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Hasan Ahmadnia, Alireza Akhavan Rezayat, Mahmood Hoseyni, Nooriye Sharifi, Mohhamad Khajedalooee, Arash Akhavan Rezayat
BACKGROUND: Increased rates of addiction and its broad societal complications are well known. One of the most important systems that may malfunction in drug abusers is the reproductive system, and evaluating patients for this potential risk may lead to increased awareness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty 60-day-old male rats were divided into control and target groups. The target group underwent 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of morphine twice a day while the control group underwent normal saline injections (at the same dosage)...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
Ricardo Ramírez-Barrantes, Ivanny Marchant, Pablo Olivero
Aging induces physical deterioration, loss of the blood brain barrier, neuronal loss-induced mental and neurodegenerative diseases. Hypotalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis aging precedes symptoms of menopause or andropause and is a major determinant of sensory and cognitive integrated function. Sexual steroids support important functions, exert pleiotropic effects in different sensory cells, promote regeneration, plasticity and health of the nervous system. Their diminution is associated with impaired cognitive and mental health and increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Iain J Clarke, Danielle Bartolini, Gregory Conductier, Belinda A Henry
Stress reduces GnRH and gonadotropin secretion in sheep, but the central mechanism for this suppressive effect is unknown. GnIH negatively regulates GnRH neurons and gonadotropes. Here, we measured activity of GnIH neurons and contact of GnIH fibres on GnRH neurons during either chronic 'pseudo-stress' or acute stress in sheep. We also measured GnIH secretion into hypophysial portal blood during 'pseudo-stress' and acute stress. The 'pseudo-stress' was daily i.m. injections (0.5mg) of Synacthen Depot (adrenocorticotropin) or vehicle for 4 weeks, which increased the GnIH cell number and gene expression/cell in the hypothalamus, measured by in situ hybridisation...
September 9, 2016: Endocrinology
Jinlin Feng, Ligeng Ma
Suspensor development is essential for early embryogenesis. The filamentous suspensor plays vital roles in supporting the embryo proper and in exchanging nutrients and information between the embryo proper and embryo sac. In addition, at the globular stage, the uppermost suspensor cell differentiates into the hypophysis, which generates the progenitors of the quiescent center and columella stem cells. In naa10 and naa15 mutant plants, suspensor cell identity was found to be abnormal and embryo development was disturbed, leading to embryonic lethality...
September 9, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Antonio Osculati, Silvia Damiana Visonà, Francesco Ventura, Francesca Castelli, Luisa Andrello
BACKGROUND: Generally, rheumatic heart disease is, today, sporadic in developed countries, even though it continues to be a major health hazard in the developing ones. It is also a very rare cause of sudden unexpected death. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who suddenly died at home. Since 3 days he had presented fever and chest pain. The family physician had diagnosed bronchitis and treated the boy with amoxicillin. METHODS: Seven hours after death, a forensic autopsy were performed ...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
X X Yuan, Q Y Zhu, H B Liang, G R Hei, X Li, L J Pang, H H Li, H Li, X Q Song
OBJECTIVE: To explore hormone such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing (LH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (PROG) and testosterone (TESTO) levels in first-episode drug-free schizophrenics, and the relationship between clinical symptoms and sex hormones, in order to further study the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. METHODS: Eighty-one first-episode drug-free schizophrenics including thirty-nine male and forty-two female from First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and seventy healthy subjects (thirty male and forty female) were enrolled...
July 19, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Ambarisha Chabbi, C B Ganesh
Although neuroendocrine regulation of stress response involving hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is well established in mammals, the mechanism of functioning of endocrine-stress axis is not completely elucidated in fish. Our previous studies suggested a possible role for the opioidergic mediation of reproductive stress response in fish. In the present investigation, by immunocytochemical approach, we studied the distribution of β-endorphin (β-EP) secreting neurons in the brain of the tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to aquacultural stressors...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Jinlin Feng, Ruiqi Li, Junya Yu, Shuangshuang Ma, Chunyan Wu, Yan Li, Ying Cao, Ligeng Ma
Early embryonic development generates precursors of all major cell types in Arabidopsis. Among these precursors, the hypophysis divides asymmetrically to form the progenitors of the quiescent center and columella stem cells. A great deal has been learnt about the mechanisms that control the asymmetric division of the hypophysis and embryogenesis at the transcriptional level; however, no evidence of regulation at the co- or post-translational level has been reported. Here, we show that mutation of the catalytic subunit (Naa10) or auxiliary subunit (Naa15) of NatA, an N-terminal acetyltransferase that catalyzes protein N-terminal acetylation, produces an embryo-lethal phenotype...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiao Wu, Xiaoqiang Liang, Yijie DU, Yan Zhang, Meng Yang, Weiyi Gong, Baojun Liu, Jingcheng Dong, Ningxia Zhang, Hongying Zhang
The aim of the study was to examine the mechanism of action of Lidan Granule (LDG) for the prevention of gallstones using a guinea pig model. One hundred guinea pigs were divided into five groups randomly: control (standard diet and saline), model [lithogenic diet (LD) and saline], LDG-H (LD and 2 g/kg of LDG), LDG-L (LD and 1 g/kg of LDG), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (LD and UDCA) as the positive control. At 6 weeks, the rate of gallstone formation and weight of the adrenal gland were recorded and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured...
July 2016: Biomedical Reports
I J Clarke, L Arbabi
Gonadotropin releasing hormone is the primary driver of reproductive function and pulsatile GnRH secretion from the brain causes the synthesis and secretion of LH and FSH from the pituitary gland. Recent work has revealed that the secretion of GnRH is controlled at the level of the GnRH secretory terminals in the median eminence. At this level, projections of kisspeptin cells from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are seen to be closely associated with fibers and terminals of GnRH cells. Direct application of kisspeptin into the median eminence causes release of GnRH...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Fatma Dilek Dellal, Didem Ozdemir, Cevdet Aydin, Gulfem Kaya, Reyhan Ersoy, Bekir Cakir
Background. Macroprolactinemia is defined as predominance of high molecular weight prolactin forms in the circulation. Although macroprolactin is considered as a biologically inactive molecule, some authorities suggest treatment in symptomatic cases. Gigantomastia is defined as excess breast tissue and most cases in the literature were treated by surgical intervention. Case. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with gigantomastia and galactorrhea. The patient had a demand for surgical therapy. In laboratory examination, she had hyperprolactinemia and macroprolactinemia...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Jose Carretero, Francisco López, Leonardo Catalano-Iniesta, Virginia Sanchez-Robledo, Maria Jose Garcia-Barrado, Maria Carmen Iglesias-Osma, Marta Carretero-Hernandez, Enrique J Blanco, Deborah Jane Burks
As aromatase P450 is located in several pituitary cells, testosterone can be transformed into 17β-estradiol in the gland by the enzyme. The possible role of this transformation in pituitary function remains to be elucidated, but some evidence suggests a physiological and pathophysiological role for pituitary aromatase. To determine its relevance in the modulation of pituitary function, mainly associated with reproduction, luteinizing hormone (LH)-positive cells in the hypophysis of female and male aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice were studied...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Yutaka Mitsuhashi, Koji Hayasaki, Taichiro Kawakami, Takashi Nagata, Yuta Kaneshiro, Ryoko Umaba, Kenji Ohata
The cavernous sinus (CS) is one of the cranial dural venous sinuses. It differs from other dural sinuses due to its many afferent and efferent venous connections with adjacent structures. It is important to know well about its complex venous anatomy to conduct safe and effective endovascular interventions for the CS. Thus, we reviewed previous literatures concerning the morphological and functional venous anatomy and the embryology of the CS. The CS is a complex of venous channels from embryologically different origins...
June 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Stefano Stagi, Mariarosaria di Tommaso, Perla Scalini, Elisabetta Lapi, Stefania Losi, Erica Bencini, Fabrizio Masoni, Laura Dosa, Sabrina Becciani, Maurizio de Martino
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis in a cohort of children and adolescents with nonmosaic triple X syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with retrospective analysis. SETTING: University pediatric hospital. PATIENT(S): Fifteen prepubertal subjects (median age 9.0 years, range 6.9-11.9 years) with nonmosaic triple X syndrome and age- and pubertal-matched control group (30 girls, median age 9...
June 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Kunwar P Bhatnagar, Timothy D Smith, Shesh N Rai, Heiko D Frahm
For nearly two decades, a database of brain structures from a large sample (272 species) of chiropterans has been widely accessible and used for socioecological analyses of mammals. However, this database remains incomplete since the hypophysis has not been measured. Since this glandular/neural structure has reproductive significance to chiropterans as for other mammals, this investigation was carried out using serial coronal sections of bat brains comprising the Heinz Stephan collection, Düsseldorf, Germany...
April 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Fabio Rotondo, Henriett Butz, Luis V Syro, George M Yousef, Antonio Di Ieva, Lina M Restrepo, Andres Quintanar-Stephano, Istvan Berczi, Kalman Kovacs
INTRODUCTION: This publication reviews the function of arginine vasopressin and focuses on the morphologic and functional correlation between the hormone and its effect on stress, the hypophysial-adrenocortical axis, neuroimmune responses, renal function and corticotroph pituitary tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was performed using various search engines for information regarding the morphology and the multifunctional role of arginine vasopressin...
August 2016: Pituitary
Ole Herud, Dolf Weijers, Steffen Lau, Gerd Jürgens
Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes...
January 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Onder Celik, Nilufer Celik, Suleyman Aydin, Banu Kumbak Aygun, Esra Tustas Haberal, Tuncay Kuloglu, Mustafa Ulas, Lebriz Hale Aktun, Mustafa Acet, Sudenaz Celik
Acylated ghrelin (AG) effect on GnRH secretion is mediated, at least in part, by GH secreta-gogue receptor (GHS-R) which is present in the GnRH neurons. As the acylation is mandatory for binding to GHS-R, unacylated isoform of ghrelin (UAG) action on gonadotropin secretion is likely to be mediated by other receptors or mediators that have not been identified yet. UAG, therefore, may act partially via a GHS-R-independent mechanism and inhibitory impact of UAG on GnRH neurons may be executed via modulation of other neuronal networks...
February 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Amro Abdellatief, Jose S Pulido, George B Bartley, Diva R Salomao, Timothy A Quinn
PURPOSE: Case report describing a patient who developed intracranial extension of a uveal melanoma through the optic nerve. METHODS: We reviewed the patient's medical history and images. A 41-year-old woman who was blind in one eye had a uveal melanoma that extended through the optic nerve into the optic chiasm and involved the hypophysis. The patient then developed metastasis. RESULTS: The patient developed uveal melanoma extension into the optic chiasm through the optic nerve resulting in a visual field defect in the fellow eye...
2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
João Pedro Fontenelle, Marcelo R de Carvalho
The gross brain morphology, brain proportions, and position of cranial nerves in all four genera (Potamotrygon, Plesiotrygon, Paratrygon, and Heliotrygon) and 11 of the species of the Neotropical stingray family Potamotrygonidae were studied to provide new characters that may have a bearing on internal potamotrygonid systematics. The brain was also studied in four other stingray (Myliobatiformes) genera (Hexatrygon, Taeniura, Dasyatis, and Gymnura) to provide a more inclusive phylogenetic context for the interpretation of features of the brain in potamotrygonids...
February 2016: Journal of Morphology
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