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Casein protein

N De Neve, B Vlaeminck, F Gadeyne, E Claeys, P Van der Meeren, V Fievez
Previously, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linseed oil were effectively protected (>80%) against biohydrogenation through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated protein crosslinking of an emulsion, prepared with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extract from potato tuber peelings. However, until now, emulsions of only 2 wt% oil have been successfully protected, which implies serious limitations both from a research perspective (e.g. in vivo trials) as well as for further upscaling toward practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the oil/PPO ratio...
March 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Lie Wang, Giri Kumar Chandaka, Robert C Foehring, Joseph C Callaway, William E Armstrong
Oxytocin (OT) neurons exhibit larger afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) following spike trains during pregnancy and lactation, when these neurons burst and release more OT. Calcium-dependent AHPs mediated by SK channels show this plasticity, and are reduced when the channel is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and increased when dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), by altering Ca2+ sensitivity. We compared AHP currents in supraoptic OT neurons after CK2 inhibition with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), or PP1-PP2A inhibition with okadaic acid (OA) focusing on the peak current at 100 ms representing the SK-mediated, medium AHP (ImAHP )...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Katy Billot, Charlène Coquil, Benoit Villiers, Béatrice Josselin-Foll, Nathalie Desban, Claire Delehouze, Nassima Oumata, Yannick Le Meur, Alessandra Boletta, Thomas Weimbs, Melanie Grosch, Ralph Witzgall, Sophie Saunier, Evelyne Fischer, Marco Pontoglio, Alain Fautrel, Michal Mrug, Darren Paul Wallace, Pamela V Tran, Marie Trudel, Nikolay O Bukanov, Oxana Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya, Laurent Meijer
Following the discovery of (R)-roscovitine's beneficial effects in three polycystic kidney disease (PKD) mouse models, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) inhibitors are investigated as potential treatments. We have used various affinity chromatography approaches to identify the molecular targets of roscovitine and its more potent analogue (S)-CR8 in human and murine polycystic kidneys. These methods revealed casein kinases 1 (CK1) as additional targets of the two drugs. CK1ε expression at the mRNA and protein levels is enhanced in polycystic kidneys of 11 different PKD mouse models, as well as in human polycystic kidneys...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Fotis Spyropoulos, Daniel Kurukji, Phil Taylor, Ian T Norton
Aside from single active microencapsulation, there is growing interest in designing structures for the co-encapsulation and co-delivery of multiple species. Although currently achievable within solid systems, significant challenges exist in realising such functionality in liquid formulations. The present study reports on a novel microstructural strategy that enables the co-encapsulation and co-release of two actives from oil-in-water emulsions. This is realised through the fabrication of sodium caseinate/chitosan (NaCAS/CS) complexes that in tandem function as encapsulants of one active (hydrophilic) but also as ('Pickering-like') stabilisers to emulsion droplets containing a secondary active (hydrophobic)...
March 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon
Offspring of female rats fed either a casein (CAS) diet or a low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) diet were compared in an animal model of chronic ethanol consumption to investigate whether maternal diet regulates the adaptive responses of offspring to postnatal ethanol exposure and potentially affects the development of liver disease in later life. Female rats were fed either a CAS or an SPI diet before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring from the same litter were pair-fed either a control or ethanol diet for six weeks (CAS/CON, CAS/EtOH, SPI/CON, and SPI/EtOH groups)...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Massimiliano Magro, Mattia Zaccarin, Giovanni Miotto, Laura Da Dalt, Davide Baratella, Piero Fariselli, Gianfranco Gabai, Fabio Vianello
Surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) are able to recognize and bind selected proteins in complex biological systems, forming a hard protein corona. Upon a 5-min incubation in bovine whey from mastitis-affected cows, a significant enrichment of a single peptide characterized by a molecular weight at 4338 Da originated from the proteolysis of aS1 -casein was observed. Notably, among the large number of macromolecules in bovine milk, the detection of this specific peptide can hardly be accomplished by conventional analytical techniques...
March 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Zaheer Ul-Haq, Sajda Ashraf, Majdi M Bkhaitan
Casein kinase-II, a member of protein kinase family, plays significant role in different cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, gene expression and embryogenesis. Being a potent suppressor of apoptosis, it serves as a significant link for its association with various types of malignancies such as colorectal and breast cancer. To overcome its pathological role in various cancerous diseases, CK-II procures great consideration as a therapeutic target. This study aimed at understanding the binding mechanism and structural properties of benzimidazole derivatives by utilizing various computational tools including docking simulation, 3-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships and molecular dynamic simulation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Saori Kataoka, Toshio Norikura, Shin Sato
Maternal malnutrition is known to increase the risk of obesity in offspring. We investigated whether green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation affects obesity-related fibrosis and inflammation in the kidney of high-fat-diet-fed adult offspring of protein-restricted-diet-fed dams during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant Wistar rats received diets containing 20% (normal-protein, NP) or 8% (low-protein, LP) casein, and they received 0%-, 0.12%- or 0.24%-GTE-containing LP diets (LP/LP, LP/LGT and LP/HGT, respectively) during lactation...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Kerry R Belton, Yuan Tian, Limin Zhang, Mallappa Anitha, Philip B Smith, Gary H Perdew, Andrew D Patterson
The liver and the mammary gland have complementary metabolic roles during lactation. Substrates (e.g., glucose and amino acids) synthesized by the liver are released into the circulation and are taken up by the mammary gland for milk production (e.g., lactose and the glycerol backbone of milk triglycerides). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been identified as a lactation regulator in mice, and its activation has been associated with myriad morphological, molecular, and functional defects such as stunted gland development, decreased milk production, and changes in gene expression...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Chie Furuta, Hitoshi Murakami
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: This study was aimed at understanding the relationship between plasma amino acids and protein malnutrition and at determining whether amino acid supplementation associated with malnutrition and growth improves linear growth in growing rats. METHODS: Body length and plasma amino acids were measured in young male rats that were fed the following diet for 3 weeks, mimicking a low and imbalanced protein diets based on maize, a major staple consumed in developing countries: a 70% calorically restricted cornmeal-based diet (C), C + micronutrients (CM), CM + casein (CMC), CM + soy protein (CMS) or CMS + 0...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Kirsten K Ahring, Allan M Lund, Erik Jensen, Thomas G Jensen, Karen Brøndum-Nielsen, Michael Pedersen, Allan Bardow, Jens Juul Holst, Jens F Rehfeld, Lisbeth B Møller
Introduction: Management of phenylketonuria (PKU) is achieved through low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet, supplemented with low-protein food and mixture of free-synthetic (FS) amino acid (AA). Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese-making and does not contain Phe. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 used in this study contained a small amount of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare absorption of CGMP-20 to FSAA with the aim of evaluating short-term effects on plasma AAs as well as biomarkers related to food intake...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Hu-Hui Chen, Li Qu, Zhi-Hong Xu, Jian-Kang Zhu, Hong-Wei Xue
Unveiling the signal transduction of phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) will be greatly helpful to improve plant responses to stressful environment. ABA signaling is perceived and mediated by multi-member receptor PYR/PYLs, while whose post-translational modification, especially phosphorylation, is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that Arabidopsis EL1-like (AEL) casein kinases regulate various physiological processes, phosphorylate PYR/PYLs and promote their ubiquitination and degradation, leading to the suppressed ABA responses...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Plant
Fouad Affane, Sabrine Louala, Nour El Imane Harrat, Fatima Bensalah, Hadjera Chekkal, Amine Allaoui, Myriem Lamri-Senhadji
AIMS: Fish by-products valorization on account of their richness in bioactive compounds may represent a better alternative to marine products with a view to economic profitability and sustainable development. In this study, we compared the effect of sardine by-product proteins (SBy-P), with those of the fillets (SF-P) or casein (Cas), on growth parameters, serum leptin level, lipids disorders, lipid peroxidation and reverse cholesterol transport, in diet-induced obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Obesity was induced by feeding rats a high-fat diet (20% sheep fat), during 12 weeks...
March 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Brandon Carter, Hasmukh Patel, David M Barbano, MaryAnne Drake
Traditionally most protein ingredients are sold as a powder due to transport ease and longer shelf life. Many high-protein powder ingredients such as milk protein concentrate with 85% protein and micellar casein concentrate have poor rehydration properties (e.g., solubility) after storage, which might limit their use. An alternative to the production of dried protein ingredients is the option to use liquid protein ingredients, which saves the cost of spray drying, but may also improve flavor and offer different functional properties...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
J Caballero-Villalobos, J M Perea, E Angón, R Arias, A Garzón
Milk coagulation, especially in small ruminant species, is often hard to evaluate, as coagulation traits are normally considered individually and several factors related to udder health might distort yield calculation. Due to the lack of studies about these factors, our objective was to determine milk coagulation efficiency (CE) and its determinants using a deterministic technical efficiency approach, an ordinary least square regression model, and ANOVA. Milk from 300 Manchega ewes was collected and analyzed for composition, milk coagulation properties, and hygienic quality...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Erxu Pi, Chengmin Zhu, Wei Fan, Yingying Huang, Liqun Qu, Yangyang Li, Qinyi Zhao, Feng Ding, Lijuan Qiu, Huizhong Wang, B W Poovaiah, Liqun Du
Salinity causes osmotic stress to crops and limits their productivity. To understand the mechanism underlying soybean salt tolerance, proteomics approach was used to identify phosphoproteins altered by NaCl treatment. Results revealed that 412 of the 4698 quantitatively analyzed phosphopeptides were significantly up-regulated upon salt treatment, including a phosphopeptide covering the serine 59 in the transcription factor GmMYB173. Our data showed that GmMYB173 is one of the three MYB proteins differentially phosphorylated upon salt treatment, and a substrate of the casein kinase-II...
March 1, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
D J S Ferreira, A A Pedroza, G R F Braz, M P Fernandes, C J Lagranha
Mitochondria are important organelles in eukaryotic organisms, wherein their capacity to produce energy vary among the tissues depending upon the amounts of oxygen consumed. Part of the oxygen consumed during ATP generation produces reactive oxygen species, which if not efficiently removed can trigger a systemic damage to molecular compounds characterized as oxidative stress. Several studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) are related to a plethora of neural disorders...
March 1, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Jordi Vilardell, Cristina Girardi, Oriano Marin, Giorgio Cozza, Lorenzo A Pinna, Maria Ruzzene
CK2 is a pleiotropic S/T protein kinase (formerly known as casein kinase 2) which is attracting increasing interest as therapeutic target, and the identification of its substrates is a crucial step in determining its involvement in different pathological conditions. We recently found that S131 of Akt2 (homologous to the well established CK2 target S129 of Akt1) is not phosphorylated by CK2 either in vitro or in vivo, although the consensus sequence recognized by CK2 (S/T-x-x-E/D/pS/pT) is conserved in it. Here, by exploiting synthetic peptides, in cell transfection experiments, and computational analysis, we show that a single sequence element, a T at position n+1, hampers phosphorylation, causing an α-helix structure organization which prevents the recognition of its own consensus by CK2...
2018: PloS One
Akira Wada, Chiaki Sonoda, Yuya Makino, Yuki Hama, Akihiro Nagahama, Daisuke Harada
In Japan, parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are frequently administered to patients in the postoperative short-term period. In these cases, amino acid-containing peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) solutions, amino acid-free maintenance solutions or combinations of the two are used. However, consensus regarding the most beneficial solution for these patients is lacking. Here, we examined the nutritional status and wound healing outcomes in protein-malnourished rats receiving postoperative administrations of PPN solution, maintenance solution or combinations of the two solutions...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Nao Sakurai, Shunsuke Nishio, Yuka Akiyama, Shinji Miyata, Kenzi Oshima, Daita Nadano, Tsukasa Matsuda
Casein is the major milk protein to nourish infants but, in certain population, it causes cow's milk allergy, indicating the uptake of antigenic casein and their peptides through the intestinal epithelium. Using human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, the apical-to-basal transepithelial transport of casein was investigated. Confocal microscopy using component-specific antibodies showed that αs1-casein antigens became detectable as punctate signals at the apical-side cytoplasm and reached to the cytoplasm at a tight-junction level within a few hours...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
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