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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#1
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225071/resolution-of-tlr2-induced-inflammation-through-manipulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Trudy McGarry, Monika Biniecka, Wei Gao, Deborah Cluxton, Mary Canavan, Siobhan Wade, Sarah Wade, Lorna Gallagher, Carl Orr, Douglas J Veale, Ursula Fearon
During inflammation, immune cells activated by toll-like receptors (TLRs) have the ability to undergo a bioenergetic switch towards glycolysis in a manner similar to that observed in tumour cells. While TLRs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), their role in regulating cellular metabolism in synovial cells, however, is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of TLR2-activation on mitochondrial function and bioenergetics in primary RA-synovial fibroblast cells (RASFC), and further determined the role of glycolytic blockade on TLR2-induced inflammation in RASFC using glycolytic inhibitor 3-(3-pyridinyl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (3PO)...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225045/membrane-targeting-of-tirap-is-negatively-regulated-by-phosphorylation-in-its-phosphoinositide-binding-motif
#3
Xiaolin Zhao, Wen Xiong, Shuyan Xiao, Tuo-Xian Tang, Jeffrey F Ellena, Geoffrey S Armstrong, Carla V Finkielstein, Daniel G S Capelluto
Pathogen-activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs), such as TLR2 and TLR4, dimerize and move laterally across the plasma membrane to phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate-enriched domains. At these sites, TLRs interact with the TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), triggering a signaling cascade that leads to innate immune responses. Membrane recruitment of TIRAP is mediated by its phosphoinositide (PI)-binding motif (PBM). We show that TIRAP PBM transitions from a disordered to a helical conformation in the presence of either zwitterionic micelles or monodispersed PIs...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223348/immunoactive-clostridial-membrane-vesicle-production-is-regulated-by-a-sporulation-factor
#4
Nozomu Obana, Ryoma Nakao, Kyoko Nagayama, Kouji Nakamura, Hidenobu Senpuku, Nobuhiko Nomura
Recently, many Gram-positive bacteria as well as gram-negative bacteria have been reported to produce MVs, but little is known regarding the regulators involved in MV formation. We found that a Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen, Clostridium perfringens, produces MVs predominantly containing membrane proteins and cell wall components. These MVs stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophage-like cells. We suggested that MVs induced IL-6 production through the TLR2 signaling pathway. Thus, the MV could have a role in the bacteria-host interaction and bacterial infection pathogenesis...
February 21, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223111/expression-analysis-of-nine-toll-like-receptors-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responding-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-challenge
#5
Xiao-Ting Zhang, Gui-Rong Zhang, Ze-Chao Shi, Yu-Jie Yuan, Huan Zheng, Li Lin, Kai-Jian Wei, Wei Ji
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which play significant roles in innate immunity to defense against pathogen invasion. Many TLRs have been found in teleosts, but there are no reports about cloning and expression of TLR genes in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). In this study, we analyzed the sequence characters and the relative mRNA expression levels of nine TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4-1, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8-2, TLR9 and TLR22) in different tissues of yellow catfish...
February 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222752/dendritic-cells-macrophages-nk-and-cd8-t-lymphocytes-play-pivotal-roles-in-controlling-hsv-1-in-the-trigeminal-ganglia-by-producing-il1-beta-inos-and-granzyme-b
#6
Natália Lucinda, Maria Marta Figueiredo, Natália Lima Pessoa, Beatriz Senra Álvares da Silva Santos, Graciela Kunrath Lima, Arthur Molinari Freitas, Alexandre Magalhães Vieira Machado, Erna Geessien Kroon, Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli, Marco Antônio Campos
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cause not only mild symptoms but also blindness and encephalitis. It was previously shown that the immune response against HSV-1 occurs mainly in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and that Toll-like receptors 2 and 9 (TLR2/9) are important in mediating this response. It was also demonstrated that iNOS (nitric oxide synthase) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) play an essential role in the defense against HSV-1 infection. Importantly, the present work aimed to identify the primary cells responsible for iNOS and IL-1β production and search for other important molecules and cells that might or might not depend on TLR2/9 receptors to mediate the immune response against HSV-1...
February 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220810/dengue-virus-ns1-protein-activates-immune-cells-via-tlr4-but-not-tlr2-or-tlr6
#7
Naphak Modhiran, Daniel Watterson, Antje Blumenthal, Alan G Baxter, Paul R Young, Katryn J Stacey
The secreted hexameric form of the dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has recently been shown to elicit inflammatory cytokine release and disrupt endothelial cell monolayer integrity. This suggests that circulating NS1 contributes to the vascular leak that plays a major role in the pathology of dengue haemorrhagic fever and shock. Pathways activated by NS1 are thus of great interest as potential therapeutic targets. Recent works have separately implicated both toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the TLR2/6 heterodimer in immune cell activation by NS1...
February 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220122/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-links-tlr2-and-par1-to-soluble-immunomodulator-factor-secretion-in-human-platelets
#8
Pauline Damien, Fabrice Cognasse, Bernard Payrastre, Sherry L Spinelli, Neil Blumberg, Charles-Antoine Arthaud, Marie-Ange Eyraud, Richard P Phipps, Archibald McNicol, Bruno Pozzetto, Olivier Garraud, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse
The primary toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune cell response pathway common for all TLRs is MyD88-dependent activation of NF-κB, a seminal transcription factor for many chemokines and cytokines. Remarkably, anucleate platelets express the NF-κB machinery, whose role in platelets remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the contribution of NF-κB in the release of cytokines and serotonin by human platelets, following selective stimulation of TLR2 and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a classical and non-classical pattern-recognition receptor, respectively, able to participate to the innate immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218976/differential-expression-of-innate-immune-response-genes-in-clinical-phases-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#9
Sara Romani, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Andre Boonstra, Afsaneh Sharifian
We investigated innate immune gene expression in clinical phases of Chronic Hepatitis B infection, including immune tolerant (IT); immune active (IA); inactive carrier (IC); and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative phases, as well as healthy controls. Expression levels of interferon types I, II, and III, their receptor subunits, IRFs, TLRs and other IFN-induced genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared.Forty HBsAg-positive treatment-naïve subjects without co-infection with HIV, HCV or HDV were enrolled...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216438/porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide-induces-pro-inflammatory-adipokine-secretion-and-oxidative-stress-by-regulating-toll-like-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-and-redox-enzymes-in-adipocytes
#10
Fanny Le Sage, Olivier Meilhac, Marie-Paule Gonthier
Gut microbiota LPS contributes to obesity-related chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, promoting insulin resistance. Periodontal disease also represents a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and is associated with obesity. This study compared the effect of LPS from P. gingivalis periodontopathogen and E. coli enterobacteria on inflammatory adipokine secretion and redox status of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that both LPS activated TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways involving MyD88 adaptor and NFκB transcription factor, leading to an increased secretion of leptin, resistin, IL-6 and MCP-1...
February 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216386/serotonin-disturbs-colon-epithelial-tolerance-of-commensal-e-coli-by-increasing-nox2-derived-superoxide
#11
Suhrid Banskota, Sushil Chandra Regmi, Jaya Gautam, Pallavi Gurung, Yu-Jeong Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang Joon Park, Jung-Ae Kim
Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933)...
February 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214849/lipopeptide-induced-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-correlates-with-the-degree-of-acylation
#12
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Minh-Thu Nguyen, Rosi Bissinger, Friedrich Götz, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Consequences of bacterial infection include anemia, which could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Bacterial components known to stimulate eryptosis include lipopeptides. Signaling mediating the triggering of eryptosis include increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]<Sub>i</Sub>), oxidative stress and cellular accumulation of ceramide...
January 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209121/evolution-of-toll-like-receptors-in-the-context-of-terrestrial-ungulates-and-cetaceans-diversification
#13
Edson Ishengoma, Morris Agaba
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the frontline actors in the innate immune response to various pathogens and are expected to be targets of natural selection in species adapted to habitats with contrasting pathogen burdens. The recent publication of genome sequences of giraffe and okapi together afforded the opportunity to examine the evolution of selected TLRs in broad range of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans during their complex habitat diversification. Through direct sequence comparisons and standard evolutionary approaches, the extent of nucleotide and protein sequence diversity in seven Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10) between giraffe and closely related species was determined...
February 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205610/cr-laao-an-l-amino-acid-oxidase-from-calloselasma-rhodostoma-venom-as-a-potential-tool-for-developing-novel-immunotherapeutic-strategies-against-cancer
#14
Tássia R Costa, Danilo L Menaldo, Karina F Zoccal, Sandra M Burin, Alexandre F Aissa, Fabíola A de Castro, Lúcia H Faccioli, Lusânia M Greggi Antunes, Suely V Sampaio
L-amino acid oxidases from snake venoms have been described to possess various biological functions. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses induced in vivo and in vitro by CR-LAAO, an L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom, and its antitumor potential. CR-LAAO induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo, with recruitment of neutrophils and release of IL-6, IL-1β, LTB4 and PGE2. In vitro, IL-6 and IL-1β production by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with CR-LAAO was dependent of the activation of the Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202935/polymorphisms-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-9-and-severity-and-prognosis-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-chinese-children
#15
Pingping Zhang, Nan Zhang, Linlin Liu, Kai Zheng, Liang Zhu, Junping Zhu, Lina Cao, Yiyuan Jiang, Gang Liu, Qiushui He
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity, protecting the host from bacterial pathogens. We investigated whether bacterial meningitis (BM) in children was associated with gene polymorphisms in TLR2 (rs3804099), TLR3 (rs3775291 and rs3775290) and TLR9 (rs352139 and rs352140). Blood samples were taken from 218 child patients with confirmed BM and 330 healthy adult controls (HC) and polymorphisms of these genes were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing. For TLR2 rs3804099, frequencies of the minor allele C were markedly higher in patients with severe BM (defined as CSF glucose concentration ≤ 1...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194462/designing-an-efficient-multi-epitope-oral-vaccine-against-helicobacter-pylori-using-immunoinformatics-and-structural-vaccinology-approaches
#16
Navid Nezafat, Mahboobeh Eslami, Manica Negahdaripour, Mohammad Reza Rahbar, Younes Ghasemi
Helicobacter pylori is the cunning bacterium that can live in the stomachs of many people without any symptoms, but gradually can lead to gastric cancer. Due to various obstacles, which are related to anti-H. pylori antibiotic therapy, recently developing an anti-H. pylori vaccine has attracted more attention. In this study, different immunoinformatics and computational vaccinology approaches were employed to design an efficient multi-epitope oral vaccine against H. pylori. Our multi-epitope vaccine is composed of heat labile enterotoxin IIc B (LT-IIc) that is used as a mucosal adjuvant to enhance vaccine immunogenicity for oral immunization, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) to increase vaccine stability in acidic pH of gut, one experimentally protective antigen, OipA, and two hypothetical protective antigens, HP0487 and HP0906, and "CTGKSC" peptide motif that target epithelial microfold cells (M cells) to enhance vaccine uptake from the gut barrier...
February 14, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194152/hsp65-producing-lactococcus-lactis-prevents-inflammatory-intestinal-disease-in-mice-by-il-10-and-tlr2-dependent-pathways
#17
Ana Cristina Gomes-Santos, Rafael Pires de Oliveira, Thaís Garcias Moreira, Archimedes Barbosa Castro-Junior, Bernardo Coelho Horta, Luísa Lemos, Leonardo Augusto de Almeida, Rafael Machado Rezende, Denise Carmona Cara, Sérgio Costa Oliveira, Vasco Ariston Carvalho Azevedo, Anderson Miyoshi, Ana Maria Caetano Faria
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly expressed at all sites of inflammation. As they are ubiquitous and immunodominant antigens, these molecules represent good candidates for the therapeutic use of oral tolerance in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from uncontrolled inflammatory responses to intestinal microbiota. Hsps are immunodominant proteins expressed by several immune cells and by commensal bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193634/purified-streptococcus-pneumoniae-endopeptidase-o-pepo-enhances-particle-uptake-by-macrophages-in-a-tlr2-and-mir-155-dependent-manner
#18
Hua Yao, Hong Zhang, Kai Lan, Hong Wang, Yufeng Su, Dagen Li, Zhixin Song, Fang Cui, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang
Insights into the host-microbial virulence factors interaction, especially the immune-signaling mechanisms, could provide novel prevention and treatment options for pneumococcal diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO) is a newly discovered and ubiquitously expressed pneumococcal virulence protein. A PepO-mutant strain showed impaired adherence to and invasion of host cells compared with their isogenic wild-type strains. It is still unknown whether PepO is involved in host defense response against pneumococcal infection...
February 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191612/high-toll-like-receptor-tlr-9-expression-is-associated-with-better-prognosis-in-surgically-treated-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#19
Joni Leppänen, Olli Helminen, Heikki Huhta, Joonas H Kauppila, Joel Isohookana, Kirsi-Maria Haapasaari, Petri Lehenkari, Juha Saarnio, Tuomo J Karttunen
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest malignancies in the world. Inflammatory response and tumor environment are thought to play a major role in its pathogenesis. Knowledge on TLR expression and impact on patient survival in pancreatic cancer is limited. The study's aim was to clarify the role of different TLRs in pancreatic cancer. TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 expression was investigated in 65 surgically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma specimens by immunohistochemistry. The association between TLR expression, clinical parameters, and local inflammatory response to the tumor was assessed using chi-square test...
February 12, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185924/high-throughput-dynamic-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-splenic-dendritic-cells-from-mice-infected-with-schistosoma-japonicum
#20
Lin Chen, Qingzhou Chen, Wei Hou, Li He
Dendritic cells are the initiation and key point of immune response and play a role in immune regulation. So we explored the mechanisms involved in immune regulation of dendritic cells (DCs) against schistosomiasis using mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Splenic DCs from normal mice and mice with acute and chronic S. japonicum infection were sorted by flow cytometry. The numbers and functions of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DCs were determined by high-throughput analysis. All DEGs with transcription-level fold changes of ≥2 were selected and matched to corresponding genes in databases...
February 7, 2017: Immunology Letters
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