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Nutritional supplement

Mengjing Wang, Jason Chou, Yongen Chang, Wei L Lau, Uttam Reddy, Connie M Rhee, Jing Chen, Chuanming Hao, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
In the management of patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), a low-protein diet usually refers to a diet with protein intake of 0.6 to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day) and should include at least 50% high-biologic-value protein. It may be supplemented with essential acids or nitrogen- free ketoanalogues if <0.6 g/kg/d. Low-protein diet can reduce proteinuria especially in non-diabetic CKD patients. In hypoalbuminemic patients it may lead to an increase in serum albumin level...
October 19, 2016: Panminerva Medica
Ana Rosa Cunha, Jenifer D'El-Rei, Fernanda Medeiros, Bianca Umbelino, Wille Oigman, Rhian M Touyz, Mario F Neves
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse association between serum magnesium and incidence of cardiovascular disease. Diuretics commonly cause hypomagneseamia. METHOD: We evaluated effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and vascular function in thiazide-treated hypertensive women in a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Hypertensive women (40-65 years) on hydrochlorothiazide and mean 24-h BP at least 130/80 mmHg were divided into placebo and supplementation (magnesium chelate 600 mg/day) groups...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jia-Ying Zhang, Ying Yin, Li Ni, Quan Long, Li You, Qian Zhang, Shan-Yan Lin, Jing Chen
Low-protein diet plus ketoacids (LPD+KA) has been reported to decrease proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. As over-activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to play a key role in the progression of CKD, the current study was performed to investigate the direct effects of LPD+KA on intrarenal RAS, independently of renal haemodynamics. In this study, 3/4 subtotal renal ablated rats were fed 18 % normal-protein diet (Nx-NPD), 6 % low-protein diet (Nx-LPD) or 5 % low-protein diet plus 1 % ketoacids (Nx-LPD+KA) for 12 weeks...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
A H Dezfoulian, H Aliarabi
There have been extensive studies in sheep and cattle considering cobalt (Co) supplementation and its effects on vitamin B12 concentrations in the body. However, there are limited studies on goats. The aim of this study was to compare two different sources of Co (sulfate v. glucoheptonate) at two different concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg dry matter) in goat kid nutrition, and to evaluate the effects of these supplements on performance, serum vitamin B12, blood biochemistry and rumen volatile fatty acids...
October 18, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Valentina A Andreeva, Valérie Deschamps, Benoît Salanave, Katia Castetbon, Charlotte Verdot, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Serge Hercberg
Despite some advantages over traditional methods, Web-based studies elicit concerns about generalizability. To address this issue, we compared dietary intakes between an electronic (e-) cohort study and a nationally representative survey. We studied 49,443 French volunteers aged 18-74 years recruited during 2009-2010 in the NutriNet-Santé Study, a general population-based e-cohort study. The Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; 2006-2007), a cross-sectional study with a nationally representative sample of 2,754 French adults aged 18-74 years, served as the reference data set...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Irene Fleur Kramer, Lex B Verdijk, Henrike M Hamer, Sjors Verlaan, Yvette C Luiking, Imre W K Kouw, Joan M Senden, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemarie P Gijsen, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Melanie Streicher, Michael Themessl-Huber, Karin Schindler, Cornel Christian Sieber, Michael Hiesmayr, Dorothee Volkert
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition in older persons is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Useful strategies to counteract malnutrition are nutritional interventions, such as fortified diets, oral nutritional supplements (ONS), tube feeding, and parenteral nutrition. Presently, it is not known if these strategies can reduce mortality risk of nursing home (NH) residents who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate if nutritional intake and interventions are associated with mortality in this specific population...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Gianni Biolo, Rado Pišot, Sara Mazzucco, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Stefano Lazzer, Bruno Grassi, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Joern Rittweger, Mladen Gasparini, Boštjan Šimunič, Marco Narici
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aging and experimental bed rest are associated with muscle atrophy and resistance to post-prandial stimulation of protein synthesis or anabolic resistance (AR). We have used in young and older adult volunteers, during short-term bed rest, a quick and non-invasive method, based on a single oral bolus of the stable isotope L[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (D5Phe), to determine post-prandial AR, defined as ratio between irreversible hydroxylation and incorporation into body protein of ingested phenylalanine...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Fernanda Ferreira Rios, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues de Freitas, Liana Codes, Genario Oliveira Santos Junior, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Raymundo Paraná
:  Introduction and aim. Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH), also known as hepatoportal sclerosis (HPS) is a disease of uncertain etiology. However, various pathophysiological mechanisms has been postulated, including chronic or recurrent infections and exposure to drugs or toxins. In this context, it appears to be of multifactorial etiology or resulting from a portal vascular endothelium aggression. It is important to consider whether the use of dietary supplements and herbs can trigger or contribute to the occurance of HPS...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Feryal Al-Saber, Waleed Aldosari, Mariam Alselaiti, Hesham Khalfan, Ahmed Kaladari, Ghulam Khan, George Harb, Riyadh Rehani, Sizuka Kudo, Aya Koda, Tohru Tanaka, Motowo Nakajima, Abdulla Darwish
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Sandi L Pruitt, Tammy Leonard, Lei Xuan, Richard Amory, Robin T Higashi, Oanh Kieu Nguyen, Carla Pezzia, Stephanie Swales
INTRODUCTION: Food insecurity is negatively associated with health; however, health needs may differ among people participating in food assistance programs. Our objectives were to characterize differences in health among people receiving different types of food assistance and summarize strategies for targeted recruitment and outreach of various food insecure populations. METHODS: We examined health status, behaviors, and health care access associated with food insecurity and receipt of food assistance among US adults aged 20 years or older using data from participants (N = 16,934) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 through 2010...
October 13, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Caroline Brammer, Sundus Yahya, Dawn Dawson, Carol Glaister, Susan B Merrick
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this feasibility study is to define the resource effectiveness of Cetuximab versus cisplatin given concomitantly with radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma within a NHS clinical oncology unit. METHODS: 20 Patients with stage 3 or 4 head and neck squamous cell cancers were randomised to receive either Cetuximab with radiotherapy (ERT) or cisplatin with radiotherapy (CRT) concurrent with external beam radiotherapy 70 Gy in 35 fractions on a 1:1 basis over a 12-month duration...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Ammar W Ashor, Shakir Chowdhury, Clio Oggioni, Othman Qadir, Kirsten Brandt, Abbas Ishaq, John C Mathers, Gabriele Saretzki, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Aging and obesity are associated with raised oxidative stress and a reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, with subsequent decline in insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. Inorganic nitrate is converted into NO via a 2-step reduction process and may be an effective nutritional intervention to modify vascular and metabolic functions. OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether inorganic nitrate supplementation improved glucose disposal and attenuated the acute effects of hyperglycemia on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular function in young and old obese participants...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Charlotte Mortensen, Camilla T Damsgaard, Hanne Hauger, Christian Ritz, Susan A Lanham-New, Taryn J Smith, Áine Hennessy, Kirsten Dowling, Kevin D Cashman, Mairead Kiely, Christian Mølgaard
BACKGROUND: Children in northern latitudes are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency during winter because of negligible dermal vitamin D3 production. However, to our knowledge, the dietary requirement for maintaining the nutritional adequacy of vitamin D in young children has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain winter serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above the proposed cutoffs (25, 30, 40, and 50 nmol/L) in white Danish children aged 4-8 y living at 55°N...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Susannah L Woodd, Paul Kelly, John R Koethe, George Praygod, Andrea M Rehman, Molly Chisenga, Joshua Siame, Douglas C Heimburger, Henrik Friis, Suzanne Filteau
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa are malnourished. We aimed to increase understanding of the factors affecting their high mortality, particularly in the high-risk period before ART initiation. METHODS: We analysed potential risk factors for mortality of Zambian and Tanzanian participants enrolled in the NUSTART clinical trial. Malnourished adults (n = 1815; body mass index [BMI] <18...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
You-Lin Tain, Wei-Chia Lee, Kay L H Wu, Steve Leu, Julie Y H Chan
Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Christopher C Waller, Malcolm D McLeod
In recent years the potential for anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports has increased due to the growing availability of "designer steroids". These compounds are readily accessible online in "dietary" or "nutritional" supplements and contain steroidal compounds which have never been tested or approved as veterinary agents. They typically have unusual structures or substitution and as a result may pass undetected through current anti-doping screening protocols, making them a significant concern for the integrity of the industry...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Bryan Dotson, Patrick Larabell, Jasmine U Patel, Kristoffer Wong, Lina Qasem, William Arthur, Chaim Leiberman, Peter Whittaker, Steven D Tennenberg
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Parenteral calcium is frequently administered to critically ill patients. However, animal studies demonstrate that calcium administration during critical illness heightens inflammation and leads to shock, organ dysfunction, and mortality. We sought to evaluate the association between calcium administration and adverse outcomes in critically ill patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort examined before and during a calcium gluconate shortage...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Somashekhar Marutirao Nimbalkar, Dipen Vasudev Patel, Ajay Gajanan Phatak
OBJECTIVE: Micronutrient deficiencies can lead to anemia, growth restriction, and poor motor and cognitive development. A clinical trial was planned to assess the impact of nutritional supplementation on cognitive measures in preschool children. Conducting clinical trials in children is difficult due to underlying laws, hesitation of the research community, and difficult enrollment. We carried out a questionnaire-based feasibility survey to assess the interest of parents towards participation in such a nutrition-based study...
2016: PloS One
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