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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922240/associations-of-lean-and-fat-mass-measures-with-whole-body-bone-mineral-content-and-bone-mineral-density-in-female-adolescent-weightlifters-and-swimmers
#1
Şükran Nazan Koşar
Body composition and sport participation have been associated with bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in female adolescent weightlifters, swimmers and non-athletic counterparts. This study included a total of 25 female adolescents (mean age: 15.3±1.1 years). Body composition and bone mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In most of the studied variables weight lifters had higher values compared to swimmers and non-athletes (p < 0...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918843/cucurbita-ficifolia-cucurbitaceae-modulates-inflammatory-cytokines-and-ifn-%C3%AE-in-obese-mice
#2
Á Fortis-Barrera, R García-Macedo, J C Almanza-Perez, G Blancas-Flores, A Zamilpa-Alvarez, J L Flores-Sáenz, M Cruz, R Román-Ramos, F J Alarcón-Aguilar
This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on systemic chronic inflammation in an obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) via modulating the expression of adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin) and immune-regulatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10). Cucurbita ficifolia extract was administered daily by gavage to lean and MSG-obese mice for 30 days. At the end of treatment, cytokine mRNA expression in adipose tissue was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein levels of these cytokines were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918670/combined-plyometric-strength-training-improves-ice-hockey-players-on-ice-sprint
#3
Torstein E Dæhlin, Ole C Haugen, Simen Haugerud, Ivana Hollan, Truls Raastad, Bent R Rønnestad
: Combined plyometric and strength training have previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training has not been previously been compared to the effects of strength training only. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with strength training only. METHODS: Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions per week for 8 weeks...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918084/urinary-incontinence-in-older-women-the-role-of-body-composition-and-muscle-strength-from-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#4
Anne M Suskind, Peggy M Cawthon, Sanae Nakagawa, Leslee L Subak, Ilse Reinders, Suzanne Satterfield, Steve Cummings, Jane A Cauley, Tamara Harris, Alison J Huang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospective relationships between body composition and muscle strength with predominantly stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in older women. DESIGN: Prospective community-dwelling observational cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body Composition study). PARTICIPANTS: Women initially aged 70 to 79 recruited from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee (N = 1,475). MEASUREMENTS: Urinary incontinence was assessed using structured questionnaires...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916879/vitamin-d-and-weight-cycling-impact-on-injury-illness-and-inflammation-in-collegiate-wrestlers
#5
Jacqueline N Barcal, Joi T Thomas, Bruce W Hollis, Kathy J Austin, Brenda M Alexander, D Enette Larson-Meyer
: This study explored the link between vitamin D status and frequency of skin infections, inflammation, and injury in college wrestlers during an academic year. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n = 19), plasma cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) (n = 18) concentrations, and body weight/composition were measured and injury/illness/skin infection data were collected in fall, winter, and spring. RESULTS: In the fall, 74% of wrestlers had vitamin D concentrations <32 ng/mL which increased to 94% in winter and spring...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916865/associations-of-vitamin-d-with-inter-and-intra-muscular-adipose-tissue-and-insulin-resistance-in-women-with-and-without-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
David Scott, Anju Joham, Helena Teede, Melanie Gibson-Helm, Cheryce Harrison, Samantha Cassar, Samantha Hutchison, Peter R Ebeling, Nigel Stepto, Barbora de Courten
Low vitamin D and insulin resistance are common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated with higher inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated associations between vitamin D, IMAT and insulin resistance in a cross-sectional study of 40 women with PCOS and 30 women without PCOS, and pre- and post-exercise in a 12-week intervention in 16 overweight participants (10 with PCOS and six without PCOS). A non-classical body mass index (BMI) threshold was used to differentiate lean and overweight women (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m²)...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916426/high-body-mass-index-in-infancy-may-predict-severe-obesity-in-early-childhood
#7
Allison Smego, Jessica G Woo, Jillian Klein, Christina Suh, Danesh Bansal, Sherri Bliss, Stephen R Daniels, Christopher Bolling, Nancy A Crimmins
OBJECTIVE: To characterize growth trajectories of children who develop severe obesity by age 6 years and identify clinical thresholds for detection of high-risk children before the onset of obesity. STUDY DESIGN: Two lean (body mass index [BMI] 5th to ≤75th percentile) and 2 severely obese (BMI ≥99th percentile) groups were selected from populations treated at pediatric referral and primary care clinics. A population-based cohort was used to validate the utility of identified risk thresholds...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914915/physical-activity-modifies-the-association-between-dietary-protein-and-lean-mass-of-postmenopausal-women
#8
Jessica A Martinez, Betsy C Wertheim, Cynthia A Thomson, Jennifer W Bea, Robert Wallace, Matthew Allison, Linda Snetselaar, Zhao Chen, Rami Nassir, Patricia A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of lean muscle mass and related strength is associated with lower risk for numerous chronic diseases of aging in women. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate whether the association between dietary protein and lean mass differs by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n=8,298)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913848/increased-fetal-adiposity-prior-to-diagnosis-of-gestational-diabetes-in-south-asians-more-evidence-for-the-thin-fat-baby
#9
Hema Venkataraman, Uma Ram, Sam Craik, Anuradhai Arungunasekaran, Suresh Seshadri, Ponnusamy Saravanan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM. METHODS: Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in Chennai, India. Fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were recorded at 11, 20 and 32 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908545/association-between-fat-mass-and-bone-mineral-density-among-brazilian-women-differs-by-menopausal-status-the-pr%C3%A3-sa%C3%A3%C2%BAde-study
#10
Amina Chain, Marise Crivelli, Eduardo Faerstein, Flávia F Bezerra
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and fat mass (FM) in a multiethnic population of Brazilian women and to evaluate the influence of total body mass and lean mass on this association. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study nested within the Pro-Saúde Study, a prospective cohort of university civil servants in Rio de Janeiro. Participants were pre- (n = 100) and postmenopausal (n = 166) women...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908464/effects-of-different-duration-exercise-programs-in-children-with-severe-burns
#11
Robert P Clayton, Paul Wurzer, Clark R Andersen, Ronald P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Burns lead to persistent and detrimental muscle breakdown and weakness. Standard treatment at our institution includes a voluntary 12-week rehabilitative exercise program to limit and reverse the effects of increased muscle catabolism. In the present work, we investigated if different durations of exercise, 6 or 12 weeks, produce comparable improvements in muscle strength, body composition, and cardiopulmonary fitness. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled and randomized patients with ≥30% total body surface area (TBSA) burned to receive 6 or 12 weeks of exercise rehabilitation...
November 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907890/association-of-muscle-endurance-fatigability-and-strength-with-functional-limitation-and-mortality-in-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#12
Baback Roshanravan, Kushang V Patel, Linda F Fried, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Ian H de Boer, Tamara Harris, Rachel A Murphy, Suzanne Satterfield, Bret H Goodpaster, Michael Shlipak, Anne B Newman, Bryan Kestenbaum
BACKGROUND: Mobility limitation is highly prevalent among older adults and is central to the loss of functional independence. Dynamic isokinetic muscle fatigue testing may reveal increased vulnerability to disability and mortality beyond strength testing. METHODS: We studied community-dwelling older adults enrolled in the Health Aging and Body Composition study (age range: 71-82) free of mobility disability and who underwent isokinetic muscle fatigue testing in 1999-2000 (n = 1,963)...
October 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906857/obesity-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-recent-knowledge-and-future-directions
#13
Corrine Hanson, Tricia LeVan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has been shown to have a significant impact on lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this review is to discuss the most recent findings regarding the association between obesity, COPD, and COPD-related outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence indicates that obese patients with COPD may compose a unique disease phenotype who are more susceptible than their lean counterparts to environmental exposures...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906092/alterations-to-mtorc1-signaling-in-the-skeletal-muscle-differentially-affect-whole-body-metabolism
#14
Maitea Guridi, Barbara Kupr, Klaas Romanino, Shuo Lin, Denis Falcetta, Lionel Tintignac, Markus A Rüegg
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. RESULTS: We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively...
March 21, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905858/seasonal-effects-on-body-composition-muscle-characteristics-and-performance-of-collegiate-swimmers-and-divers
#15
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
CONTEXT:  Previous researchers have indicated the importance of body composition and muscle quality in athletic performance. However, body composition and muscle-quality measures in swimmers and divers over a training season have yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE:  To identify changes in body composition and muscle characteristics over a competitive season and identify relationships between these variables and performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I swimmers and divers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905293/long-term-exercise-in-mice-has-sex-dependent-benefits-on-body-composition-and-metabolism-during-aging
#16
Rachel C McMullan, Scott A Kelly, Kunjie Hua, Brian K Buckley, James E Faber, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Daniel Pomp
Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902700/plasma-lactoferrin-levels-positively-correlate-with-insulin-resistance-despite-an-inverse-association-with-total-adiposity-in-lean-and-severely-obese-patients
#17
Sylvain Mayeur, Alain Veilleux, Yves Pouliot, Benoît Lamarche, Jean-François Beaulieu, Frédéric S Hould, Denis Richard, André Tchernof, Emile Levy
CONTEXT: Lactoferrin (Lf) is an important protein found on mucosal surfaces, within neutrophils and various cells, and in biological fluids. It displays multiple functions, including iron-binding as well as antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Although Lf ingestion has been suggested to cause adiposity reduction in murine models and humans, its relationship with insulin resistance (IR) has not been studied thoroughly. OBJECTIVE: To establish the association between circulating Lf levels, glucose status and blood lipid/lipoprotein profile...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901180/ultrasonographic-assessment-of-thyroid-volume-in-oldest-old-individuals
#18
Glaucia Cruzes Duarte, Lara Miguel Quirino Araujo, Felix Magalhães, Clineu Mello Almada, Maysa Seabra Cendoroglo
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between thyroid volume and age, gender, anthropometric characteristics, and echogenicity in oldest-old subjects in an iodine-sufficient area. Subjects and methods: The study included 81 independent elderly individuals aged ≥ 80 years (65 [80.2%] women). We determined these individuals' anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass, as well as thyroid volume and echogenicity by ultrasonography...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900427/the-impact-of-excess-body-fat-on-bone-remodeling-in-adolescents
#19
L N Mosca, T B L Goldberg, V N da Silva, C S Kurokawa, A C B Rizzo, C C da Silva, A Dos Santos Teixeira, J E Corrente
: The impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling was evaluated in overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents. In adolescents with excess weight, it was observed that the higher the bone mineral content and bone mineral density values, the lower the levels of the biomarkers. Nutritional imbalances by excess had a negative effect on bone formation in this stage of life. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of excess body fat on bone remodeling in adolescents...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900150/sex-differences-in-the-effects-of-12%C3%A2-weeks-sprint-interval-training-on-body-fat-mass-and-the-rates-of-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-vo2max-during-exercise
#20
Liam Bagley, Mark Slevin, Steven Bradburn, Donghui Liu, Chris Murgatroyd, George Morrissey, Michael Carroll, Mathew Piasecki, William S Gilmore, Jamie S McPhee
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether very short duration, very high intensity sprint interval training (SIT) leads to loss of body fat mass in association with improvements to VO2max and fatty acid oxidation, and to assess the extent of sex dimorphism in these physiological responses. METHODS: A total of 24 men and 17 women (mean (SEM) age: 39 (±2) years; body mass index 24.6 (0.6)) completed measurements of the maximal rate of oxygen uptake (VO2max) and fatty acid oxidation (FATmax)...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
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