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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734203/exenatide-mitigated-diet-induced-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerotic-plaque-growth-in-apoe-deficient-mice-under-chronic-stress
#1
Guang Yang, Yanna Lei, Aiko Inoue, Limei Piao, Lina Hu, Haiying Jiang, Takeshi Sasaki, Hongxian Wu, Wenhu Xu, Chenglin Yu, Guangxian Zhao, Shinyu Ogasawara, Kenji Okumura, Masafumi Kuzuya, Xian-Wu Cheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Because the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist prevents cardiovascular injury, we investigated the beneficial effects and mechanism of the GLP-1 analogue exenatide on stress-related vascular senescence and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice fed the HF diet were assigned to non-stressed and immobilized-stress groups for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730622/susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-is-influenced-by-toll-like-receptor-2-196-to-174-polymorphism-in-north-indian-population
#2
Sanjukta Vidyant, Animesh Chatterjee, Vikas Agarwal, Tapan N Dhole
INTRODUCTION: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, recognize molecular patterns of pathogens and play an important role in innate immunity. Recent studies have identified that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in TLR gene impairs the response to TLR ligands in some individuals and is associated with susceptibility to various infectious diseases. AIM: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of four SNPs in the TLR2 gene, -196 to -174 Ins/Del, 2258 G/A (Arg753Gln), 2029 C/T (Arg677Trp) and 1892 C/A (Pro631His) with susceptibility and progression to HIV-1 in North Indian individuals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729359/the-%C3%AE-defensin-retrocyclin-101-inhibits-tlr4-and-tlr2-dependent-signaling-and-protects-mice-against-influenza-infection
#3
Daniel Prantner, Kari Ann Shirey, Wendy Lai, Wuyuan Lu, Alexander M Cole, Stefanie N Vogel, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Despite widespread use of annual influenza vaccines, seasonal influenza-associated deaths number in the thousands each year, in part because of exacerbating bacterial superinfections. Therefore, discovering additional therapeutic options would be a valuable aid to public health. Recently, TLR4 inhibition has emerged as a possible mechanism for protection against influenza-associated lethality and acute lung injury. Based on recent data showing that rhesus macaque θ-defensins could inhibit TLR4-dependent gene expression, we tested the hypothesis that a novel θ-defensin, retrocyclin (RC)-101, could disrupt TLR4-dependent signaling and protect against viral infection...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729076/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-gene-are-associated-with-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-north-eastern-han-chinese-population
#4
Xiaoyuan Li, Li Xue, Jinfang Sun, Yanping Sun, Anmu Xie
Growing evidences suggested that inflammatory process played a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given that TLR2 has been implicated in the perpetuation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the association between two genetic variants (rs3804099 and rs3804100) of TLR2 and sporadic PD in Han Chinese population. 395 Han Chinese sporadic PD patients and 413 healthy age and gender-matched controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725012/phycocyanin-attenuates-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-the-tlr2-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#5
Chengcheng Li, Yan Yu, Wenjun Li, Bo Liu, Xudong Jiao, Xinyu Song, Changjun Lv, Song Qin
Our aim was to investigate the effects of phycocyanin (PC) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). In this study, C57 BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 deficient mice were treated with PC for 28 days following BLM exposure. Serum and lung tissues were collected on days 3, 7 and 28. Data shows PC significantly decreased the levels of hydroxyproline (HYP), vimentin, surfactant-associated protein C (SP-C), fibroblast specific protein-1 (S100A4) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) but dramatically increased E-cadherin and podoplanin (PDPN) expression on day 28...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720549/evolutionary-basis-of-a-new-approach-for-the-treatment-of-malignant-brain-tumors-from-mice-to-humans
#6
Pedro R Lowenstein, Maria G Castro
Glioma cells are one of the most aggressive and malignant tumors. Following initial surgery, and radio-chemotherapy they progress rapidly, so that patients' median survival remains under two years. They invade throughout the brain, which makes them difficult to treat, and are universally lethal. Though total resection is always attempted it is not curative. Standard of care in 2016 comprises surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide). Median survival is currently ~14-20months post-diagnosis though it can be higher in high complexity medical university centers, or during clinical trials...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720485/ceftaroline-modulates-the-innate-immune-and-host-defense-responses-of-immunocompetent-cells-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke
#7
A Bruno, C Cipollina, S Di Vincenzo, L Siena, P Dino, F Di Gaudio, M Gjomarkaj, E Pace
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke, the principal risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), negatively influences the effectiveness of the immune system's response to a pathogen. The antibiotic ceftaroline exerts immune-modulatory effects in bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke. AIMS AND METHODS: The present study aims to assess the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 expression, LPS binding and TNF-α and human beta defensin (HBD2) release in an undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated human monocyte cell line (THP-1) exposed or not to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE)...
July 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718065/structure-function-relationships-of-protein-lipopeptide-complexes-and-influence-on-immunogenicity
#8
Acep R Wijayadikusumah, Lucy C Sullivan, David C Jackson, Brendon Y Chua
The lipopeptide, R4Pam2Cys, associates electrostatically with soluble protein antigens and significantly enhances their ability to induce protective humoral and cell-mediated responses. We demonstrate that antibody titers elicited by the antigen ovalbumin (OVA) associated with R4Pam2Cys are higher than those elicited by OVA in the presence of alum and comparable to those elicited by OVA formulated with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The hierarchy of anti-OVA antibody avidities was CFA > R4Pam2Cys = alum...
July 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715645/characteristics-of-regulatory-b-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-different-immune-phases
#9
Guiyang Wang, Yong Liu, Rui Huang, Bei Jia, Ran Su, Zhenhua Sun, Chen Tian, Yali Xiong, Juan Xia, Xiaomin Yan, Zhaoping Zhang, Chao Wu
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are reported to play an important role in the immune responses to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) via Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) signaling. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of Bregs and the expressions of TLRs in Bregs in the peripheral blood of different immune phases of patients with chronic HBV infection. In this study, we determined the frequencies of Bregs and TLR9, TLR2, and TLR4 in peripheral blood using flow cytometry and determined the levels of IL-10 in serum with the Human Magnetic Cytokine/Chemokine Bead Panel...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715461/tlr1-10-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p53-expression-is-increased-in-oral-lichenoid-disease
#10
Peter Rusanen, Emilia Marttila, Johanna Uittamo, Jaana Hagström, Tuula Salo, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in keratinocytes play an important role in dermatological autoimmune diseases. Tumour suppressor protein p53 regulates TLR expression. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of TLR1-TLR10, p53 and NF-κB in patients with oral lichenoid disease (OLD) with healthy mucosa. Oral mucosal biopsies from 24 patients with OLD and 26 healthy controls (HC) were analysed for the expression of TLR1-TLR10, NF-κB and p53 by immunohistochemistry. The expression of all TLRs was increased in OLD epithelia compared to HC samples and the difference was significant in TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714181/involvement-of-adenosine-triphosphate-binding-cassette-subfamily-b-member-1-in-the-augmentation-of-triacylglycerol-excretion-by-propionibacterium-acnes-in-differentiated-hamster-sebocytes
#11
Koji Mizuno, Noriko Akimoto, Mina Kawamura, Keisuke Nakase, Norihisa Noguchi, Takashi Sato
An onset of acne, a common inflammatory skin disease, is associated with excess sebum production and secretion in sebaceous glands. Because Propionibacterium acnes has been reported to augment intracellular sebum accumulation in sebaceous glands in hamsters, it remains unclear whether P. acnes influences sebum secretion from differentiated sebocytes. Both P. acnes culture media (Acnes73-CM) and formalin-killed P. acnes (F-Acnes73) dose-dependently increased the extracellular levels of triacylglycerol (TG), a major sebum component, and Rhodamine 123, a substrate of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, from differentiated hamster sebocytes (DHS)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713776/modulation-of-trehalose-dimycolate-and-immune-system-by-rv0774c-protein-enhanced-the-intracellular-survival-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-human-macrophages-cell-line
#12
Arbind Kumar, Varinder Saini, Anjani Kumar, Jasbinder Kaur, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0774c protein was reported previously to express under stress conditions. Therefore, Rv0774c gene was cloned and expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate host, to determine its role in bacterial persistence and immune modulation in natural environment. The bacterial colonies expressing Rv0774c (Ms_rv0774c) were larger, smoother, more moist, and flatter than the control ones (Ms_ve). Enhanced survival of Ms_rv0774c after treatment with streptomycin was observed when compared with control...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711717/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-immune-responses-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipoteichoic-acid
#13
Tu Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Eunjeong Seo, Juyong Choi, Oanh Thi Tu Le, Ji Yun Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Yoon Lee
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells...
July 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710255/cathelicidins-inhibit-escherichia-coli-induced-tlr2-and-tlr4-activation-in-a-viability-dependent-manner
#14
Maarten Coorens, Viktoria A F Schneider, A Marit de Groot, Albert van Dijk, Marjolein Meijerink, Jerry M Wells, Maaike R Scheenstra, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
Activation of the immune system needs to be tightly regulated to provide protection against infections and, at the same time, to prevent excessive inflammation to limit collateral damage to the host. This tight regulation includes regulating the activation of TLRs, which are key players in the recognition of invading microbes. A group of short cationic antimicrobial peptides, called cathelicidins, have previously been shown to modulate TLR activation by synthetic or purified TLR ligands and may play an important role in the regulation of inflammation during infections...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710013/murine-bone-marrow-derived-dcs-activated-by-porcine-rotavirus-stimulate-the-th1-subtype-response-in%C3%A2-vitro
#15
Liping Ye, Yanlong Jiang, Guilian Yang, Wentao Yang, Jingtao Hu, Yulin Cui, Chunwei Shi, Jing Liu, Chunfeng Wang
Rotavirus (RV) infection causes acute, watery dehydrating diarrhea and even death in infants and other young animals, resulting in a severe economic burden; however, little is known about the innate immune mechanisms associated with RV infection. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), serve as a bridge connecting the innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, the interaction between murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and porcine rotavirus (PRV) was investigated in vitro...
July 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707248/macrophage-m1-plays-a-positive-role-in-aseptic-inflammation-related-graft-loosening-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-surgery
#16
Bing Song, Chuan Jiang, Huan Luo, Zhong Chen, Jingyi Hou, Yunfeng Zhou, Rui Yang, Huiyong Shen, Weiping Li
Macrophage-related inflammatory response is one of the main biological factors resulting in failure of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, although the specific pathomechanism remains to be clarified. Our aim was to investigate the association between graft loosening and macrophage-related inflammation in cases of loosening of reconstructed ACL autografts. Tissue samples were obtained from 21 patients who underwent a second-look arthroscopy within the first year after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using single-bundle hamstring tendon autografts...
July 13, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706958/toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-nf-kappa-b-pathway-activation-in-ocular-surface-epithelial-cells
#17
Aihua Hou, Min Qi Tin, Louis Tong
BACKGROUND: Gram-positive bacteria stimulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and then activate the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. As the human ocular surface is heavily colonised by gram-positive cocci bacteria, a balance of activation/repression of NF-κB target genes is essential to avoid uncontrolled infection or autoimmune-related inflammation. It is advantageous to test NF-κB targeting molecules in an ocular surface culture system that allows assessment of temporal NF-κB activation in a longitudinal fashion without destruction of cells...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705996/different-gene-response-to-mechanical-loading-during-early-and-late-phases-of-rat-achilles-tendon-healing
#18
Malin Hammerman, Parmis Blomgran, Arie Dansac, Pernilla Eliasson, Per Aspenberg
Mechanical loading stimulates tendon healing both when applied in the inflammatory phase and in the early remodeling phase of the process, although not necessarily via the same mechanisms. We investigated the gene response to mechanical loading in these two phases of tendon healing. The right Achilles tendon in rats was transected and the hind limbs were unloaded by tail suspension. The rats were exposed to 5 minutes of treadmill running 3 or 14 days after tendon transection. Thereafter, they were re-suspended for 15 minutes or 3 hours until euthanasia...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703296/correlation-between-tlr2-tlr3-tlr4-and-tlr9-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-and-prognosis-of-severe-hepatitis-among-the-newborns
#19
Xiao Qiu, Yubin Dong, Yaqin Cao, Yingmei Luo
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to explore how toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 influenced the risk and prognosis of severe hepatitis among the Chinese newborns. METHODS: Altogether 135 newborns diagnosed with severe hepatitis and 140 healthy newborns were included in this study. Totally 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 were chosen and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700093/interleukin-10-release-from-astrocytes-suppresses-neuronal-apoptosis-via-the-tlr2-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-a-neonatal-rat-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#20
Mu Lan He, Ze Yu Lv, Xia Shi, Ting Yang, Yun Zhang, Ting-Yu Li, Jie Chen
The biological function of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and the relationship between IL-10 secretion and the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression levels in the central nervous system following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) are poorly understood. Here, we intend to elucidate the biological function and mechanism of IL-10 secretion following HIBD. In the current study, we used a neonatal rat model of HIBD and found that rats injected with adeno-associated virus (AAV)-IL-10-shRNA (short hairpin RNA) exhibited partially impaired learning and memory function compared to rats administered AAV-control-shRNA...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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