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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142002/toll-like-receptor-2-has-a-prominent-but-nonessential-role-in-innate-immunity-to-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#1
Shawn J Skerrett, Marissa H Braff, H Denny Liggitt, Craig E Rubens
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of acute bacterial pneumonia. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes multiple components of the bacterial cell wall and activates innate immune responses to gram-positive bacteria. We hypothesized that TLR2 would have an important role in pulmonary host defense against S. aureus TLR null (TLR2(-/-)) mice and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 controls were challenged with aerosolized S. aureus at a range of inocula for kinetic studies of cytokine and antimicrobial peptide expression, lung inflammation, bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages, and bacterial clearance...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138299/induction-of-antiviral-immune-response-through-recognition-of-the-repeating-subunit-pattern-of-viral-capsids-is-toll-like-receptor-2-dependent
#2
Kelly M Shepardson, Benjamin Schwarz, Kyle Larson, Rachelle V Morton, John Avera, Kimberly McCoy, Alayna Caffrey, Ann Harmsen, Trevor Douglas, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple
Although viruses and viral capsids induce rapid immune responses, little is known about viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are exhibited on their surface. Here, we demonstrate that the repeating protein subunit pattern common to most virus capsids is a molecular pattern that induces a Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2)-dependent antiviral immune response. This early antiviral immune response regulates the clearance of subsequent bacterial superinfections, which are a primary cause of morbidities associated with influenza virus infections...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136637/transcriptional-profiling-of-toll-like-receptor-2-deficient-primary-murine-brain-cells-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#3
Kousuke Umeda, Sachi Tanaka, Fumiaki Ihara, Junya Yamagishi, Yutaka Suzuki, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is capable of persisting in the brain, although it is efficiently eliminated by cellular immune responses in most other sites. While Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) reportedly plays important roles in protective immunity against the parasite, the relationship between neurological disorders induced by T. gondii infection and TLR2 function in the brain remains controversial with many unknowns. In this study, primary cultured astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and peritoneal macrophages obtained from wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice were exposed to T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128406/recognition-of-candida-albicans-by-gingival-fibroblasts-the-role-of-tlr2-tlr4-cd14-and-myd88
#4
Claudia Ramos Pinheiro, Ana Lúcia Coelho, Carine Ervolino de Oliveira, Thaís Helena Gasparoto, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, João Santana Silva, Carlos Ferreira Santos, Karen Angélica Cavassani, Cory M Hogaboam, Ana Paula Campanelli
Recent evidence indicates that nonprofessional immune cells such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts also contribute to innate immunity via secretion of cytokines. Fibroblasts are the principal type of cell found in the periodontal connective tissues and they are involved in the immune response during periodontal disease. The role of fibroblasts in the recognition of pathogens via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been established; however, few studies have been conducted concerning the involvement of innate immune receptors in the recognition of Candida albicans by gingival fibroblast...
November 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125848/early-decreased-tlr2-expression-on-monocytes-is-associated-with-their-reduced-phagocytic-activity-and-impaired-maturation-in-a-porcine-polytrauma-model
#5
Lukas Schimunek, Rafael Serve, Michel P J Teuben, Philipp Störmann, Birgit Auner, Mathias Woschek, Roman Pfeifer, Klemens Horst, Tim-P Simon, Miriam Kalbitz, Ramona Sturm, Hans-C Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
In their post-traumatic course, trauma patients suffering from multiple injuries have a high risk for immune dysregulation, which may contribute to post-injury complications and late mortality. Monocytes as specific effector cells of the innate immunity play a crucial role in inflammation. Using their Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), notably Toll-Like Receptors (TLR), the monocytes recognize pathogens and/or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and organize their clearance. TLR2 is the major receptor for particles of gram-positive bacteria, and initiates their phagocytosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123526/toll-like-receptor-ligands-and-interferon-%C3%AE-synergize-for-induction-of-antitumor-m1-macrophages
#6
Elisabeth Müller, Panagiotis F Christopoulos, Sanjib Halder, Anna Lunde, Kahsai Beraki, Martin Speth, Inger Øynebråten, Alexandre Corthay
Tumor-associated macrophages may either promote or suppress tumor growth depending on their activation status. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been identified as a key factor for inducing tumoricidal M1 phenotype in macrophages. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ is sufficient or if additional stimuli are required. Here, we tested IFN-γ and a panel of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists for the ability to activate murine macrophages toward a tumoricidal M1 phenotype. The following TLR ligands were used: TLR1/TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4, TLR2/TLR6 agonist lipotechoic acid, TLR3 agonist poly(I:C), TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR5 agonist flagellin, TLR7 agonist CL264, and TLR9 agonist CpG...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121163/gene-expression-profiling-reveals-heterogeneity-of-perivascular-adipose-tissues-surrounding-coronary-and-internal-thoracic-arteries
#7
Danbo Lu, Wei Wang, Limin Xia, Pu Xia, Yan Yan
The internal thoracic artery (ITA) that differs from coronary artery (CA), rarely develops atherosclerosis. Understanding the mechanism underlying such a difference will help to pave a new way to the prevention and treatment of the disease. We hypothesize herein that the difference in susceptibility to atherosclerosis between CA and ITA is attributable to the heterogeneity of perivascular adipose tissues (PVATs) surrounding these two kinds of arteries, i.e. PVAT-CA and PVAT-ITA. We isolated PVAT from eight patients of coronary heart disease (CHD) and four non-CHD patients...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118935/a-systems-biology-analysis-protein-protein-interaction-of-nash-and-ibd-based-on-comprehensive-gene-information
#8
Reza Karbalaei, Mehran Piran, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Hamid Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Mohammad Hossein Heidari
Aim: Analysis reconstruction networks from two diseases, IBD and NASH and their relationship, based on systems biology methods. Background: IBD and NASH are two complex diseases, with progressive prevalence and high cost for countries. There are some reports on co-existence of these two diseases. In addition, they have some similar risk factors such as age, obesity, and insulin resistance. Therefore, systems biology approach can help to discover their relationship...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113341/knockout-of-toll-like-receptor-impairs-nerve-regeneration-after-a-crush-injury
#9
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Pao-Jen Kuo, Shu-Hsuan Liu, Chia-Jung Wu, Tsu-Hsiang Lu, Yi-Chan Wu, Chia-Wei Lin
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the initiation of Schwann cell activation and subsequent recruitment of macrophages for clearance of degenerated myelin and neuronal debris after nerve injury. The present study was designed to investigate the regenerative outcome and expression of myelination-related factors in Tlr-knockout mice following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Materials and methods: A standard sciatic nerve crush injury, induced by applying constant pressure to the nerve with a No...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113135/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-is-exacerbated-in-high-fat-diet-fed-gnotobiotic-mice-by-colonization-with-the-gut-microbiota-from-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Chien-Chao Chiu, Yung-Hao Ching, Yen-Peng Li, Ju-Yun Liu, Yen-Te Huang, Yi-Wen Huang, Sien-Sing Yang, Wen-Ching Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious liver disorder associated with the accumulation of fat and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the gut microbiota composition that might influence the progression of NAFLD. Germ-free mice were inoculated with feces from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or from healthy persons (HL) and then fed a standard diet (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD). We found that the epididymal fat weight, hepatic steatosis, multifocal necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration significantly increased in the NASH-HFD group...
November 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112296/live-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-induces-greater-tlr2-and-tlr2-6-activation-than-the-dead-bacterium-in-an-apical-anaerobic-co-culture-system
#11
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Eric Altermann, Nicole C Roy
Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a 'tonic' level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110065/fungi-in-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-human-and-mice-from-community-to-functions
#12
REVIEW
Jiayan Li, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Gang Tian, Zhiqing Huang, Yuheng Luo
Fungi are often ignored in studies on gut microbes because of their low level of presence (making up only 0.1% of the total microorganisms) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of monogastric animals. Recent studies using novel technologies such as next generation sequencing have expanded our understanding on the importance of intestinal fungi in humans and animals. Here, we provide a comprehensive review on the fungal community, the so-called mycobiome, and their functions from recent studies in humans and mice...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108811/the-antimicrobial-effect-of-cen1hc-br-against-propionibacterium-acnes-and-its-therapeutic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-acne-vulgaris
#13
Rui Han, Hans-Matti Blencke, Hao Cheng, Chun Li
Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal bacterium, which is involved in acne inflammation. An antimicrobial peptide named CEN1HC-Br, which was isolated and characterized form the green sea urchin, has been shown to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. To examine the potency of CEN1HC-Br in acne treatment, we conducted experiments to analyze the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of CEN1HC-Br both in vitro and in vivo...
November 3, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104540/oral-supplementation-with-baker-s-yeast-beta-glucan-is-associated-with-altered-monocytes-t-cells-and-cytokines-following-a-bout-of-strenuous-exercise
#14
Brian K McFarlin, Adam S Venable, Katie C Carpenter, Andrea L Henning, Stephan Ogenstad
Exercise and physical labor in extreme environmental conditions causes transient decreases in immune cell and cytokine concentrations, likely increasing the susceptibility to opportunistic infection. Baker's yeast beta glucan (BYBG) has been previously demonstrated to be an effective countermeasure in athletes, but its effectiveness in individuals of average fitness under similar physical stress is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if 10 days of oral supplementation with BYBG could modify previously observed suppression of monocytes, T cells, circulating and whole blood LPS-stimulated cytokines due to strenuous exercise...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096690/tlr2-stimulation-impairs-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-m2-like-macrophages-generating-a-chimeric-m1-m2-phenotype
#15
Lilian Quero, Edveena Hanser, Tobias Manigold, André N Tiaden, Diego Kyburz
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, it is not clear whether inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 predominate among the resident macrophages in the synovium. In the present study, we set out to investigate the impact of TLR stimulation on monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophage function and phenotype by mimicking the exposure to abundant TLR agonists as occurs in the context of RA. The response of macrophage subsets to TLR2 and TLR4 activation was evaluated on cluster of differentiation (CD) marker profile; cytokine secretion; gene expression; and NF-κB, interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/7), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation...
November 2, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089069/-tlr2-modulates-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-inflammatory-response-and-autophagy-in-macrophages-through-pi3k-signaling-pathway
#16
Shuai Li, Lei Fang, Jiong Wang, Rongyu Liu
Objective To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) taking part in inflammatory response in Staphylococcus aureus (SA)-induced asthma. Methods We established the cell inflammatory response model through stimulating mouse RAW264.7 macrophages with SA. The TLR2, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), nuclear factor κBp65 (NF-κBp65), phospho-NF-κBp65, beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) were detected by Western blot analysis after treatment with TLR2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined by ELISA...
September 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084277/systemic-effects-in-na%C3%A3-ve-mice-injected-with-immunomodulatory-lectin-artinm
#17
Patrícia Kellen Martins Oliveira Brito, Thiago Eleutério Gonçalves, Fabrício Freitas Fernandes, Camila Botelho Miguel, Wellington Francisco Rodrigues, Javier Emílio Lazo Chica, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Thiago Aparecido da Silva
Toll-like receptors (TLR) contain N-glycans, which are important glycotargets for plant lectins, to induce immunomodulation. The lectin ArtinM obtained from Artocarpus heterophyllus interacts with TLR2 N-glycans to stimulate IL-12 production by antigen-presenting cells and to drive the immune response toward the Th1 axis, conferring resistance against intracellular pathogens. This immunomodulatory effect was demonstrated by subcutaneously injecting (s.c.) ArtinM (0.5 μg) in infected mice. In this study, we evaluated the systemic implications of ArtinM administration in naïve BALB/c mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081055/peptide-lipidation-a-synthetic-strategy-to-afford-peptide-based-therapeutics
#18
Renata Kowalczyk, Paul W R Harris, Geoffrey M Williams, Sung-Hyun Yang, Margaret A Brimble
Peptide and protein aberrant lipidation patterns are often involved in many diseases including cancer and neurological disorders. Peptide lipidation is also a promising strategy to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of peptide-based drugs. Self-adjuvanting peptide-based vaccines commonly utilise the powerful TLR2 agonist PamnCys lipid to stimulate adjuvant activity. The chemical synthesis of lipidated peptides can be challenging hence efficient, flexible and straightforward synthetic routes to access homogeneous lipid-tagged peptides are in high demand...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079852/exopolysaccharides-from-lactobacillus-plantarum-ncu116-induce-c-jun-dependent-fas-fasl-mediated-apoptosis-via-tlr2-in-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-cancer-cells
#19
Xingtao Zhou, Tao Hong, Qiang Yu, Shaoping Nie, Deming Gong, Tao Xiong, Mingyong Xie
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to play vital parts in the modulation of cell-cycle and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which EPS regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells remain incompletely understood. We thus used different cancer cells to evaluate the anticancer ability and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (EPS116). Our studies showed that EPS116 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in a cell type manner, and remarkably repressed the growth and survival of CT26 through induction of apoptosis...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078091/hmgb1-mediates-aspergillus-fumigatus-induced-inflammatory-response-in-alveolar-macrophages-of-copd-mice-via-activating-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-syk-pi3k-signalings
#20
Pengpeng Zhang, Xiaofeng Xin, Liping Fang, Hao Jiang, Xiaoyong Xu, Xin Su, Yi Shi
The incidence and mortality of Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are increasing. HMGB1, which mediates inflammatory response, is increased in COPD patients. However, the role and mechanism of HMGB1 in A. fumigatus-infected alveolar macrophages of COPD mice remain unknown. Alveolar macrophages isolated from COPD mice were infected with A. fumigatus conidia and then HMGB1 expression was assayed. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which was confirmed by TLR2/4 or Dectin-1 siRNA, RAGE, Dectin-1, and TLR2/4 levels were assayed after HMGB1 knockdown...
October 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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