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Muscle atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928419/the-histone-deacetylase-sirt6-blocks-myostatin-expression-and-development-of-muscle-atrophy
#1
Sadhana A Samant, Abhinav Kanwal, Vinodkumar B Pillai, Riyue Bao, Mahesh P Gupta
Muscle wasting, also known as cachexia, is associated with many chronic diseases, which worsens prognosis of primary illness leading to enhanced mortality. Molecular basis of this metabolic syndrome is not yet completely understood. SIRT6 is a chromatin-bound member of the sirtuin family, implicated in regulating many cellular processes, ranging from metabolism, DNA repair to aging. SIRT6 knockout (SIRT6-KO) mice display loss of muscle, fat and bone density, typical characteristics of cachexia. Here we report that SIRT6 depletion in cardiac as well as skeletal muscle cells promotes myostatin (Mstn) expression...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926379/tendon-length-calf-muscle-atrophy-and-strength-deficit-after-acute-achilles-tendon-rupture-long-term-follow-up-of-patients-in-a-previous-study
#2
Juuso Heikkinen, Iikka Lantto, Juuso Piilonen, Tapio Flinkkilä, Pasi Ohtonen, Pertti Siira, Vesa Laine, Jaakko Niinimäki, Ari Pajala, Juhana Leppilahti
BACKGROUND: In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS: From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924358/ischiofemoral-impingement-assessment-of-mri-findings-and-their-reliability
#3
Ahmet Akça, Kadihan Yalçın Şafak, Ebru Dülger İliş, Zeki Taşdemir, Tamer Baysal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings and their validity in patients with ischiofemoral impingement syndrome (IFI) . METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 55 hips. MRI findings of 30 hips were consistent with IFI syndrome. Twenty five hips had no MRI findings consistent with IFI syndrome. We compared the ischiofemoral space (IFS), quadratus femoris space (QFS), ischial angle (IA) and femoral neck angle (FNA) between the age and gender matched groups...
November 2016: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922293/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-cancer-cachexia
#4
Fabio Penna, Andrea Camperi, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Nicoletta Filigheddu, Paola Costelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The possibility to use vitamin D supplementation to improve muscle wasting, with particular focus on cancer cachexia, is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D exerts biological actions on myogenic precursor proliferation and differentiation, impinging on muscle regeneration. However, the effects of VitD supplementation in diseases associated with muscle atrophy, such as cancer cachexia, are poorly investigated. Data obtained in experimental models of cancer cachexia show that the administration of vitamin D to tumor-bearing animals is not able to prevent or delay both muscle wasting and adipose tissue depletion, despite increased expression of muscle vitamin D receptor...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919112/disuse-atrophy-accompanied-by-intramuscular-ectopic-adipogenesis-in-vastus-medialis-muscle-of-advanced-osteoarthritis-patients
#5
Madoka Ikemoto-Uezumi, Yasumoto Matsui, Masaki Hasegawa, Remi Fujita, Yasuhide Kanayama, Akiyoshi Uezumi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Atsushi Harada, A Robin Poole, Naohiro Hashimoto
Muscle dysfunction is the most important modifiable mediating factor in primary osteoarthritis because properly contracting muscles are a key absorber of forces acting on a joint. However, the pathological features of disuse muscle atrophy in osteoarthritis patients have been little studied. Vastus medialis muscles of fourteen female patients with osteoarthritis in the age range 69 to 86 years, largely immobile for one or more years, were obtained during arthroplastic surgery and analyzed histologically. These were compared to female patients without arthritis, two with patellar fracture, and two with patellar subluxation...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916229/japanese-leigh-syndrome-case-treated-with-epi-743
#6
Takeshi Kouga, Mariko Takagi, Akihiko Miyauchi, Hiroko Shimbo, Mizue Iai, Sumimasa Yamashita, Kei Murayama, Matthew B Klein, Guy Miller, Tomohide Goto, Hitoshi Osaka
BACKGROUND: Leigh syndrome is a mitochondrial disease caused by respiratory chain deficiency, and there are no proven effective therapies. EPI-743 is a potent cellular oxidative stress protectant and results of clinical trials for mitochondrial diseases are accumulating. CASE: At 5months, a girl presented with the scarce eye movement and diminished muscle tone. She was diagnosed with Leigh encephalopathy from blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate elevation and MRI findings...
September 12, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916153/improving-provision-of-care-for-long-term-survivors-of-lymphoma
#7
REVIEW
Sabino Ciavarella, Carla Minoia, Angela Maria Quinto, Stefano Oliva, Santa Carbonara, Claudia Cormio, Maria Christina Cox, Elena Bravo, Filippo Santoro, Mariarosaria Napolitano, Michele Spina, Giacomo Loseto, Attilio Guarini
The progressive improvement of lymphoma therapies has led to a significant prolongation of patient survival and life expectancy. However, lymphoma survivors are at high risk of experiencing a range of early and late adverse effects associated with the extent of treatment exposure. Among these, second malignancies and cardiopulmonary diseases can be fatal, and neurocognitive dysfunction, endocrinopathy, muscle atrophy, and persistent fatigue can affect patients' quality of life for decades after treatment. Early recognition and reduction of risk factors and proper monitoring and treatment of these complications require well-defined follow-up criteria, close coordination among specialists of different disciplines, and a tailored model of survivorship care...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915625/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#8
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914740/the-role-of-precisely-matching-fascicles-in-the-quick-recovery-of-nerve-function-in-long-peripheral-nerve-defects
#9
Liwei Yan, Zhi Yao, Tao Lin, Qingtang Zhu, Jian Qi, Liqiang Gu, Jintao Fang, Xiang Zhou, Xiaolin Liu
Peripheral nerve injury therapy in the clinic remains less than satisfactory. The gold standard of treatment for long peripheral nerve defects is autologous nerve grafts; however, numerous clinical complications are associated with this treatment. As tissue engineering has developed, tissue-engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) have shown potential applications as alternatives to autologous nerve grafts. To verify the important role of the biomimetic pathway of fascicle design in TENGs, we designed an animal model to study the role of the precise matching of fascicles in the effectiveness of nerve function recovery...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914735/palliative-care-in-neuromuscular-diseases
#10
Marianne de Visser, David J Oliver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness. Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness, leading to pronounced and incapacitating physical disabilities. Most NMDs are not amenable to curative treatment and would thus qualify for palliative care. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a relentlessly progressive disease, which leads to death about 2 years after onset due to respiratory muscle weakness...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913287/cryptogenic-temporal-hollowing
#11
Ie Hyon Park, Heeyeon Kwon, Sang Wha Kim
Temporal hollowing is a common complication that occurs after coronal approach surgeries. However, temporal hollowing without previous nerve damage or trauma history is rare. Herein, we present a patient with cryptogenic temporal hollowing. A 22-year-old man without any history of craniofacial interventions or trauma presented with temporal hallowing. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed fatty degeneration of the left temporalis muscle. Electromyography and nerve conduction study showed no signs of neurologic abnormalities...
December 2016: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905498/effect-of-bimagrumab-on-thigh-muscle-volume-and-composition-in-men-with-casting-induced-atrophy
#12
Daniel S Rooks, Didier Laurent, Jens Praestgaard, Scott Rasmussen, Michael Bartlett, László B Tankó
BACKGROUND: Patients experiencing disuse atrophy report acute loss of skeletal muscle mass which subsequently leads to loss of strength and physical capacity. In such patients, especially the elderly, complete recovery remains a challenge even with improved nutrition and resistance exercise. This study aimed to explore the clinical potential of bimagrumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the activin type II receptor, for the recovery of skeletal muscle volume from disuse atrophy using an experimental model of lower extremity immobilization...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899845/upwelling-derived-oceanographic-conditions-impact-growth-performance-and-growth-related-gene-expression-in-intertidal-fish
#13
Eduardo N Fuentes, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Oscar Almarza, Katterinne Mendez, Juan Antonio Valdés, Alfredo Molina, Jose Pulgar
Growth is one of the main biological processes in aquatic organisms that is affected by environmental fluctuations such as upwelling (characterized by food-rich waters). In fish, growth is directly related with skeletal muscle increase; which represents the largest tissue of body mass. However, the effects of upwelling on growth, at the physiological and molecular level, are unknown. This study used Girella laevifrons (one of the most abundant intertidal fish in Eastern South Pacific) as a biological model, considering animals from upwelling (U) and non-upwelling (NU) areas...
September 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899755/nad-in-aging-molecular-mechanisms-and-translational-implications
#14
REVIEW
Evandro F Fang, Sofie Lautrup, Yujun Hou, Tyler G Demarest, Deborah L Croteau, Mark P Mattson, Vilhelm A Bohr
The coenzyme NAD(+) is critical in cellular bioenergetics and adaptive stress responses. Its depletion has emerged as a fundamental feature of aging that may predispose to a wide range of chronic diseases. Maintenance of NAD(+) levels is important for cells with high energy demands and for proficient neuronal function. NAD(+) depletion is detected in major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, cardiovascular disease and muscle atrophy. Emerging evidence suggests that NAD(+) decrements occur in various tissues during aging, and that physiological and pharmacological interventions bolstering cellular NAD(+) levels might retard aspects of aging and forestall some age-related diseases...
September 9, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899595/peripheral-nerve-pathology-at-fixed-stage-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-with-respiratory-distress-type-1
#15
Azusa Ikeda, Sumimasa Yamashita, Yu Tsuyusaki, Mio Tanaka, Yukichi Tanaka, Akihiro Hashiguchi, Hiroshi Takashima, Tomohide Goto
Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is characterized by severe respiratory failure due to diaphragmatic paralysis and distal muscular weakness in early infancy. After an initial decline in respiratory state and motor function until 1-2years of age, residual capabilities reach a plateau. We report the peripheral neuropathological findings of a patient with SMARD1 at 1year and 1month of age, when his muscle strength and respiratory symptoms had deteriorated and then stabilized for several months...
September 9, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899515/the-water-extract-of-liuwei-dihuang-possesses-multi-protective-properties-on-neurons-and-muscle-tissue-against-deficiency-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein
#16
Yu-Ting Tseng, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Wei-Fang Liang, Fang-Rong Chang, Yi-Ching Lo
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895461/skeletal-muscle-atrophy-and-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Bahar Shahidi, Sameer B Shah, Mary Esparza, Brian Patrick Head, Sam Ward
Atrophy is thought to be a primary mode of muscle loss in neuromuscular injuries. The differential effects of central and peripheral injuries on atrophy and degeneration/regeneration in skeletal muscle tissue have not been well described. This study investigated skeletal muscle atrophy and degeneration/regeneration in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eight 8-month old wild type C57BL6 mice underwent either a sham craniotomy or TBI targeting the motor cortex. Atrophy (Fiber Area; FA) and degeneration/regeneration (Centralized Nuclei proportions; CN) of the Soleus and Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscles were measured 2 months post injury...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894789/impact-of-the-mk-vi-skinsuit-on-skin-microbiota-of-terrestrial-volunteers-and-an-international-space-station-bound-astronaut
#18
Richard A Stabler, Helena Rosado, Ronan Doyle, David Negus, Philip A Carvil, Juan G Kristjánsson, David A Green, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Cadi Davies, Andreas Mogensen, Jonathan Scott, Peter W Taylor
Microgravity induces physiological deconditioning due to the absence of gravity loading, resulting in bone mineral density loss, atrophy of lower limb skeletal and postural muscles, and lengthening of the spine. SkinSuit is a lightweight compression suit designed to provide head-to-foot (axial) loading to counteract spinal elongation during spaceflight. As synthetic garments may impact negatively on the skin microbiome, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon procedures to define bacterial skin communities at sebaceous and moist body sites of five healthy male volunteers undergoing SkinSuit evaluation...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893408/inflammatory-myopathy-associated-with-antimitochondrial-antibodies-a-distinct-phenotype-with-cardiac-involvement
#19
Jemima Albayda, Aamna Khan, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Andrea M Corse, Julie J Paik, Lisa Christopher-Stine
OBJECTIVE: In the context of clinical evaluations performed on our prospective myositis cohort, we noted a striking association of severe cardiac disease in myositis patients with antimitochondrial antibodies. We sought to review all cases of antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) associated myositis in our cohort to describe the clinical features of this disease subset. METHODS: We identified 7 patients with confirmed antimitochondrial antibodies who presented as an inflammatory myopathy...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892648/long-term-outcomes-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-using-either-synthetics-with-remnant-preservation-or-hamstring-autografts-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#20
Tianwu Chen, Peng Zhang, Jiwu Chen, Yinghui Hua, Shiyi Chen
BACKGROUND: The optimal graft choice of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes, especially the long-term cumulative failure rate, of ACL reconstruction using either synthetics with remnant preservation or hamstring autografts (4-strand semitendinosus and gracilis tendons). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: A total of 133 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction (synthetics: n = 43; hamstring autografts: n = 90) between July 2004 and December 2007 were included...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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