keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Tlr2

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549377/biocompatibility-of-liposome-nanocarriers-in-the-rat-inner-ear-after-intratympanic-administration
#1
Jing Zou, Hao Feng, Rohit Sood, Paavo K J Kinnunen, Ilmari Pyykko
Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The aim of the present study is to document the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear after intratympanic delivery. LPNs with or without gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA) were delivered to the rats through transtympanic injection...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545924/retinoic-acid-pre-treatment-down-regulates-v-cholerae-outer-membrane-vesicles-induced-acute-inflammation-and-enhances-mucosal-immunity
#2
Ritam Sinha, Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Atri Ta, Soma Mitra, Santasabuj Das, Hemanta Koley
Bacterial outer membrane vesicles have been extensively investigated and considered as a next generation vaccine. Recently, we have demonstrated that the cholera pentavalent outer membrane vesicles (CPMVs) immunogen induced adaptive immunity and had a strong protective efficacy against the circulating V. cholerae strains in a mouse model. In this present study, we are mainly focusing on reducing outer membrane vesicle (OMV) -mediated toxicity without altering its antigenic property. Therefore, we have selected All-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA), active metabolites of vitamin A, which have both anti-inflammatory and mucosal adjuvant properties...
May 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544973/pegylation-of-a-tlr2-agonist-based-vaccine-delivery-system-improves-antigen-trafficking-and-the-magnitude-of-ensuing-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#3
Toshiki Sekiya, Junya Yamagishi, John Henry V Gray, Paul G Whitney, Axel Martinelli, Weiguang Zeng, Chinn Yi Wong, Chihiro Sugimoto, David C Jackson, Brendon Y Chua
The lipopeptide R4Pam2Cys is an agonist for toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), a key pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor expressed on many antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). Electrostatic association of R4Pam2Cys with soluble protein antigens significantly enhances their immunogenicity and there is evidence to suggest that reducing the size of suitably adjuvanted-antigen complexes in solution may further improve their immunostimulatory capabilities. In this study, we investigated how incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into R4Pam2Cys affects the size, activity and efficacy of formed antigen-lipopeptide complexes...
May 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542929/the-immune-response-to-prevotella-bacteria-in-chronic-inflammatory-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jeppe Madura Larsen
The microbiota plays a central role in human health and disease by shaping immune development, immune responses, metabolism, and protecting from invading pathogens. Technical advances that allow comprehensive characterization of microbial communities by genetic sequencing have sparked the hunt for disease modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, and low-grade systemic inflammation...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542462/a-human-monocytic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-fluorescent-reporter-cell-line-for-detection-of-microbial-contaminants-in-biological-samples
#5
Claire Battin, Annika Hennig, Patrick Mayrhofer, Renate Kunert, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Peter Steinberger, Wolfgang Paster
Sensing of pathogens by innate immune cells is essential for the initiation of appropriate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are highly sensitive for various structurally and evolutionary conserved molecules derived from microbes have a prominent role in this process. TLR engagement results in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, which induces the expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. The exquisite sensitivity of TLR signalling can be exploited for the detection of bacteria and microbial contaminants in tissue cultures and in protein preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542146/the-role-of-extracellular-histone-in-organ-injury
#6
REVIEW
Eleanor Silk, Hailin Zhao, Hao Weng, Daqing Ma
Histones are intra-nuclear cationic proteins that are present in all eukaryotic cells and are highly conserved across species. Within the nucleus, they provide structural stability to chromatin and regulate gene expression. Histone may be released into the extracellular space in three forms: freely, as a DNA-bound nucleosome or as part of neutrophil extracellular traps, and all three can be detected in serum after significant cellular death such as sepsis, trauma, ischaemia/reperfusion injury and autoimmune disease...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539922/sporothrix-schenckii-sensu-stricto-and-sporothrix-brasiliensis-are-differentially-recognized-by-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#7
José A Martínez-Álvarez, Luis A Pérez-García, Erika Mellado-Mojica, Mercedes G López, Iván Martínez-Duncker, Leila M Lópes-Bezerra, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536433/a-new-model-of-self-resolving-leptospirosis-in-mice-infected-with-a-strain-of-leptospira-interrogans-serovar-autumnalis-harboring-lps-signaling-only-through-tlr4
#8
Bili Xia, Le Sun, Xia Fan, Haihan Xiao, Yongzhang Zhu, Jinhong Qin, Chengsong Cai, Wei Zhao, Yung-Fu Chang, Yan Zhang, Xiaokui Guo, Ping He
Leptospirosis is an emerging worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Our understanding of leptospirosis pathogenesis and host immune response remains limited, while mechanistic studies are hindered by a lack of proper animal models and immunological reagents. Here we established a murine model of acute and self-resolving leptospirosis by infecting 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice with Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain 56606v, with characteristic manifestations including jaundice as well as subcutaneous and pulmonary bleeding, but no kidney lesions...
May 24, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536249/bronchial-inflammation-and-bacterial-load-in-stable-copd-is-associated-with-tlr4-overexpression
#9
Antonino Di Stefano, Fabio L M Ricciardolo, Gaetano Caramori, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung, Peter J Barnes, Paola Brun, Andrea Leonardi, Filippo Andò, Davide Vallese, Isabella Gnemmi, Luisella Righi, Francesco Cappello, Bruno Balbi
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are two major forms of innate immune sensors but their role in the immunopathology of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is incompletely studied. Our objective here was to investigate TLR and NLR signalling pathways in the bronchial mucosa in stable COPD.Using immunohistochemistry, the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, CD14, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), and the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases phospho-IRAK1 and IRAK4 were measured in the bronchial mucosa of subjects with stable COPD of different severity (n=34), control smokers (n=12) and nonsmokers (n=12)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534957/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-inflammatory-responses-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-by-modulating-the-mapk-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#10
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Youngchul Kim, Minji Choi, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms and prophylactic effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Cell counting and MTT assays were used to assess cell viability in the absence or presence of GSP. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed for several inflammation-related genes (NOD1, NOD2, TLR2, TLR4, IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS and COX-2). The expression of anti-inflammatory cell signaling molecules, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitory-κBα (IκBα), iNOS and COX-2, was evaluated by western blot analysis...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532808/immune-response-of-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model-is-linked-to-adaptive-capacity-and-genotypic-profiles
#11
Elizabet A L Pereyra, Sofía C Sacco, Andrea Duré, Celina Baravalle, María S Renna, Carolina S Andreotti, Stefan Monecke, Luis F Calvinho, Bibiana E Dallard
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated major pathogens from intramammary infections (IMI) worldwide. The mechanisms by which S. aureus IMI are established and maintained in dairy cows involve both bacterial escape strategies and modulation of the host immune response. Moreover, it was shown that different S. aureus strains have varying effects on the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response in a mouse mastitis model of two S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMI with different clinical manifestation (persistent-P or non-persistent-NP), phenotypic and genotypic profile...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532492/innate-immune-responses-induced-by-the-saponin-adjuvant-matrix-m-in-specific-pathogen-free-pigs
#12
Viktor Ahlberg, Bernt Hjertner, Per Wallgren, Stina Hellman, Karin Lövgren Bengtsson, Caroline Fossum
Saponin-based adjuvants have been widely used to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses in many species, but their mode of action is not fully understood. A characterization of the porcine transcriptional response to Matrix-M was performed in vitro using lymphocytes, monocytes or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and in vivo. The effect of Matrix-M was also evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs exposed to conventionally reared pigs. The pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL1B and CXCL8 were up-regulated in monocytes and lymphocytes after Matrix-M exposure...
May 22, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528507/mertk-does-not-mediate-phagocytosis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-but-attenuates-inflammation-induced-by-staphylococcal-lipoteichoic-acid-through-blocking-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#13
Bing Zhang, Huimei Wu, Lei Fang, Peishan Ding, Ke Xu, Qingbin Yang, Rongyu Liu
Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) expressed in macrophages is essential for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Here, we investigate whether MerTK is involved in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and regulation of staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. We found that stimulating RAW264.7 macrophages with S. aureus activated multiple signaling pathways including toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), scavenger receptor A (SR-A), and MerTK. Meanwhile, S. aureus stimulation also induced activation of proteins focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rac1, which are related to phagocytosis...
May 20, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527958/treadmill-exercise-produces-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-murine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-by-regulating-the-tlr2-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#14
Jung-Hoon Koo, Yong-Chul Jang, Dong-Ju Hwang, Hyun-Seob Um, Nam-Hee Lee, Jae-Hoon Jung, Joon-Yong Cho
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopamine depletion and a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Treadmill exercise is a promising non-pharmacological approach for reducing the risk of PD and other neuroinflammatory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on α-synuclein-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524642/polydatin-reduces-staphylococcus-aureus-lipoteichoic-acid-induced-injury-by-attenuating-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-tlr2-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling
#15
Gan Zhao, Kangfeng Jiang, Haichong Wu, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng, Xiuli Peng
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes severe inflammation in various infectious diseases, leading to high mortality. The clinical application of antibiotics has gained a significant curative effect. However, it has led to the emergence of various resistant bacteria. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the protective effect of polydatin (PD), a traditional Chinese medicine extract, on S. aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced injury in vitro and in vivo. First, a significant improvement in the pathological conditions of PD in vivo was observed, suggesting that PD had a certain protective effect on LTA-induced injury in a mouse model...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522392/low-molecular-weight-mannogalactofucans-prevent-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-infection-via-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-2
#16
Woo Jung Kim, Ji Won Choi, Won Jong Jang, Young-Sun Kang, Chang Won Lee, Andriy Synytsya, Yong Il Park
Low-molecular-weight mannogalactofucans (LMMGFs, <4000g/mol) were prepared by the enzymatic degradation of Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll galactofucan (MF) and evaluated or their antiviral activities and underlying action mechanisms against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of LMMGFs and MF were 2.64 and 2.42μg/mL, respectively. LMMGFs inhibited the viral entry on the host cell surface and also exhibited inhibitory activity directly against viral particles, as observed in a virucidal assay...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521851/regulation-of-interleukin-11-expression-in-ovulatory-follicles-of-the-rat-ovary
#17
You-Jee Jang, You-Jee Jang, Jae-Il Park, Jae-Il Park, Seong-Eun Jeong, Seong-Eun Jeong, You-Mi Seo, You-Mi Seo, Phuong T M Dam, Phuong T M Dam, Young-Woo Seo, Young-Woo Seo, Bum-Chae Choi, Bum-Chae Choi, Sang-Jin Song, Sang-Jin Song, Sang-Young Chun, Sang-Young Chun, Moon-Kyoung Cho, Moon-Kyoung Cho
The aim of the present study was to examine the regulation of interleukin (IL)-11 expression, as well as the role of IL-11, during ovulation in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), followed by human CG (hCG) to induce superovulation stimulated expression of the Il11 gene in theca cells within 6h, as revealed by northern blot and in situ hybridisation analyses. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the IL-11 receptor, α subunit gene was expressed in granulosa and theca cells and that injection of hCG had no effect on its expression...
May 19, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518213/relationship-between-toll-like-receptor-2-r753q-and-t16934a-polymorphisms-and-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage
#18
Maciej Żukowski, Olga Taryma-Leśniak, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna Kotfis, Łukasz Szydłowski, Andrzej Ciechanowicz, Mirosław Brykczyński, Agnieszka Żukowska
BACKGROUND: The association among specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2 R753Q (rs5743708) and T16934A (rs4696480) and the nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus was studied in adults before CABG. METHODS: The TLR2 polymorphisms were genotyped in 299 consecutive patients prepared for a CABG operation. Genotyping was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified fragments. Two nasal swab cultures were taken within 2 weeks before the operation...
May 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514297/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-toll-like-receptor-2-gene-with-asthma-susceptibility-a-meta-analysis
#19
Yifeng Gao, Hanyan Xiao, Yongbo Wang, Feng Xu
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have been carried out on the relationship between polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene and asthma risk. However, the results were controversial. With the purpose of yielding a more reliable estimation of the association, we conducted the present meta-analysis. METHODS: Multiple electronic databases up to August 22, 2016 were searched for literature retrieval. The association between the asthma susceptibility and the rs5743708 polymorphism, rs3804099 polymorphism, rs3804100 polymorphism, and rs4696480 polymorphism in TLR2 gene was appraised...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512139/a-genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-on-lipoprotein-a-concentrations-adjusted-for-apolipoprotein-a-isoforms
#20
Salome Mack, Stefan Coassin, Rico Rueedi, Noha A Yousri, Ilkka Seppälä, Christian Gieger, Sebastian Schönherr, Lukas Forer, Gertraud Erhart, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Janina Ried, Gerard Waeber, Sven Bergmann, Doreen Dähnhardt, Andrea Stöckl, Olli T Raitakari, Mika Kähönen, Annette Peters, Thomas Meitinger, Konstantin Strauch, Ludmilla Kedenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Terho Lehtimäki, Steven C Hunt, Peter Vollenweider, Claudia Lamina, Florian Kronenberg
High lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Concentrations are strongly influenced by apo(a) KIV repeat isoforms. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with Lp(a) concentrations using data from five genome-wide association studies (n=13,781). We identified 48 independent SNPs in the LPA and 1 SNP in the APOE gene region to be significantly associated with Lp(a) concentrations. We also adjusted for apo(a) isoforms to identify loci affecting Lp(a) levels independently from them, which resulted in 31 SNPs (30 in the LPA, 1 in the APOE gene region)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
keyword
keyword
38450
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"