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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340029/selenium-suppresses-inflammation-by-inducing-microrna-146a-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-mouse-mastitis-model
#1
Weijing Sun, Qi Wang, Yingfang Guo, Yifan Zhao, Xinying Wang, Zhenbiao Zhang, Ganzhen Deng, Mengyao Guo
We studied the effects of selenium (Se) on the inflammatory response in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-infected mastitis-model mice and mammary epithelial cells. In infected mice, Se elicited a dose-dependent decrease in mammary gland pathology that included inflammatory cell infiltration, disorganized acinar structure and mammary cell necrosis. Se decreased inflammation by increasing miR-146a and decreasing TLR2/6 as well as NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in mammary tissue from infected mice and mammary epithelial cells...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337240/prevention-of-the-severity-of-post-ischemic-inflammation-and-brain-damage-by-simultaneous-knockdown-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#2
Koteswara Rao Nalamolu, Nathan J Smith, Bharath Chelluboina, Jeffrey D Klopfenstein, David M Pinson, David Z Wang, Raghu Vemuganti, Krishna Kumar Veeravalli
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 belong to a family of highly conserved pattern recognition receptors and are well-known upstream sensors of signaling pathways of innate immunity. TLR2 and TLR4 upregulation is thought to be associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. We currently show that transient focal ischemia in adult rats induces TLR2 and TLR4 expression within hours and shRNA-mediated knockdown of TLR2 and TLR4 alone and in combination decreases the infarct size and swelling. We further show that TLR2 and TLR4 knockdown also prevented the induction of their downstream signaling molecules MyD88, IRAK1, and NFκB p65 as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335601/loss-of-cd14-leads-to-disturbed-epithelial-b-cell-crosstalk-and-impairment-of-the-intestinal-barrier-after-e-coli-nissle-monoassociation
#3
Marijana Basic, Manuela Buettner, Lydia M Keubler, Anna Smoczek, Inga Bruesch, Stephanie Buchheister, André Bleich
The TLR4 co-receptor CD14 was identified as an IBD candidate gene. Here, its influence on the intestinal barrier was addressed utilizing E. coli Nissle (EcN), which induces severe inflammation in germfree TLR4-/- mice. After monoassociation, EcN was detected in spleens and livers of TLR4-/- and CD14-/- but not wildtype mice. Barrier impairment was characterized by increased apoptosis and decreased epithelial junction (EJ) expression and was reversed by TLR2 stimulation in CD14-/- mice. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation revealed contribution of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells towards intestinal homeostasis...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330632/inate-immunity-in-rosacea-langerhans-cells-plasmacytoid-dentritic-cells-toll-like-receptors-and-inducible-oxide-nitric-synthase-inos-expression-in-skin-specimens-case-control-study
#4
Ana Karina Alves Moura, Fernanda Guedes, Maria Cecília Rivitti-Machado, Mirian N Sotto
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition with predominant facial involvement. Because of that, many patients sense that rosacea affects quality of life. The etiology of rosacea remains unknown. Recent studies have suggested that aberrant innate immunity is central to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of Langerhans cells, plasmacytoid dentritic cells (PDC), the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and inducible oxide nitric synthase (iNOS) in skin of patients with rosacea, to highlight the participation of innate immunity in its pathogenesis...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330325/cutting-edge-plasmodium-falciparum-induces-trained-innate-immunity
#5
Jacob E Schrum, Juliet N Crabtree, Katherine R Dobbs, Michael C Kiritsy, George W Reed, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Mihai G Netea, James W Kazura, Arlene E Dent, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Douglas T Golenbock
Malarial infection in naive individuals induces a robust innate immune response. In the recently described model of innate immune memory, an initial stimulus primes the innate immune system to either hyperrespond (termed training) or hyporespond (tolerance) to subsequent immune challenge. Previous work in both mice and humans demonstrated that infection with malaria can both serve as a priming stimulus and promote tolerance to subsequent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that initial stimulation with Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs or the malaria crystal hemozoin induced human adherent PBMCs to hyperrespond to subsequent ligation of TLR2...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330323/il-10-deficiency-reveals-a-role-for-tlr2-dependent-bystander-activation-of-t-cells-in-lyme-arthritis
#6
Sarah K Whiteside, Jeremy P Snook, Ying Ma, F Lynn Sonderegger, Colleen Fisher, Charisse Petersen, James F Zachary, June L Round, Matthew A Williams, Janis J Weis
T cells predominate the immune responses in the synovial fluid of patients with persistent Lyme arthritis; however, their role in Lyme disease remains poorly defined. Using a murine model of persistent Lyme arthritis, we observed that bystander activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells leads to arthritis-promoting IFN-γ, similar to the inflammatory environment seen in the synovial tissue of patients with posttreatment Lyme disease. TCR transgenic mice containing monoclonal specificity toward non-Borrelia epitopes confirmed that bystander T cell activation was responsible for disease development...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329366/delineating-differential-regulatory-signatures-of-the-human-transcriptome-in-the-choriodecidua-and-myometrium-at-term-labor
#7
Sylvia Lui, Cyntia Duval, Farkhondeh Farrokhnia, Sylvie Girard, Lynda K Harris, Clare L Tower, Adam Stevens, Rebecca L Jones
Background: Preterm deliveries remain the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Current therapies target only myometrial contractions and are largely ineffective. As labor involves multiple coordinated events across maternal and fetal tissues, identifying fundamental regulatory pathways of normal term labor is vital to understanding successful parturition and consequently labor pathologies. We aimed to identify transcriptomic signatures of human normal term labor of two tissues: in the fetal-facing choriodecidua and the maternal myometrium...
January 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324305/caveolin-mediated-endocytosis-of-the-chlamydia-m278-outer-membrane-peptide-encapsulated-in-poly-lactic-acid-poly-ethylene-glycol-nanoparticles-by-mouse-primary-dendritic-cells-enhances-specific-immune-effectors-mediated-by-mhc-class-ii-and-cd4-t-cells
#8
Saurabh Dixit, Rajnish Sahu, Richa Verma, Skyla Duncan, Guillermo H Giambartolomei, Shree R Singh, Vida A Dennis
We previously developed a Chlamydia trachomatis nanovaccine (PPM) by encapsulating a chlamydial M278 peptide within poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) biodegradable nanoparticles that immunopotentiated Chlamydia-specific immune effector responses in mice. Herein, we investigated the mechanistic interactions of PPM with mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) for its uptake, trafficking, and T cell activation. Our results reveal that PPM triggered enhanced expression of effector cytokines and chemokines, surface activation markers (Cd1d2, Fcgr1), pathogen-sensing receptors (TLR2, Nod1), co-stimulatory (CD40, CD80, CD86) and MHC class I and II molecules...
December 26, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323102/propionibacterium-acnes-induces-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-by-promoting-nucleus-pulposus-cell-apoptosis-via-the-tlr2-jnk-mitochondrial-mediated-pathway
#9
Yazhou Lin, Yucheng Jiao, Ye Yuan, Zezhu Zhou, Yuehuan Zheng, Jiaqi Xiao, Changwei Li, Zhe Chen, Peng Cao
Evidence suggests that intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) can be induced by Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the pathological changes in degenerated human intervertebral discs (IVDs) infected with P. acnes. Compared with P. acnes-negative samples, P. acnes-positive IVDs showed increased apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) concomitant with severe IVDD. Then, a P. acnes-inoculated IVD animal model was established, and severe IVDD was induced by P...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322409/tracking-competent-host-defence-to-chronic-inflammation-an-in-vivo-model-of-peritonitis
#10
Javier Uceda Fernandez, David Millrine, Simon A Jones
Anti-microbial host defence is dependent on the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of infection, the elimination of invading pathogens, and the efficient resolution of inflammation so as to minimise damage to the host. The peritoneal cavity provides an easily accessible and physiologically relevant system where the delicate balance of these processes may be studied. Here, we describe murine models of peritoneal inflammation that enable studies of both competent anti-microbial immunity and inflammation associated tissue damage as a consequence of recurrent bacterial challenge...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321396/-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-underlying-the-sterile-inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke
#11
Takashi Shichita
Inflammation is an essential step for the pathology of ischemic stroke, and is also an important therapeutic target for developing novel therapeutic methods which have a wide therapeutic time window. Since there is no pathogen in the brain, the inflammation will be triggered by some endogenous molecules which are called as danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). So far two important DAMPs, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), have been recently identified in the ischemic brain. HMGB1 exaggerates the disruption of blood brain barrier; on the other hand, PRX activates mononuclear phagocytes and induces the inflammatory cytokine production through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317241/influence-of-artemisia-annua-l-on-toll-like-receptor-expression-in-brain-of-mice-infected-with-acanthamoeba-sp
#12
Agnieszka Wojtkowiak-Giera, Monika Derda, Danuta Kosik-Bogacka, Agnieszka Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Piotr Solarczyk, Marcin Cholewiński, Elżbieta Wandurska-Nowak, Paweł P Jagodziński, Edward Hadaś
The treatment of acanthamoebiasis is a still a problem. Our previous studies showed that the application of extracts from Artemisia annua L. significantly prolonged the survival of mice infected by Acanthamoeba. This plant has medicinal properties in the treatment of human parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. annua on expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in brain of mice with Acanthamoeba infection. Mice were infected with Acanthamoeba sp. strain Ac309 (KY203908) by intranasal inoculation without and after application of A...
January 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313959/cardiolipin-activates-antigen-presenting-cells-via-tlr2-pi3k-pkn1-akt-p38-nf-kb-signaling-to-prime-antigen-specific-na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-in-mice
#13
Jung-Ah Cho, Tae-Joo Kim, Hye-Jung Moon, Young-Joo Kim, Hye-Kyung Yoon, Seung-Yong Seong
Mitochondrial defects and anti-mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) antibodies are frequently detected in autoimmune disease patients. CL from dysregulated mitochondria activates various pattern recognition receptors, such as NLRP3. However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial CL activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as a damage-associated molecular pattern to prime antigen-specific naïve T cells, which is crucial for T-cell-dependent anti-cardiolipin IgG antibody production in autoimmune diseases is unelucidated...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312832/lipid-raft-localization-of-tlr2-and-its-co-receptors-is-independent-of-membrane-lipid-composition
#14
Christine Hellwing, Axel Schoeniger, Claudia Roessler, Anja Leimert, Julia Schumann
Background: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an important and evolutionary conserved class of pattern recognition receptors associated with innate immunity. The recognition of Gram-positive cell wall constituents strongly depends on TLR2. In order to be functional, TLR2 predominantly forms a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 within specialized membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts. The membrane lipid composition and the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts are subject to modification by exogenous fatty acids...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311138/bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-differentially-regulate-intestinal-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a1-partially-through-tlr4-mapk-pi3k-pathway
#15
Xuejiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Zhixiang Yan, Nan Hu, Yanjuan Huang, Beilei Han, Tai-Seng Wai, Wei Yang, Ru Yan
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) constitutes an important part of intestinal epithelial barrier and catalyzes glucuronidation of many endogenous compounds and drugs. Down-regulation of UGT1A1 in inflammation has been reported, while the association with gut dysbiosis is poorly defined. This study verified the involvement of gut microbiota in intestinal UGT1A1 regulation using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis model plus fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Generally, both DSS induction and colitis-to-normal FMT suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of UGT1A1 and nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NRs) in colon, but enhanced mRNA and decreased protein of rUGT1A1/rNRs in small intestine...
January 8, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299869/combination-therapy-with-low-dose-ivig-and-a-c1-esterase-inhibitor-ameliorates-brain-damage-and-functional-deficits-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#16
Xinzhi Chen, Thiruma V Arumugam, Yi-Lin Cheng, Jong-Hwan Lee, Srinivasulu Chigurupati, Mark P Mattson, Milan Basta
Acute ischemic stroke causes a high rate of deaths and permanent neurological deficits in survivors. Current interventional treatment, in the form of enzymatic thrombolysis, benefits only a small percentage of patients. Brain ischemia triggers mobilization of innate immunity, specifically the complement system and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), ultimately leading to an exaggerated inflammatory response. Here we demonstrate that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a scavenger of potentially harmful complement fragments, and C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), an inhibitor of complement activation, exert a beneficial effect on the outcome of experimental brain ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) injury induced by transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery in mice...
January 3, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297547/tlr2-signaling-pathway-in-alveolar-bone-osteogenesis-induced-by-aloe-vera-and-xenograft-xcb
#17
Utari Kresnoadi, Retno Pudji Rahayu, M Rubianto, Subijanto Marto Sudarmo, Hendrik Setia Budi
The aim of this study was to find the role of TLR2 signaling pathway in reducing osteoclast activity and promoting osteoblast growth by inducing a combination of Aloe vera and cancellous bovine xenograft (XCB) into dental extraction socket. Forty-eight Cavia cobayas were used. They were divided into eight groups (n=6). For control group, their mandibular incisors were extracted and filled with PEG. For treatment groups, they were extracted and filled with XCB, Aloe vera and the combination of Aloe vera and XCB...
May 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296907/tlr2-agonism-reverses-chemotherapy-induced-neutropenia-in-macaca-fascicularis
#18
Nicholas J Laping, Michael P DeMartino, Joshua E Cottom, Jeffrey M Axten, John G Emery, Jeffrey H Guss, Miriam Burman, James J Foley, Mui Cheung, Allen Oliff, Sanjay Kumar
Neutropenia is a common consequence of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients. The resulting immunocompromised patients become highly susceptible to potentially life-threatening infections. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known to stimulate neutrophil production and is widely used as a treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. A small-molecule G-CSF secretagogue without a requirement for refrigerated supply chain would offer a more convenient and cost-effective treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia...
December 12, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296851/agonistic-targeting-of-tlr1-tlr2-induces-p38-mapk-dependent-apoptosis-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-differentiation-of-aml-cells
#19
Mia Eriksson, Pablo Peña-Martínez, Ramprasad Ramakrishnan, Marion Chapellier, Carl Högberg, Gabriella Glowacki, Christina Orsmark-Pietras, Talía Velasco-Hernández, Vladimir Lj Lazarević, Gunnar Juliusson, Jörg Cammenga, James C Mulloy, Johan Richter, Thoas Fioretos, Benjamin L Ebert, Marcus Järås
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor survival, and there is a strong need to identify disease vulnerabilities that might reveal new treatment opportunities. Here, we found that Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 are upregulated on primary AML CD34+CD38- cells relative to corresponding normal bone marrow cells. Activating the TLR1/TLR2 complex by the agonist Pam3CSK4 in MLL-AF9-driven human AML resulted in induction of apoptosis by p38 MAPK-dependent activation of Caspase 3 and myeloid differentiation in a NFκB-dependent manner...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288338/toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#20
Stefan Esser, Larissa Göpfrich, Kai Bihler, Eugenia Kress, Stella Nyamoya, Simone C Tauber, Tim Clarner, Matthias B Stope, Thomas Pufe, Markus Kipp, Lars-Ove Brandenburg
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by myelin abnormalities, oligodendrocyte pathology, and concomitant glia activation. The factors triggering gliosis and demyelination are currently not well characterized. New findings suggest an important role of the innate immune response in the initiation and progression of active demyelinating lesions. Especially during progressive disease, aberrant glia activation rather than the invasion of peripheral immune cells is accountable for progressive neuronal injury...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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