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Lean body mass

Mingfei Zeng, Huachuan Cao
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ketone bodies recently emerged as important physiological relevant metabolites because of their association with microbiota, immunology, obesity and other metabolic states. They were commonly analyzed by GC-MS with long run time and laborious sample preparation. In this study we developed a novel LC-MS/MS method using fast derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction to detect SCFA and ketone bodies in plasma and feces. Several different derivatization reagents were evaluated to compare the efficiency, the sensitivity and chromatographic separation of structural isomers...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Giuseppa Patti, Marta Giaccardi, Valeria Capra, Flavia Napoli, Giuliana Cangemi, Sara Notarnicola, Sara Guzzetti, Silvia Russo, Mohamad Maghnie, Natascia Di Iorgi
Context: There is little information on long-term natural history of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Objective: To describe the phenotypes and the metabolic status in adults with SRS. Design: Clinical and metabolic evaluations in adults with a molecular diagnosis of SRS. Partecipants: 7Caucasian patients (aged 18 to 46 years, mean age 26.9 years) were studied. Two had chromosome 7 maternal uniparental disomy, 3 had 11p15 loss of methylation and 2 had 11p15 duplication...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Daniela G L Terson de Paleville, Susan J Harkema, Claudia A Angeli
CONTEXT: Four individuals with motor complete SCI with an implanted epidural stimulator who were enrolled in another study were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, metabolic function and body composition at four time points before, during, and after task specific training. Following 80 locomotor training sessions, a 16-electrode array was surgically placed on the dura (L1-S1 cord segments) to allow for electrical stimulation. After implantation individuals received 160 sessions of task specific training with epidural stimulation (stand and step)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Silvia Barja-Fernandez, José María Moreno-Navarrete, Cintia Folgueira, Gemma Xifra, Mònica Sabater, Cecilia Castelao, Johan FernØ, Rosaura Leis, Carlos Diéguez, Felipe F Casanueva, Wifredo Ricart, Luisa M Seoane, José Manuel Fernandez-Real, Rubén Nogueiras
SCOPE: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL-4) regulates plasma lipoprotein levels but its relevance in human obesity and type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the regulation of circulating ANGPTL-4 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes and after changes in body weight. METHODS AND RESULTS: Circulating ANGPTL-4 levels were measured in two different cohorts. First, in a cross-sectional study, we evaluated ANGPTL-4 levels in lean and obese patients with normoglycemia or with altered glucose tolerance (n = 282)...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Chao-Chun Cheng, Ching-Yun Hsu, Jen-Fang Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of dietary and exercise interventions on weight loss and body composition in overweight/obese peri- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: Medline, Central, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant trials conducted until December 31, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies of overweight/obese peri- or postmenopausal women that examined the effects of dietary or exercise interventions, alone or combined, on weight loss were included...
March 12, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Kahyun Kim, Hyun Sik Gong, Jae-Young Lim, Jong Hee Kim, Goo Hyun Baek
We evaluated the vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in the forearm flexor muscle of women with distal radius fracture. High VDR expression was associated with low appendicular lean mass index. INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the VDR expression in the muscle cell and the muscle mass in women with a distal radius fracture (DRF). METHODS: We prospectively recruited 45 women over 50 years of age (mean age, 66 years) with DRF and acquired biopsy of the forearm flexor muscle...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
L B McMillan, D Aitken, P Ebeling, G Jones, D Scott
Relationships between objectively assessed free-living physical activity (PA) and changes in bone health over time are poorly understood in older adults. This study suggests these relationships are sex-specific and that body composition may influence the mechanical loading benefits of PA. INTRODUCTION: To investigate associations of objectively assessed PA and bone health in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: This secondary analysis of a subset of the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort study included participants with PA assessed utilising ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers over 7 days (N = 209 participants, 53% female; mean ± SD age 64...
March 12, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Shalender Bhasin, Caroline M Apovian, Thomas G Travison, Karol Pencina, Lynn L Moore, Grace Huang, Wayne W Campbell, Zhuoying Li, Andrew S Howland, Ruo Chen, Philip E Knapp, Martha R Singer, Mitali Shah, Kristina Secinaro, Richard V Eder, Kathleen Hally, Haley Schram, Richelle Bearup, Yusnie M Beleva, Ashley C McCarthy, Erin Woodbury, Jennifer McKinnon, Geeta Fleck, Thomas W Storer, Shehzad Basaria
Importance: The Institute of Medicine set the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein at 0.8 g/kg/d for the entire adult population. It remains controversial whether protein intake greater than the RDA is needed to maintain protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: To investigate whether increasing protein intake to 1.3 g/kg/d in older adults with physical function limitations and usual protein intake within the RDA improves lean body mass (LBM), muscle performance, physical function, fatigue, and well-being and augments LBM response to a muscle anabolic drug...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Joan Fledelius, Anne Winther-Larsen, Azza A Khalil, Karin Hjorthaug, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Meldgaard
We evaluated whether changes in18 F-Fluoro-D-Glucose (18 F-FDG)-uptake evaluated early during erlotinib treatment predict survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans from 56 NSCLC patients before and after 7-10 days of erlotinib treatment were analyzed with four different methods: Visual evaluation and percentage change in lean body mass corrected standardized uptake values (SULs): SULpeak , SULmax and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). The semi-quantitative parameters abilities to predict progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared and we found that percentage change in SULpeak , SULmax and TLG all correlated with PFS and OS with the strongest correlation found for TLG (R=0...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Martin P Poirier, Sean R Notley, Andreas D Flouris, Glen P Kenny
We examined if physical characteristics could be used to predict cooling time during cold water immersion (CWI, 2°C) following exertional hyperthermia (rectal temperature ≥39.5°C) in a physically heterogeneous group of men and women (n=62). Lean body mass was the only significant predictor of cooling time following CWI (R<sup>2</sup>=0.137; P<0.001); however that prediction did not provide the precision (mean residual square error: 3.18±2.28 min) required to act as a safe alternative to rectal temperature measurements...
March 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Stefana Catalina Bilha, Dumitru Branisteanu, Catalin Buzduga, Daniela Constantinescu, Petru Cianga, Ecaterina Anisie, Cristina Gavrilovici, Adrian Covic, Maria Christina Ungureanu
PURPOSE: Fat mass (FM) is a source of adipocytokines, with both positive and negative bone consequences. We aimed to investigate the role of body composition and adipokines as predictive factors for bone mass in women. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study included 93 women (38 premenopausal and 55 postmenopausal). Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and also of the phosphocalcic markers parathormone and vitamin D were measured...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine Research
Jonas Verbrugghe, Anouk Agten, Bert O Eijnde, Enzo Olivieri, Xavier Huybrechts, Henk Seelen, Frank Vandenabeele, Annick Timmermans
BACKGROUND: Although low to moderate intensity exercise therapy is a predominant part of rehabilitation in nonspecific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP), effect sizes are small and optimal exercise modalities/intensities are unclear. Conversely, effects of high intensity training have not yet been investigated in this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of high intensity training (HIT) and to explore the magnitude of the effects of a HIT program may have on exercise capacity and disease related outcome measures compared to conventional therapy for persons with NSCLBP...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Jessica G Woo, Heidi Sucharew, Weiji Su, Philip R Khoury, Stephen R Daniels, Heidi J Kalkwarf
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how infant weigh and length growth trajectories associate with body composition at 3 and 7 years because previous studies have noted that rapid infant weight gain increases risk for high body mass index (BMI) in children. STUDY DESIGN: There were 322 children enrolled at 3 years of age with dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition data and pediatrician growth data for 0-2 years of age who were included in analysis. Superimposition by translation and rotation modeling was used to characterize infant weight and length trajectories in terms of size, tempo and velocity measures...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Camilla L Asferg, Søren J Nielsen, Ulrik B Andersen, Allan Linneberg, Jens P Goetze, Jørgen L Jeppesen
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is primarily seen as a hormone involved in salt and water homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Evidence supports a link between metabolism and ANP. Circulating ANP concentrations are low in obese individuals with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The dynamic relationship between insulin and ANP has been sparsely studied. We therefore measured circulating concentrations of midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), a stable marker of ANP secretion, and insulin in lean and obese men during an oral glucose challenge...
March 7, 2018: Peptides
Jill K Badin, Ayeeshik Kole, Benjamin Stivers, Victor Progar, Anisha Pareddy, Mouhamad Alloosh, Michael Sturek
BACKGROUND: There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. METHODS: Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Wolfgang Kemmler, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is characterized by low lean and high fat mass; i.e. from a functional aspect a disproportion between engine (muscle) and mass to be moved (fat). At present, most research focuses on the engine, but the close "cross talk" between age-associated adipose and skeletal muscle tissue inflammation calls for comprehensive interventions that affect both components alike. Protein and exercise are likely candidates, however with respect to the latter, the enthusiasm for intense and frequent exercise is rather low, especially in functionally limited older people...
March 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Soon-Young Kim, Dong-Il Kim
Aging is associated with increased body fat and lower lean body mass, which leads to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the association of regular participation in walking and body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome and its 5 criteria in elderly Koreans. A total of 3554 (male = 1581, female = 1973) elderly subjects (age ≥ 65 years), who participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) were analyzed in this cross-sectional study...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Anija Orel, Matjaz Homan, Rok Blagus, Evgen Benedik, Rok Orel, Natasa Fidler Mis
Background: Commercial enteral formulas are generally recommended for gastrostomy feeding in patients with severe neurologic impairment. However, pureed food diets are still widely used and even gaining popularity among certain groups. We tried to compare the effectiveness of gastrostomy feeding for treatment of severe malnutrition with either enteral formulas or pureed feeds. Patients and methods: A 6-month nutritional intervention was made with 37 malnourished children, adolescents and young adults (2-26 years old) with severe neurologic impairment (Gross Motor Function Classification system [GMFCS] grade V)...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Takanori Masuda, Takeshi Nakaura, Yoshinori Funama, Tomoyasu Sato, Toru Higaki, Masao Kiguchi, Yukari Yamashita, Naoyuki Imada, Kazuo Awai
Objective: To evaluate the effect of patient characteristics on popliteal aortic contrast enhancement at lower extremity CT angiography (LE-CTA) scanning. Materials and Methods: Prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 158 patients. All were examined using a routine protocol; the scanning parameters were tube voltage 100 kVp, tube current 100 mA to 770 mA (noise index 12), 0.5-second rotation, 1.25-mm detector row width, 0.516 beam pitch, and 41...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Agnieszka Dmitruk, Jan Czeczelewski, Ewa Czeczelewska, Jolanta Golach, Urszula Parnicka
Background: Menopause, also referred to as climacterium, is a period of multiple changes in the structure and functions of a woman organism. Objective: Determination of differences in body composition and fatty tissue distribution in women from groups discriminated based on their menstrual status. Material and Methods: The survey covered 312 women aged 38-75 years. Menstrual status of the surveyed women was established according to WHO guidelines based on answers to a questionnaire, and three groups were discriminated: women in the premenopausal period (group 1), in the perimenopausal period (group 2), and in the postmenopausal period (group 3)...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
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