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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793131/tlr2-4-ligand-amplified-liver-inflammation-promotes-initiation-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-due-to-sustained-il-6-il-12-il-4-il-25-expression
#1
Gang Chi, Xin-Xia Feng, Ying-Xia Ru, Ting Xiong, Yuan Gao, Han Wang, Zhen-Long Luo, Ran Mo, Fang Guo, Yong-Pei He, Gui-Mei Zhang, De-An Tian, Zuo-Hua Feng
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a serious autoimmune liver disease, can be a lifelong illness, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). So far the mechanisms for disease initiation are largely unknown. Here we report that the amplified non-AIH liver inflammation could promote the initiation of AIH due to the sustained increase of IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-25 in the liver. The liver injury resulting from virus (adenovirus) or chemicals (CCl4 ) could induce an amplified (stronger/long-lasting) hepatic inflammation by releasing the ligands for TLR2/TLR4...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792849/the-role-and-mechanism-of-k-ca-3-1-channels-in-human-monocyte-migration-induced-by-palmitic-acid
#2
Xiao-Zhen Ma, Zheng-Da Pang, Jun-Hong Wang, Zheng Song, Li-Mei Zhao, Xiao-Jun Du, Xiu-Ling Deng
Monocyte migration into diseased tissues contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases. Intermediate-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (KCa 3.1) channels play an important role in cell migration. However, the role of KCa 3.1 channels in mediating monocyte migration induced by palmitic acid (PA) is still unclear. Using cultured THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects, we investigated the role and signaling mechanisms of KCa 3.1 channels in mediating the migration induced by PA. Using methods of Western blotting analysis, RNA interference, cell migration assay and ELISA, we found that PA-treated monocytes exhibited increment of the protein levels of KCa 3...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792782/25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-and-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-as-an-antiviral-and-immunomodulator-against-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-in-hela-cells
#3
Archit Kumar, Mini P Singh, Ragini S Kumar, Radha Kanta Ratho
The antiviral and immunomodulatory role of vitamin D has been shown in various viral infections. However, there is scanty literature available about the effect of vitamin D supplementation in herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of two different forms of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) against HSV-1 in HeLa cells. The HeLa cells were supplemented with either 25D3 or 1,25D3 before HSV-1 infection and were studied after 6, 12, and 24 h postinfection (p...
May 24, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787561/interplay-of-strain-and-race-ethnicity-in-the-innate-immune-response-to-m-tuberculosis
#4
P Nahid, L G Jarlsberg, M Kato-Maeda, M R Segal, D H Osmond, S Gagneux, K Dobos, M Gold, P C Hopewell, D M Lewinsohn
BACKGROUND: The roles of host and pathogen factors in determining innate immune responses to M. tuberculosis are not fully understood. In this study, we examined host macrophage immune responses of 3 race/ethnic groups to 3 genetically and geographically diverse M. tuberculosis lineages. METHODS: Monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy Filipinos, Chinese and non-Hispanic White study participants (approximately 45 individuals/group) were challenged with M. tuberculosis whole cell lysates of clinical strains Beijing HN878 (lineage 2), Manila T31 (lineage 1), CDC1551 (lineage 4), the reference strain H37Rv (lineage 4), as well as with Toll-like receptor 2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (TLR2/LTA) and TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (TLR4/LPS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784049/identification-and-therapeutic-modulation-of-a-pro-inflammatory-subset-of-disease-associated-microglia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Srikant Rangaraju, Eric B Dammer, Syed Ali Raza, Priyadharshini Rathakrishnan, Hailian Xiao, Tianwen Gao, Duc M Duong, Michael W Pennington, James J Lah, Nicholas T Seyfried, Allan I Levey
BACKGROUND: Disease-associated-microglia (DAM) represent transcriptionally-distinct and neurodegeneration-specific microglial profiles with unclear significance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). An understanding of heterogeneity within DAM and their key regulators may guide pre-clinical experimentation and drug discovery. METHODS: Weighted co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was applied to existing microglial transcriptomic datasets from neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease mouse models to identify modules of highly co-expressed genes...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780242/immune-informatic-analysis-and-design-of-peptide-vaccine-from-multi-epitopes-against-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis
#6
Daniela Droppa-Almeida, Elton Franceschi, Francine Ferreira Padilha
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bacteria that affects sheep and goats. The absence of a serologic diagnose is a factor that contributes for the disease dissemination, and due to the formation of granuloma, the treatment is very expensive. Therefore, prophylaxis is the approach with best cost-benefit relation; however, it still lacks an effective vaccine. In this sense, this work seeks to apply bioinformatic tools to design an effective vaccine against CLA, using CP40 protein as standard for the design of immunodominant epitopes, from which a total of 6 sequences were obtained, varying from 10 to 16 amino acid residues...
2018: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779267/%C3%AE-synuclein-activates-innate-immunity-but-suppresses-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-astrocytes
#7
Jintang Wang, Zheng Chen, Jeremy Walston, Peisong Gao, Maolong Gao, Sean X Leng
Glial activation and neuroinflammation contribute to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, linked to neuron loss and dysfunction. α-Synuclein (α-syn), as a metabolite of neuron, can induce microglia activation to trigger innate immune response. However, whether α-syn, as well as its mutants (A53T, A30P and E46K), induces astrocyte activation and inflammatory response is not fully elucidated. In this study, we used A53T mutant and wildtype α-syns to stimulate primary astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners (0...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778672/defective-myd88-and-irak4-but-not-tlr-2-expression-in-hiv-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Kamakshi Prudhula Devalraju, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar Neela, Ramulu Gaddam, Arunabala Chaudhury, Abhinav Van, Siva Sai Krovvidi, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri
HIV infection markedly increases the likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection progressing to active TB. Information on expression of TLR-2, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), IL-1R- associated kinase-4 (IRAK4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) in HIV+LTBI+ and HIV+ patients with active TB disease is limited. We found significantly higher percentages of CD14+TLR2+ cells in PBMCs of HIV+LTBI+ patients compared to HIV-LTBI+ individuals. γ-irradiated Mtb was unable to induce MyD88, IRAK4 expression and IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 production in HIV+LTBI+ patients...
May 17, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777767/biglycan-is-a-new-high-affinity-ligand-for-cd14-in-macrophages
#9
Heiko Roedig, Madalina V Nastase, Helena Frey, Kristin Moreth, Jinyang Zeng-Brouwers, Chiara Poluzzi, Louise Tzung-Harn Hsieh, Christian Brandts, Simone Fulda, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
Sterile inflammation is a therapeutic target in many diseases where it represents an important initiator of disease progression. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying its evolution and biological relevance are not yet completely elucidated. Biglycan, a prototype extracellular matrix-derived damage-associated molecular pattern, mediates sterile inflammation in macrophages through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and/or TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. Here we discovered that soluble biglycan is a novel high-affinity ligand for CD14, a well-known GPI-anchored co-receptor for TLRs...
May 16, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775741/replacement-of-fishmeal-by-spirulina-arthrospira-platensis-affects-growth-immune-related-gene-expression-in-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-var-cas-iii-and-its-challenge-against-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#10
Shenping Cao, Peiyu Zhang, Tao Zou, Shuzhan Fei, Dong Han, Junyan Jin, Haokun Liu, Yunxia Yang, Xiaoming Zhu, Shouqi Xie
The present study examined the effect of dietary spirulina, Arthrospira platensis on growth performance, blood physiological indices, immune-related gene expressions and resistance of juvenile gibel carp against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Four isonitrogenous (360 g kg-1 ) and isolipidic (90 g kg-1 ) diets were formulated with containing different levels of spirulina powder of 0 g (SP0, the control diet), 3.38 g (SP3.38), 6.76 g (SP6.76) and 13.52 g (SP13.52) per 100 g diet to replace 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of fishmeal protein, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775453/ts-hsp70-induces-protective-immunity-against-trichinella-spiralis-infection-in-mouse-by-activating-dendritic-cells-through-tlr2-and-tlr4
#11
Rui Zhang, Qing Sun, Yi Chen, Ximeng Sun, Yuan Gu, Zhang Zhao, Yuli Cheng, Limei Zhao, Jingjing Huang, Bin Zhan, Xinping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Trichinellosis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis worldwide. In the effort to develop vaccine against Trichinella infection, we have identified Trichinella spiralis Heat shock protein 70 (Ts-Hsp70) elicits partial protective immunity against T. spiralis infection via activating dendritic cells (DCs) in our previous study. This study aims to investigate whether DCs were activated by Ts-Hsp70 through TLR2 and/or TLR4 pathways. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After blocking with anti-TLR2 and TLR4 antibodies, the binding of Ts-Hsp70 to DCs was significantly reduced...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775222/abca1-inhibits-pdgf-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-rat-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-through-blocking-tlr2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nfatc1-signaling
#12
Wei Cheng, Kun Yan, Yanni Chen, Wen Zhang, Zongzheng Ji, Chengxue Dang
Airway remodeling is a key feature of asthma, characterized by abnormal proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). ABCA1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of active transporters, plays an essential role in the progression of lung diseases. However, the contributions of ABCA1 in ASMCs remain to be explored. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the functional role and potential molecular mechanism of ABCA1 in platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced primary rat ASMC proliferation and migration...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774159/toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-modulate-intestinal-il-10-differently-in-ileum-and-colon
#13
Eva Latorre, Elena Layunta, Laura Grasa, Julián Pardo, Santiago García, Ana I Alcalde, José E Mesonero
Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases are consequence of an intestinal homeostasis breakdown in which innate immune dysregulation is implicated. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are immune recognition receptors expressed in the intestinal epithelium, the first physical-physiological barrier for microorganisms, to inform the host of the presence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to maintenance of intestinal homeostasis...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770468/toll-like-receptor-signalling-induces-the-expression-of-serum-amyloid-a-in-epidermal-keratinocytes-and-dermal-fibroblasts
#14
S Morizane, A Kajita, K Mizuno, T Takiguchi, K Iwatsuki
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in innate immune response by sensing pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns. Epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts also produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines under stimulation with TLR ligands. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of secondary amyloidosis, and also has immunomodulatory functions. SAA are produced mainly by hepatocytes but also by a variety of cells, including immune cells, endothelial cells, synoviocytes, and epidermal keratinocytes...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768704/syntheses-and-immunological-evaluation-of-self-adjuvanting-clustered-n-acetyl-and-n-propionyl-sialyl-tn-combined-with-a-t-helper-cell-epitope-as-antitumor-vaccine-candidates
#15
Tsung-Che Chang, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Yukari Fujimoto, Shino Ohshima, Yoshie Kametani, Kazuya Kabayama, Yuka Nimura, Chun-Cheng Lin, Koichi Fukase
Sialyl-Tn (STn) is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA) rarely observed on healthy tissues. We synthesized two fully synthetic N-acetyl and N-propionyl STn trimer (triSTn) vaccines possessing a T-helper epitope and a TLR2 agonist, since the clustered STn antigens are highly expressed on many cancer cells. Immunization of both vaccines in mice induced the anti-triSTn IgG antibodies, which recognized triSTn-expressing cell lines PANC-1 and HepG2. The N-propionyl triSTn vaccine induced the triSTn-specific IgGs, while IgGs induced by the N-acetyl triSTn vaccine were less specific...
May 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765997/effects-of-oral-probiotic-feeding-on-toll-like-receptor-gene-expression-of-the-chicken-s-cecal-tonsil
#16
Fatemeh Asgari, Reza Falak, Shahram Teimourian, Babak Pourakbari, Salimeh Ebrahimnezhad, Mehdi Shekarabi
Background: It was proposed that probiotics may influence immune system through direct or indirect exposure. Direct exposure is mostly mediated by surface receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are conserved molecular sensors which could be triggered via some pathogen associated structures, hence, modulate the immune responses. This study was conducted to elucidate the impact of lactobacillus acidophilus as a common probiotic on the expression level of TLRs in the chicken's cecal tonsil...
April 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764842/role-of-the-hepcidin-ferroportin-axis-in-pathogen-mediated-intracellular-iron-sequestration-in-human-phagocytic-cells
#17
Rodrigo Abreu, Frederick Quinn, Pramod K Giri
Upon infection, pathogen and host compete for the same iron pool, because this trace metal is a crucial micronutrient for all living cells. Iron dysregulation in the host is strongly associated with poor outcomes in several infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, AIDS, and malaria, and inefficient iron scavenging by pathogens severely affects their virulence. Hepcidin is the master regulator of iron homeostasis in vertebrates, responsible for diminishing iron export from macrophages during iron overload or infection...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763671/searching-for-signals-of-recent-natural-selection-in-genes-of-the-innate-immune-response-ancient-dna-study
#18
Magda Lewandowska, Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska, Tomasz Płoszaj, Piotr Witas, Alicja Zamerska, Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Henryk W Witas
The last decade has seen sharp progress in the field of human evolutionary genetics and a great amount of genetic evidence of natural selection has been provided so far. Since host-pathogen co-evolution is difficult to trace due to the polygenic nature of human susceptibility to microbial diseases, of particular interest is any signal of natural selection in response to the strong selective pressure exerted by pathogens. Analysis of ancient DNA allows for the direct insight into changes of a gene pool content over time and enables monitoring allele frequency fluctuations...
May 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760708/dual-tlr2-9-recognition-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-is-required-for-recruitment-and-activation-of-monocytes-and-nk-cells-and-restriction-of-viral-dissemination-to-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Erdenebileg Uyangaa, Jin Young Choi, Ajit Mahadev Patil, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf Hossain, Sung Ok Park, Bumseok Kim, Koanhoi Kim, Seong Kug Eo
The importance of TLR2 and TLR9 in the recognition of infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and HSV-caused diseases has been described, but some discrepancies remain concerning the benefits of these responses. Moreover, the impact of TLR2/9 on innate and adaptive immune responses within relevant mucosal tissues has not been elucidated using natural mucosal infection model of HSV. Here, we demonstrate that dual TLR2/9 recognition is essential to provide resistance against mucosal infection with HSV via an intravaginal route...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760696/podosomes-but-not-the-maturation-status-determine-the-protease-dependent-3d-migration-in-human-dendritic-cells
#20
Céline Cougoule, Claire Lastrucci, Romain Guiet, Rémi Mascarau, Etienne Meunier, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Olivier Neyrolles, Renaud Poincloux, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini
Dendritic cells (DC) are professional Antigen-Presenting Cells scattered throughout antigen-exposed tissues and draining lymph nodes, and survey the body for pathogens. Their ability to migrate through tissues, a 3D environment, is essential for an effective immune response. Upon infection, recognition of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP) by Toll-like receptors (TLR) triggers DC maturation. Mature DC (mDC) essentially use the protease-independent, ROCK-dependent amoeboid mode in vivo , or in collagen matrices in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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