 battery study shows this cathode exhibits a maximum deep discharge capacity of 14,777.5 mAhg-1 with a 98.1% columbic efficiency at 0.1 mAcm-2. The controlled capacity (500 mAhg-1) test of this cathode delivers a minimum polarization gap of 0.73 V at 0.1 mAcm-2 and also sustains for 100 cycles with the energy efficiency of ~64 % (1st cycle) and ~52% (100th cycle) at 0...
February 1, 2017: ChemSusChem
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