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in vivo imaging pneumonia

Hanaa Shafiek, Federico Fiorentino, Borja G Cosio, Ana Kersul, Luc Thiberville, Cristina Gómez, Melchor Riera, Maria L Martín, Rocio Martínez, Maria A Noguera, Alvar Agustí, Jaume Sauleda
BACKGROUND: Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a novel technique that provides in vivo microscopic imaging of the distal lung. We hypothesized that the intra-alveolar exudates characterizing Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) can be identified by pCLE in vivo and help in its diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the usefulness of pCLE for the in vivo diagnosis of PJP. METHODS: Thirty-two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with new pulmonary infiltrates and fever were studied using pCLE...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Brandon L Hatcher, Joanetha Y Hale, David E Briles
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and neurological sequelae in children worldwide. Acute bacterial meningitis is widely considered to result from bacteremia that leads to blood-brain barrier breakdown and bacterial dissemination throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Previously, we showed that pneumococci can gain access to the CNS through a nonhematogenous route without peripheral blood infection. This access is thought to occur when the pneumococci in the upper sinus follow the olfactory nerves and enter the CNS through the olfactory bulbs...
September 2016: Infection and Immunity
Chia-Yu Chang, Hui-Jen Lin, Bor-Ran Li, Yaw-Kuen Li
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a penicillin-sensitive bacterium, is recognized as a major cause of pneumonia and is treated clinically with penicillin-based antibiotics. The rapid increase in resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics affects 450 million people globally and results in 4 million deaths every year. To unveil the mechanism of resistance of S. pneumoniae is thus an important issue to treat streptococcal disease that might consequently save millions of lives around the world. In this work, we isolated a streptococci-conserved L-ascorbate 6-phosphate lactonase, from S...
2016: PloS One
Megan V Jackson, Thomas J Morrison, Declan F Doherty, Daniel F McAuley, Michael A Matthay, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Cecilia M O'Kane, Anna D Krasnodembskaya
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been reported to improve bacterial clearance in preclinical models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. The mechanism of this effect is not fully elucidated yet. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the antimicrobial effect of MSC in vivo depends on their modulation of macrophage phagocytic activity which occurs through mitochondrial transfer. We established that selective depletion of alveolar macrophages (AM) with intranasal (IN) administration of liposomal clodronate resulted in complete abrogation of MSC antimicrobial effect in the in vivo model of Escherichia coli pneumonia...
August 2016: Stem Cells
Mariette Barbier, F Heath Damron
Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions...
2016: PloS One
Shahper N Khan, Asad U Khan
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a severe threat to community wellbeing. Conventional antibiotics are getting progressively more ineffective as a consequence of resistance, making it imperative to realize improved antimicrobial options. In this review we emphasized the microorganisms primarily reported of being resistance, referred as ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae) accentuating their capacity to "escape" from routine antimicrobial regimes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yongan Xu, Lin Ge, Osama Abdel-Razek, Sumeet Jain, Zhiyong Liu, Yucai Hong, Gary Nieman, Francis Johnson, Lorne M Golub, Robert N Cooney, Guirong Wang
Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia frequently resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Surfactant protein B (SP-B) gene expresses two proteins involved in lowering surface tension and host defense. Genotyping studies demonstrate a significant association between human SP-B genetic variants and ARDS. Curcumins have been shown to attenuate host inflammation in many sepsis models. Our hypothesis is that functional differences of SP-B variants and treatment with curcumin (CMC2...
April 2016: Shock
Julia Désirée Boehme, Sabine Pietkiewicz, Inna Lavrik, Andreas Jeron, Dunja Bruder
PURPOSE: Chronic lung inflammation commonly induces a multitude of structural and functional adaptations within the lung tissue and airspaces. Yet the impact of a persistent inflammatory environment on alveolar macrophages is still incompletely understood. Here, we examined morphology and function of alveolar macrophages in a transgenic mouse model of chronic lung disease. METHODS: Imaging flow cytometry, flow cytometry, and microscopic evaluation of alveolar macrophages isolated from healthy and inflamed lungs were performed...
December 2015: Lung
Gunnar N Schroeder, Philipp Aurass, Clare V Oates, Edward W Tate, Elizabeth L Hartland, Antje Flieger, Gad Frankel
Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial pathogen that thrives in alveolar macrophages, causing a severe pneumonia. The virulence of L. pneumophila depends on its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which delivers more than 300 effector proteins into the host, where they rewire cellular signaling to establish a replication-permissive niche, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV requires substantial redirection of vesicle trafficking and remodeling of intracellular membranes. In order to achieve this, several T4SS effectors target regulators of membrane trafficking, while others resemble lipases...
October 2015: Infection and Immunity
Mick M Welling, Anton Bunschoten, Joeri Kuil, Rob G H H Nelissen, Freek J Beekman, Tessa Buckle, Fijs W B van Leeuwen
In trauma and orthopedic surgery, infection of implants has a major impact on the outcome for patients. Infections may develop either during the initial implantation or during the lifetime of an implant. Both infections, as well as aseptic loosening of the implant, are reasons for revision of the implants. Therefore, discrimination between aseptic-mechanical-loosening and septic-bacterial-loosening of implants is critical during selection of a patient-tailored treatment policy. Specific detection and visualization of infections is a challenge because it is difficult to discriminate infections from inflammation...
May 20, 2015: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Shirui Tan, Changpei Gan, Rongpeng Li, Yan Ye, Shuang Zhang, Xu Wu, Yi Yan Yang, Weimin Fan, Min Wu
Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial infections and is increasingly becoming multiple drug resistant. However, the molecular pathogenesis of Kp in causing tissue injury and dysregulated host defense remains elusive, further dampening the development of novel therapeutic measures. We have previously screened a series of synthetic antimicrobial beta-sheet forming peptides and identified a peptide (IRIKIRIK; ie, IK8L) with a broad range of bactericidal activity and low cytotoxicity in vitro...
2015: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Maria G Gutierrez, Tia L Pfeffer, Jonathan M Warawa
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the bacterial agent of melioidosis, causes disease through inhalation of infectious particles, and is classified as a Tier 1 Select Agent. Optical diagnostic imaging has demonstrated that murine respiratory disease models are subject to significant upper respiratory tract (URT) colonization. Because human melioidosis is not associated with URT colonization as a prominent presentation, we hypothesized that lung-specific delivery of B. pseudomallei may enhance our ability to study respiratory melioidosis in mice...
January 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael J Mina, Keith P Klugman, Jason W Rosch, Jonathan A McCullers
BACKGROUND: Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) increases susceptibility to respiratory bacterial infections, resulting in increased bacterial carriage and complications such acute otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Recently, vaccination with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) was reported to enhance subclinical bacterial colonization within the nasopharynx, similar to IAV. Although LAIV does not predispose to bacterial pneumonia, whether it may alter bacterial transmigration toward the middle ear, where it could have clinically relevant implications, has not been investigated...
July 15, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chun-Ru Hsu, Yi-Jiun Pan, Ju-Yun Liu, Chun-Tang Chen, Tzu-Lung Lin, Jin-Town Wang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important pathogen that causes hospital-acquired septicemia and is associated with the recent emergence of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Clinical typing suggests that K. pneumoniae infections originate from the gastrointestinal reservoir. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we have sought to determine how K. pneumoniae penetrates the intestinal barrier. We identified that bacteremia and PLA clinical isolates adhered to and invaded intestinal epithelial cells...
February 2015: Infection and Immunity
Michael Völker, Philipp Ehses, Stefan Weick, Felix Arno Breuer, Martin Blaimer, Christian Hintze, Jürgen Biederer, Peter Michael Jakob
OBJECTIVE: To optimize a radial turbo spin-echo sequence for motion-robust morphological lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in free respiration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A versatile multi-shot radial turbo spin-echo (rTSE) sequence is presented, using a modified golden ratio-based reordering designed to prevent coherent streaking due to data inconsistencies from physiological motion and the decaying signal. The point spread function for a moving object was simulated using a model for joint respiratory and cardiac motion with a concomitant T2 signal decay and with rTSE acquisition using four different reordering techniques...
June 2015: Magma
Edward A Weinstein, Alvaro A Ordonez, Vincent P DeMarco, Allison M Murawski, Supriya Pokkali, Elizabeth M MacDonald, Mariah Klunk, Ronnie C Mease, Martin G Pomper, Sanjay K Jain
The Enterobacteriaceae are a family of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria that normally inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are the most common cause of Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. In addition to causing serious multidrug-resistant, hospital-acquired infections, a number of Enterobacteriaceae species are also recognized as biothreat pathogens. As a consequence, new tools are urgently needed to specifically identify and localize infections due to Enterobacteriaceae and to monitor antimicrobial efficacy...
October 22, 2014: Science Translational Medicine
Jamie Rylance, Duncan G Fullerton, James Scriven, Abdullah N Aljurayyan, David Mzinza, Steve Barrett, Adam K A Wright, Daniel G Wootton, Sarah J Glennie, Katy Baple, Amy Knott, Kevin Mortimer, David G Russell, Robert S Heyderman, Stephen B Gordon
Three billion people are exposed to household air pollution from biomass fuel use. Exposure is associated with higher incidence of pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Understanding mechanisms underlying these defects would improve preventive strategies. We used human alveolar macrophages obtained from healthy Malawian adults exposed naturally to household air pollution and compared them with human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed in vitro to respirable-sized particulates. Cellular inflammatory response was assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 production in response to particulate challenge; phagosomal function was tested by uptake and oxidation of fluorescence-labeled beads; ingestion and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured by microscopy and quantitative culture...
May 2015: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Federico Iovino, Henrik Gradstedt, Jetta J Bijlsma
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes serious invasive diseases, such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, with high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Before causing invasive disease, S. pneumoniae encounters cellular barriers, which are often composed of endothelial cells, like the alveolar-capillary barrier and the blood-brain barrier. S. pneumoniae adheres to endothelial cells and may invade them, which requires an efficient host response to the intracellular bacteria...
2014: MBio
Yang Liu, Xi He, Yuyang Kuang, Sai An, Chenyu Wang, Yubo Guo, Haojun Ma, Jinning Lou, Chen Jiang
Achieving effective gene therapy for glioma depends on gene delivery systems. The gene delivery system should be able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and further target glioma at its early stage. Active brain tumor targeted delivery can be achieved using the "Trojan horse" technology, which involves either endogenous ligands or extraneous substances that can recognize and bind to specific receptors in target sites. This method facilitates receptor-mediated endocytosis to cross the BBB and enter into glioma cells...
October 6, 2014: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Amy Miele, Kevin Dhaliwal, Nicole Du Toit, John T Murchison, Catharine Dhaliwal, Harriet Brooks, Sionagh H Smith, Nik Hirani, Tobias Schwarz, Chris Haslett, William A Wallace, Bruce C McGorum
BACKGROUND: Donkey pulmonary fibrosis (DPF) is a spontaneous syndrome of aged donkeys with a high prevalence (35%). No previous detailed characterization of DPF has been performed. We sought to determine the similarities between DPF and recognized patterns of human pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Whole lungs were collected from 32 aged donkeys at routine necropsy. Gross examination revealed pulmonary fibrosis in 19 donkeys (DPF cases), whereas 13 (control cases) had grossly normal lungs...
June 2014: Chest
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