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Casein protein

Jiaqian Pan, Shuangmei Tong, Lei Kang, Jing Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although available therapies can effectively inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in patients with active chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, therapeutic efficacy is limited because of potential drug resistance, and an inability to mediate viral clearance and to rectify immune impairment in CHB patients. This review will summarize the state-of-the-art for anti-HBV drugs and focus on potential drugs and targets under development and evaluation. RECENT FINDINGS: New developing drugs are evaluated for their antiviral effects in the areas of interference with the viral replication cycle, elimination of covalently closed circular DNA, modulation of host immunity and identification of the La protein and its regulator casein kinase as possible targets for the development of anti-HBV therapies...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Wei Lu, Alan L Kelly, Pierce Maguire, Hongzhou Zhang, C Stanton, Song Miao
In this study, an in vitro Caco-2 cell culture assay was employed to evaluate the correlation between emulsion structure and cellular uptake of encapsulated β-carotene. After 4h incubation, an emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate showed the highest intracellular accumulation of β-carotene (1.06 μg), followed by that stabilised with sodium caseinate (0.60 μg) and Tween® 80 (0.20 μg), which are 13-, 7.5-, and 2.5-fold higher than that of free β-carotene (0.08 μg), respectively. Emulsions with small droplet size (239±5 nm) showed a higher cellular uptake of β-carotene (1...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Li Zhang, Wei Song, Ru-Ping Liang, Jian-Ding Qiu
We design two artificial substrate peptides to synthesize blue-emissive Cu nanoclusters and red-emissive Au nanoclusters, respectively. In addition to the biomineralization function, these two peptides retain the biological activity to be phosphorylated by protein kinase and digested by carboxypeptidase Y. In the absence of protein kinase, the peptides capped on the nanoclusters suffer consecutive exocleavage by carboxypeptidase Y, resulting in oxidation and thus fluorescence quenching of the nanoclusters due to the losing of peptide protection...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Chih-Wei Chen, Chi-Yue Chang, Shu-Hua Chiang
In the present study, we investigated the effect of bovine colostrums on inhibition of DNA oxidative damage and low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro. Results showed that whey and skimmed milk exhibited not only higher inhibitory activities of oxidative damage of deoxyribose but also an inhibitory effect on the breakdown of supercoiled DNA into open circular DNA and linear DNA. The quantities of 8-OH-2'-dG formed under whey, caseins and skimmed milk treatment were 0.24, 0.24 and 1.24 μg/mL, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yong-Hui Wang, Yang Yuan, Xiao-Quan Yang, Jin-Mei Wang, Jian Guo, Yuan Lin
The aims of this work were to construct corn protein hydrolysate (CPH)-based curcumin nanoparticles (Cur NPs) and to compare the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of the Cur NPs stabilized CPH and sodium caseinate (NaCas) respectively. The results indicated that Cur solubility could be considerably improved after the Cur NPs fabrication. The spectroscopy results demonstrated that the solubilization of Cur should be attributed to its complexation with CPH or NaCas. The Cur NPs exhibited good colloidal stability after 1 week's storage but showed smaller (40 nm) size in CPH than in NaCas (100 nm)...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Samiha Mhamdi, Naourez Ktari, Sawssen Hajji, Moncef Nasri, Alya Sellami Kamoun
The present study was undertaken to characterize the extracellular thermostable serine alkaline proteases from newly actinomycete strain Micromonospora chaiyaphumensis S103 and to describe their evaluation in commercial detergents and shrimp waste deproteinization. This proteolytic crude extract was active and stable in alkaline solution. It was extremely stable in the pH range of 5.0-12.0. The optimum pH and temperature were 8.0 and 70°C, respectively, using casein as a substrate. The thermoactivity and thermostability of proteases were enhanced by the addition of 5mM Ca(2+)...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Maria A Fontenele, Maria do S R Bastos, Karina M O Dos Santos, Marcelo P Bemquerer, Antonio S do Egito
Coalho cheese of Ceará and the Jaguaribe region of Brazil has been studied to determine its peptide profile. Peptides generated by the action of peptidases upon cheese proteins were separated by reverse-phase HPLC to give 28 fractions. Peptide sequencing after MS/MS fragmentation enabled the identification of 116 different peptides; 74 of them originated from β-casein, 4 from βA2-casein, 4 from βA3-casein, 25 from αS1-casein, 5 from αS2-casein, and 4 from κ-casein. Phosphorylated peptides were identified, one from αS1-casein and 17 from β-casein...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Laura Acevedo-Pacheco, Sergio O Serna-Saldívar
BACKGROUND: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Jie-Hua Chen, Jia Song, Yan Chen, Qiang Ding, Anfang Peng, Limei Mao
Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using rat models. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups and given diets containing one of the following proteins for 12 weeks: casein (CAS, control diet), soy protein (SOY), and gluten-soy mixed protein (GSM)...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Xing Ke, Jingshun Zhang, Shiyun Lai, Qi Chen, Yu Zhang, Yirong Jiang, Weimin Mo, Yiping Ren
The aim of the study was to develop a method for quantification of cow's whey and whole milk powder in goat or sheep milk products including infant formula. A ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneous quantification of four caseins and two major whey proteins by detecting their signature peptides, which were able to act as markers for differentiating goat or sheep from cow whey and whole milk powder in infant formulas. The signature peptides were screened based on the computational prediction by Biolynx software, and confirmed by database searching after analysis of liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS)...
October 19, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Joseph F O'Grady, Laura S Hoelters, Martin T Swain, David C Wilcockson
BACKGROUND: Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species...
2016: PeerJ
Ferda Hoşgörler, Didem Keleş, Serpil Tanrıverdi-Akhisaroğlu, Şeniz İnanç, Mustafa Akhisaroğlu, Ülker Cankurt, Zekiye Aydoğdu, Ahmet Deniz Uçar, Oğuz Çetinayak, Gülgün Oktay, Sevil Gönenç Arda
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors decrease inflammation in normal tissues and suppress cancer progress in normal tissues. Valproic acid (VA) and doxycycline (DX) are MMP inhibitors that have radio-protective effects. Their ability to inhibit MMPs in irradiated tissue is unknown and the role of MMPs in radio-protective effects has not been tested to date. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine whether administration of VA and DX to rats before irradiation affects tissue inflammation and apoptosis in the early phase of radiation, and whether the effect of these drugs is mediated by MMP inhibition...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Asmaa R Abdel-Hamed, Dina M Abo-Elmatty, Juergen Wiegel, Noha M Mesbah
An extracellular, halophilic, alkalithermophilic serine protease from the halo-alkaliphilic Alkalibacillus sp. NM-Da2 was purified to homogeneity by ethanol precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protease was a monomeric enzyme with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa and exhibited maximal activity at 2.7 M NaCl, pH(55 °C) 9 and 56 °C. The protease showed great temperature stability, retaining greater than 80 % of initial activity after 2 h incubation at 55 °C. The protease was also extremely pH tolerant, retaining 80 % of initial activity at pH(55 °C) 10...
October 18, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Ahmad Bani-Jaber, Iyad Alshawabkeh, Samaa Abdullah, Imad Hamdan, Adel Ardakani, Maha Habash
Due to its unique properties, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, high amphiphilic property, and micelle formation, casein (CS) has been increasingly studied for drug delivery. We used CS as a drug carrier in solid dispersions (SDs) and evaluated the effect of its degradation by trypsin on drug dissolution from the dispersions. SDs of CS and mefenamic acid (MA) were prepared by physical mixing, kneading, and coprecipitation methods. In comparison to pure MA, the dispersions were evaluated for drug-protein interaction, loss of drug crystalinity, and drug morphology by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy...
October 17, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Cuiling Wu, Dan Liu, Xinghao Yang, Ribang Wu, Jiang Zhang, Jiafeng Huang, Hailun He
Pseudoalteromonas sp. CSN423, a marine strain, can express a major protease designated as E423 and it was secreted into the supernatant. To improve the protease E423 yield, Pseudoalteromonas sp. CSN423 was subjected to mutagenesis using UV irradiation. Mutant strain with 5.1-fold higher protease yield was isolated and named as Pseudoalteromonas sp. CSN423-M. Three protease bands were detected by zymography with casein as substrate, and results of mass spectrometry (MS) showed that two lower molecular weight protein bands were the same protease but with different mature forms...
October 17, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Aslaug Drotningsvik, Svein A Mjøs, Daniela M Pampanin, Rasa Slizyte, Ana Carvajal, Tore Remman, Ingmar Høgøy, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen
The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Delphine Vincent, Aaron Elkins, Mark R Condina, Vilnis Ezernieks, Simone Rochfort
Cow's milk is an important source of proteins in human nutrition. On average, cow's milk contains 3.5% protein. The most abundant proteins in bovine milk are caseins and some of the whey proteins, namely beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and serum albumin. A number of allelic variants and post-translationally modified forms of these proteins have been identified. Their occurrence varies with breed, individuality, stage of lactation, and health and nutritional status of the animal. It is therefore essential to have reliable methods of detection and quantitation of these proteins...
2016: PloS One
Jinwoo Ma, Jaehun Lee, Sang Sub Han, Kyu Hwan Oh, Ki Tae Nam, Jeong-Yun Sun
Protein-based hydrogels have received attention for biomedical applications and tissue engineering because they are biocompatible and abundant. However, the poor mechanical properties of these hydrogels remain a hurdle for practical use. We have developed a highly stretchable and notch-insensitive hydrogel by integrating casein micelles into polyacrylamide (PAAm) networks. In the casein-PAAm hybrid gels, casein micelles and polyacrylamide chains synergistically enhance the mechanical properties. Casein-PAAm hybrid gels are highly stretchable, stretching to more than 35 times their initial length under uniaxial tension...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Huei-Fen Jheng, Motohiko Hirotsuka, Tsuyoshi Goto, Masayuki Shibata, Yasuki Matsumura, Teruo Kawada
SCOPE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Here, we examined the effect of long-term consumption of a low-fat soy milk powder (LFSMP) on the diabetic kidney structure and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: KKAy mice were fed a casein- LFSMP-or high-fat soy mixture powder (HFSMP)-based diet for 4 months. Plasma and urine were subjected to a biochemical assay every 2-4 weeks. Renal morphology and protein expression were evaluated by histochemical staining and western blots...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xiao-Peng Wang, Xin-Huai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Glycation of food proteins via the Maillard reaction is widely studied in the recent years; however, saccharide amount connected into proteins is usually not determined. An enzymatic galactose assay was proposed firstly in this study to detect lactose glycation extents of caseinate and soybean protein isolate (SPI) during the Maillard reaction at two temperatures and different times. RESULTS: The separated glycated proteins were hydrolyzed to release galactose necessary for the enzymatic assay and glycation calculation...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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