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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534699/association-of-adipokines-interleukin-6-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-concentrations-with-clinical-characteristics-and-presence-of-spinal-syndesmophytes-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Laura Gonzalez-Lopez, Nicte S Fajardo-Robledo, A Miriam Saldaña-Cruz, Inocente V Moreno-Sandoval, David Bonilla-Lara, Soraya Zavaleta-Muñiz, Arnulfo Hernan Nava-Zavala, Paulina Hernandez-Cuervo, Alberto Rocha-Muñoz, Norma Alejandra Rodriguez-Jimenez, Maria L Vazquez-Villegas, J Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Mario Salazar-Paramo, Ernesto G Cardona-Muñoz, Jorge I Gamez-Nava
Objective To identify correlations of the serum leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations with the clinical characteristics, presence of spinal syndesmophytes, and body composition in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Forty-eight patients with AS were compared with 41 sex- and age-matched controls. Assessment included clinical characteristics and the presence of spinal syndesmophytes. The serum leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, and IL-6 concentrations were determined...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534168/father-s-obesity-programs-the-adipose-tissue-in-the-offspring-via-the-local-renin-angiotensin-system-and-mapks-pathways-especially-in-adult-male-mice
#2
Fernanda Ornellas, Isabele Bringhenti, Brenda Akemi N F Mattos, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
PURPOSE: Studies demonstrated the influence of mother's obesity on offspring. However, the father is also related to programming the future generation. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of father's obesity upon white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling, resulting in activation of signaling pathways and inflammation in male and female offspring. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received control diet (lean father group; 17% energy from lipids) or high-fat diet (obese father group; 49% energy from lipids) for 8 weeks before mating...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533960/body-composition-estimation-from-selected-slices-equations-computed-from-a-new-semi-automatic-thresholding-method-developed-on-whole-body-ct%C3%A2-scans
#3
Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Ján Dupej, Chiara Villa, Jaroslav Brůžek
BACKGROUND: Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532414/association-between-body-mass-index-and-firmicutes-bacteroidetes-ratio-in-an-adult-ukrainian-population
#4
Alexander Koliada, Ganna Syzenko, Vladislav Moseiko, Liudmyla Budovska, Kostiantyn Puchkov, Vyacheslav Perederiy, Yuriy Gavalko, Andriy Dorofeyev, Maryana Romanenko, Sergiy Tkach, Lyudmila Sineok, Oleh Lushchak, Alexander Vaiserman
BACKGROUND: Metagenomic studies confirm that obesity is associated with a composition of gut microbiota. There are some controversies, however, about the composition of gut microbial communities in obese individuals in different populations. To examine the association between body mass index and microbiota composition in Ukrainian population, fecal concentrations of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio were analyzed in 61 adult individuals...
May 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531773/impact-of-metabolic-syndrome-on-resting-energy-expenditure-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Carolina Q D Rodrigues, Jacqueline A P Santos, Beata M R Quinto, Mauro S M Marrocos, Andrei A Teixeira, Cássio J O Rodrigues, Marcelo C Batista
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Resting energy expenditure (REE) changes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may contribute to mortality increase. The obesity and inflammation is associated with high REE and when not compensated by adequate intake, may determine an unfavorable clinical outcome in this population. We aimed to evaluate the influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on REE in CKD patients. METHODS: One hundred eighty-three patients were stratified according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and divided in groups: without CKD (GFR > 60 ml/min/1...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530517/contributions-of-body-composition-characteristics-to-critical-power-and-anaerobic-work-capacity
#6
M Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E Eastman, Brian J Wallace, Jody L Clasey, Haley C Bergstrom
Critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC) from the CP test represent distinct parameters related to metabolic characteristics of the whole body and active muscle tissue, respectively. PURPOSE: This study examined the contribution of whole body composition characteristics and local lean mass to further elucidate the differences in metabolic characteristics between CP and AWC as they relate to whole body and local factors. METHODS: Fifteen, anaerobically trained males were assessed for whole body (% body fat [%BF] and mineral-free, lean mass [LBM]) and local mineral-free thigh lean mass (TLM) composition characteristic...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528793/comparison-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-bioimpedance-in-assessing-body-composition-and-nutrition-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#7
Velena Popovic, Bo Zerahn, James Goya Heaf
OBJECTIVE: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are characterized by protein malnutrition and muscle wasting. Reliable, easy, and cheap methods for evaluating nutrition are desirable. Three methods are commonly available: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioimpedance (BI), and subjective global assessment (SGA).The objective of the study was to compare the previously mentioned methods for assessment of body composition and nutritional status in PD patients. DESIGN: The study is cross-sectional and consisted of 72 PD patients from a single center PD ambulatorium...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528340/evaluation-of-hypocaloric-diet-with-protein-supplementation-in-middle-aged-sarcopenic-obese-women-a-pilot-study
#8
Rosa Sammarco, Maurizio Marra, Maria Luisa Di Guglielmo, Marianna Naccarato, Franco Contaldo, Eleonora Poggiogalle, Lorenzo Maria Donini, Fabrizio Pasanisi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional program, which is characterized by a different modulation of proteins, in adult patients with sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: We studied 18 obese women aged 41-74 years. Obesity was diagnosed as fat mass > 34.8% and sarcopenia was defined when lean body mass was <90% of the subject's ideal fat free mass. All subjects were randomly assigned to different nutritional interventions: Hypocaloric diet plus placebo (A) and hypocaloric high-protein diet (1...
May 20, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527156/the-effect-of-aerobic-or-aerobic-strength-exercise-on-body-composition-and-functional-capacity-in-patients-with-bmi-%C3%A2-35-after-bariatric-surgery-a-randomized-control-trial
#9
Alireza Hassannejad, Alireza Khalaj, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Mastaneh Rajabian Tabesh, Zahra Alizadeh
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies suggested that bariatric surgery is the most effective and sustainable treatment method for morbid obesity in long term, but without changing in lifestyle, maintaining optimal weight loss is almost impossible. METHODS: Sixty morbid obese patients (BMI ≥ 35) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of bariatric surgery in order to compare the impact of two different exercise programs on body composition and functional capacity outcomes...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526377/orange-juice-allied-to-a-reduced-calorie-diet-results-in-weight-loss-and-ameliorates-obesity-related-biomarkers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Carolina Ribeiro, Grace Dourado, Thais Cesar
OBJECTIVE: Assumptions have linked orange juice (OJ) consumption with weight gain and adverse effects on health due to its sugar content; however, epidemiologic studies have not shown increased risk for overweight or obesity with the consumption of 100% OJ. The aim of this study was to verify whether the combination of a reduced-calorie diet (RCD) and 100% OJ contribute to weight loss, promote changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve diet quality in obese individuals. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with 78 obese patients (age 36 ± 1 y, body mass index [BMI] 33 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in two groups: Individuals in the OJ group submitted to an RCD that included OJ (500 mL/d), and individuals in the control group submitted to an RCD without OJ...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526141/total-parenteral-and-enteral-nutrition-in-the-icu-evolving-concepts
#11
REVIEW
Amir O Elhassan, Lien B Tran, Richard C Clarke, Sumit Singh, Alan D Kaye
Appropriate nutrition in the hospital setting, particularly in critically ill patients, has long been tied to improving clinical outcomes. During critical illness, inflammatory mediators and cytokines lead to the creation of a catabolic state to facilitate the use of endogenous energy sources to meet increased energy demands. This process results in increasing the likelihood of overfeeding. The literature has revealed exponential advances in understanding the molecular basis of nutritional support and evolution of clinical protocols aimed at treating artificial nutritional support as a therapeutic intervention, preventing loss of lean body mass and metabolic deterioration to improve clinical outcomes in the critically ill...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523992/nutrition-and-exercise-in-sarcopenia
#12
Stephen D Anton, Azumi Hida, Robert Mankowski, Andrew Layne, Lawrence Solberg, Arch G Mainous, Thomas W Buford
Sarcopenia is a debilitating condition that involves loss of muscle mass and function, which affects virtually everyone as they age, and can lead to frailty and ultimately disability. In growing recognition of the importance of both muscle strength and muscle mass relative to body size in contributing to functional decline, recent definitions have now incorporated grip strength and a correction for body mass as part of the key criteria that define sarcopenia. With this new definition, a much larger population of older adults are now at risk of sarcopenia...
December 27, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522764/obesity-induced-discrepancy-between-contractile-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-slow-and-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscles-of-female-obese-zucker-rats
#13
Luz M Acevedo, Ana I Raya, Rafael Ríos, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, Jose-Luis L Rivero
A clear picture of skeletal muscle adaptations to obesity and related comorbidities remains elusive. This study describes fiber-type characteristics (size, proportions, and oxidative enzyme activity) in two typical hind limb muscles with opposite structure and function in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lesser fiber diameter, fiber type composition, and histochemical succinic dehydrogenase activity (an oxidative marker) of muscle fiber types were assessed in slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (tibialis cranialis) muscles of obese Zucker rats, and compared with age- (16 weeks) and sex-matched (females) lean Zucker rats (N=16/group)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521886/lean-body-mass-is-the-predominant-anthropometric-risk-factor-for-atrial%C3%A2-fibrillation
#14
Morten Fenger-Grøn, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Lars Frost
BACKGROUND: Obesity is repeatedly emphasized as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). However, the underlying evidence may be questioned, as the obvious correlations between various anthropometric measures hamper identification of the characteristics that are biologically driving AF risk, and recent studies suggest that fat carries limited or no independent risk of AF. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess mutually adjusted associations among AF risk and height, weight, body mass index, hip and waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and bioelectrical impedance-derived measures of fat mass, lean body mass, and fat percentage...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518147/survivin-a-key-player-in-cancer-progression-increases-in-obesity-and-protects-adipose-tissue-stem-cells-from-apoptosis
#15
Miriam Ejarque, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carolina Serena, Gisela Pachón, Yaiza Núñez-Álvarez, Margarida Terrón-Puig, Enrique Calvo, Catalina Núñez-Roa, Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Francisco J Tinahones, Miguel Angel Peinado, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Adipose tissue (AT) has a central role in obesity-related metabolic imbalance through the dysregulated production of cytokines and adipokines. In addition to its known risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, obesity is also a major risk for cancer. We investigated the impact of obesity for the expression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein upregulated by adipokines and a diagnostic biomarker of tumor onset and recurrence. In a cross-sectional study of 111 subjects classified by body mass index, circulating levels of survivin and gene expression in subcutaneous AT were significantly higher in obese patients and positively correlated with leptin...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515477/cancer-cachexia-associates-with-a-systemic-autophagy-inducing-activity-mimicked-by-cancer-cell-derived-il-6-trans-signaling
#16
Kristine Pettersen, Sonja Andersen, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Joël Grosjean, Shinji Hatakeyama, Almaz N Tesfahun, Siver Moestue, Jana Kim, Unni Nonstad, Pål R Romundstad, Frank Skorpen, Sveinung Sørhaug, Tore Amundsen, Bjørn H Grønberg, Florian Strasser, Nathan Stephens, Dag Hoem, Anders Molven, Stein Kaasa, Kenneth Fearon, Carsten Jacobi, Geir Bjørkøy
The majority of cancer patients with advanced disease experience weight loss, including loss of lean body mass. Severe weight loss is characteristic for cancer cachexia, a condition that significantly impairs functional status and survival. The underlying causes of cachexia are incompletely understood, and currently no therapeutic approach can completely reverse the condition. Autophagy coordinates lysosomal destruction of cytosolic constituents and is systemically induced by starvation. We hypothesized that starvation-mimicking signaling compounds secreted from tumor cells may cause a systemic acceleration of autophagy during cachexia...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514721/impact-of-gh-administration-on-athletic-performance-in-healthy-young-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Kasper Hermansen, Mads Bengtsen, Michael Kjær, Peter Vestergaard, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: Illicit use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance-enhancing drug among athletes is prevalent, although the evidence of such effects in healthy, young subjects is sparse. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of published studies on the effect of GH administration on body composition, substrate metabolism, and athletic performance in healthy, young subjects. DESIGN: The English-language based databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, and eligible articles were reviewed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
May 10, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514618/aerobic-or-resistance-exercise-or-both-in-dieting-obese-older-adults
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dennis T Villareal, Lina Aguirre, A Burke Gurney, Debra L Waters, David R Sinacore, Elizabeth Colombo, Reina Armamento-Villareal, Clifford Qualls
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes frailty in older adults; however, weight loss might accelerate age-related loss of muscle and bone mass and resultant sarcopenia and osteopenia. METHODS: In this clinical trial involving 160 obese older adults, we evaluated the effectiveness of several exercise modes in reversing frailty and preventing reduction in muscle and bone mass induced by weight loss. Participants were randomly assigned to a weight-management program plus one of three exercise programs - aerobic training, resistance training, or combined aerobic and resistance training - or to a control group (no weight-management or exercise program)...
May 18, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513264/body-composition-analysis-by-using-bioelectrical-impedance-in-a-young-healthy-chinese-population-methodological-considerations
#19
Wei Chen, Hua Jiang, Jiong-Xian Yang, Hao Yang, Jing-Min Liu, Xiu-Yuan Zhen, Lian-Jun Feng, Jian-Chun Yu
OBJECTIVE: To develop a new bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) model for analyzing body composition by using isotope dilution, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference methods in young healthy Chinese populations. METHODS: Thirty healthy participants were enrolled. Their body composition was analyzed using BIA and 3 reference methods. We established a model that uniformed data from 3 references methods (isotope, MRI, and DEXA) into 1 formula...
June 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512155/functional-high-intensity-training-improves-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Stephan Nieuwoudt, Ciarán E Fealy, Julie A Foucher, Amanda R Scelsi, Steven K Malin, Mangesh R Pagadala, Michael Rocco, Bartolome Burguera, John P Kirwan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by reductions in β-cell function and insulin secretion on the background of elevated insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve β-cell function, despite a subset of T2D patients displaying "exercise resistance". Further investigations into the effectiveness of alternate forms of exercise on β-cell function in the T2D patient population are needed. We examined the effect of a novel 6-week CrossFit™ Functional High Intensity Training (F-HIT) intervention on β-cell function in 12 sedentary adults with clinically diagnosed T2D (54±2 years, 166±16 mg/dL fasting glucose)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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