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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111982/management-of-immune-mediated-cytopenias-in-the-era-of-cancer-immunotherapy-a-report-of-4-cases
#1
Yamin Sun, Stephen K Lee, Thein H Oo, Cristhiam M Rojas-Hernandez
Recent advancements in immunotherapy have brought promising drugs to fight cancers; a subset of immunotherapy medications are known as checkpoint inhibitors. Their mechanism of action relies on upregulating antitumor response by reversing T-cell suppression; as a consequence the effect can also result in a spectrum of immune related complications. Reported complications to date include: skin, gastrointestinal mucosa, hypophysis, liver, endocrine system, nervous system, kidney, musculoskeletal system and the hematologic system...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042330/first-depiction-of-flow-voids-to-differentiate-pituicytomas-from-giant-adenomas
#2
Bruno Law-Ye, Clément Cholet, Delphine Leclercq
Pituicytomas are rare low-grade glial lesions of neurohypophysis or adenohypophysis. They are often misdiagnosed as adenomas due to their similar morphology. Previous reports have underlined their non specific aspect. In our experience, presence of flow voids on MR, which usually indicate hypervascularized tumors with strong arterial supply, may be a useful sign to identify pituicytomas. Unlike adenomas, pituicytomas are highly vascularized tumors. Second, we emphasize the strong enhancement of these tumors when compared to normal hypophysis, which may be another sign of the their hypervascularization...
October 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976335/two-uncommon-sites-of-metastasis-breast-and-hypophysis-metastases-of-head-and-neck-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-detected-by-fdg-pet-ct
#3
Evrim Sürer Budak, Şenay Yıldırım, Sevim Yıldız, Ali Ozan Öner, Şeyda Gündüz
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare epithelial malignancy arising from secretory glands, particularly the salivary glands. It tends to invade nerves and has a high potential for distant hematogenous metastasis, especially to the lungs, bone, liver and brain. The breast and hypophysis are not common sites of ACC metastatic disease. Herein, we report a case of ACC of the head and neck region with two unusual sites of metastases, the hypophysis and breast.
October 3, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966141/distribution-of-the-pig-gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptor-and-the-effect-of-grp-on-porcine-leydig-cells
#4
Zhiyu Ma, Ying Zhang, Juan Su, Xiang Li, Sheng Yang, Wenna Qiao, Chuan Suo, Zhihai Lei
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a mammalian bombesin (BN)-like peptide which plays a role in a number of important physiological functions via its receptor (gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, GRPR) in most animals. However, little is known about the gene encoding GRPR and its functions (especially reproduction) in pigs. In this study, we first cloned and analyzed the pig GRPR cDNA. Then we systematically investigated the expression levels of GRPR mRNA by relative real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and analyzed the distribution of the GRPR protein in pig tissues via immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
September 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868189/spontaneous-rupture-of-a-secondary-pituitary-abscess-causing-acute-meningoencephalitis-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Giovanni Muscas, Francesco Iacoangeli, Laura Lippa, Biagio R Carangelo
BACKGROUND: Pituitary abscess (PA) is an uncommon finding that is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. If not properly treated it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Nowadays standard diagnostic procedures allow early detection and successful treatment of this lesion in a high number of cases and mortality has been significantly reduced in recent years. PA arising de novo in a healthy gland are defined as primary, whereas those complicating a pre-existing disease of the hypophysis are called secondary abscesses...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865222/evaluation-of-intra-testicular-injections-of-calcium-chloride-and-4-vinylcyclohexene-1-2-monoepoxide-for-chemical-sterilization-in-guinea-pigs
#6
C C Sen, N Yumusak, R Faundez, F Temamogullari, A Taskin
This study was aimed at investigating the use of intra-testicular calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 4-vinylcyclohexene 1,2-monoepoxide (VCM) injections as a side effect-free alternative method for the control of reproduction in guinea pigs. Fifty male guinea pigs were randomly assigned to five groups. In all groups, the chemical agents were injected into both testes in 1% lidocaine hydrochloride. While Groups I, II and III were administered with a single dose (0.25 mL) of sterile physiological saline, 15 mg/100 g CaCl2, and 240 mg/kg VCM, respectively, Group IV and V received a daily dose of 15 mg/100 g CaCl2, and 240 mg/kg VCM for 3 days, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722251/alteration-in-the-relationship-between-tanycytes-and-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-neurosecretory-terminals-following-long-term-metabolic-manipulation-in-the-sheep
#7
R Pouchain Ribeiro Neto, I J Clarke, G Conductier
The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis is influenced by energy reserves, such that an increase or a decrease in adiposity may perturb the secretion and action of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This is considered to be a result of the signalling of hormones such as leptin, which act upon neuronal systems controlling GnRH secretion. Other work shows plasticity in the relationship between tanycytes and GnRH neurosecretory terminals in the median eminence across the oestrous cycle and we hypothesised that a similar plasticity may occur with altered metabolic status...
October 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627068/feed-restriction-regime-in-a-rabbit-line-selected-for-growth-rate-alters-oocyte-maturation-manifested-by-alteration-in-msy2-gene-expression
#8
C Naturil-Alfonso, D S Peñaranda, J S Vicente, F Marco-Jiménez
Young rabbit females selected for growth rate may have nutritional needs, which may not be met with the common practice of feed restriction during rearing in commercial rabbit production. The aim of this study was to analyse whether two different feeding programmes: ad libitum or restricted (130 g/day) feeding, applied in young rabbit females for 1 month at the end of rearing, could modulate the origin of ovulation process and the quality of the oocytes. At 16 weeks of age, 34 females were randomly assigned to restricted or ad libitum feeding, maintaining these conditions for a month...
June 18, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612665/granular-cell-tumor-of-the-neurohypophysis-with-tfe-3-expression-a-rare-case-report
#9
Guang-Zhi Yang, Jing Li
Granular cell tumor (GCT) rarely involves the central nervous system, and fewer than 100 cases have been reported in English literatures. We herein report a case of a 36-year-old Chinese man with GCT of the neurohypophysis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed one mass located in the hypophysis with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. Pathological examination showed a neoplasm comprising densely packed polygonal cells of ample cytoplasm with abundant eosinophilic granules inside. The nuclei were small with inconspicuous nucleoli and yet without any mitoses...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609296/neuroanatomical-pathways-underlying-the-effects-of-hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal-hormones-on-exploratory-activity
#10
Robert Lalonde, Catherine Strazielle
When injected via the intracerebroventricular route, corticosterone-releasing hormone (CRH) reduced exploration in the elevated plus-maze, the center region of the open-field, and the large chamber in the defensive withdrawal test. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the elevated plus-maze also occurred when infused in the basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal grey, and medial frontal cortex. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the defensive withdrawal test was reproduced when injected in the locus coeruleus, while the amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus contribute to center zone exploration in the open-field...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587427/mri-features-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-children-with-short-stature-caused-by-pituitary-lesions
#11
Chao Xu, Xinxian Zhang, Lina Dong, Bin Zhu, Tao Xin
We verified the advantages of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving the diagnostic quality of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions. Clinical data obtained from 577 GHD patients with short stature caused by pituitary lesions were retrospectively analyzed. There were 354 cases (61.3%) with anterior pituitary dysplasia; 45 cases (7.8%) of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS); 15 cases (2.6%) of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism; 38 cases (6...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585593/incidentaloma-from-general-practice-to-specific-endocrine-frame
#12
Ancuta Augustina Gheorghisan-Galateanu, Mara Carsote, Ana Valea
Incidentaloma, a modern concept connected to technology progress, represents an accidentally discovered tumour, usually used for hypophysis and adrenals, and rarely for thyroid, parathyroids, and ovaries. This is a narrative review based on PubMed research, between 2012 and 2016 focusing on general and endocrine approach and current controversies. Main dilemma is the terminology itself: randomly imagery finding is enough or non-functioning profile and low-growth rate (not requiring surgery) should be mandatory? The controversies refers to best time framing of re-scanning pituitary and adrenal incidentaloma and setting of clear criteria for subclinical Cushing's syndrome...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552902/igg4-related-disease-manifesting-as-interstitial-nephritis-accompanied-by-hypophysitis
#13
Ken Matsuda, Ayako Saito, Yoichi Takeuchi, Hirotaka Fukami, Hiroyuki Sato, Tasuku Nagasawa
BACKGROUND IgG4-related disease is a systemic disease with marked infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into affected organs and elevated serum IgG4. On clinical examination, swelling, nodules, and hypertrophic lesions might appear simultaneously or metachronously in different organs. CASE REPORT An 85-year-old man with sudden-onset polydipsia and polyuria insipidus was transported to our hospital because of hypothermia and general malaise. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and central diabetes insipidus...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550628/giovanni-verga-1879-1923-author-of-a-pioneering-treatise-on-pituitary-surgery-the-foundations-of-this-new-field-in-europe-in-the-early-1900s
#14
REVIEW
José M Pascual, Lorenzo Mongardi, Ruth Prieto, Inés Castro-Dufourny, María Rosdolsky, Sewan Strauss, Rodrigo Carrasco, Eduard Winter, Paolo Mazzarello
The field of pituitary surgery was born in the first decade of the twentieth century in Europe, and it evolved rapidly with the development of numerous innovative surgical techniques by some of the founding fathers of neurosurgery. This study investigates the pioneering Italian treatise on pituitary surgery, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), published in 1911 by Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), a surgeon from Pavía and one of Golgi's disciples. This little-known monograph compiles the earliest experience on pituitary surgery through the analysis of the first 50 procedures performed between 1903 and 1911...
October 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532826/seasonal-infertility-in-gilts-and-sows-aetiology-clinical-implications-and-treatments
#15
REVIEW
Fabio De Rensis, Adam J Ziecik, Roy N Kirkwood
In gilts and sows, the summer-autumn period often is characterized by reduced fertility. Heat stress and long photoperiods during the warm season can cause a reduction in feed intake and an imbalance of the hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian axis. The increased variability in the interval between oestrus onset and ovulation results in an increased number of poorly timed inseminations. The altered endocrine activity compromises follicular and corpora luteal development, reduces oocyte quality and increases embryo mortality...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#16
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500835/hypophysis-from-outgrowth-to-ocular-disorder-to-pituitary-gland
#17
Konstantinos Laios, George Androutsos, Maria Piagkou, Marilita M Moschos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484553/granulomatous-hypophysitis-caused-by-rathke-s-cleft-cyst-mimicking-a-growth-hormone-secreting-pituitary-adenoma
#18
Masato Hojo, Ryota Ishibashi, Hiroshi Arai, Susumu Miyamoto
We report a case of granulomatous hypophysitis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) mimicking a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Neuroradiological and endocrinological evaluations showed abnormal findings consistent with acromegaly: Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a pituitary mass lesion, and GH and insulin-like growth factor I levels were markedly elevated, and GH levels were not suppressed in oral glucose tolerance test. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed, but no adenomatous tissue could be detected...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460583/subchronic-low-level-intraperitoneal-injections-of-manganese-iv-oxide-and-manganese-ii-chloride-affect-rat-brain-neurochemistry
#19
Brian S Nielsen, Erik H Larsen, Ole Ladefoged, Henrik R Lam
Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic and can induce manganism, a Parkinson-like disease categorized as being a serious central nervous system irreversible neurodegenerative disease. An increased risk of developing symptoms of Parkinson disease has been linked to work-related exposure, for example, for workers in agriculture, horticulture, and people living near areas with frequent use of Mn-containing pesticides. In this study, the focus was placed on neurochemical effects of Mn. Rats were dosed intraperitoneally with 0...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418336/intracranial-lesions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-morbid-obesity
#20
Ayça Törel Ergür, Sevinç Odabaşı Güneş, Sinan Tan, Ü Ayşe Tandırcıoğlu
BACKGROUND: Intracranial lesions may affect the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis and lead to some neuro-endocrinological dysfunctions (hyperphagia, sleep disorders and hormonal dysfunctions). There is a very limited number of studies about childhood obesity and intracranial lesions. AIMS: To evaluate the incidence of intracranial lesions and its role in clinical symptoms and aetiology in cases with morbid obesity who have been admitted to the paediatric endocrinology department with this complaint...
April 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
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