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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#1
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094890/three-months-of-western-diet-induces-small-intestinal-mucosa-alteration-in-tlr-ko-mice
#2
Claudia Sardi, Patrizia Luchini, Andrea Emanuelli, Amedeo Giannoni, Elisa Martini, Lucia M Manara, Lucia Sfondrini, Marinos Kallikourdis, Michele Sommariva, Cristiano Rumio
Several studies support the role of Western-style diet (WD) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Toll-like receptors/NOD-like receptors (TLRs/NLRs) are important to maintain a healthy epithelium as well as inducing inflammation. Given that dietary factors influence IBD development, that epithelial dysfunction is thought to be involved in initiating intestinal inflammation and that TLR-NLR are involved in maintenance of the functionality of intestinal epithelium as well as in regulating inflammation, we decided to examine the role of TLR signals in the triggering events that lead to alteration of the small intestinal epithelium associated to consumption of WD...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094276/b7-h3-participates-in-the-development-of-asthma-by-augmentation-of-the-inflammatory-response-independent-of-tlr2-pathway
#3
Wenjing Gu, Xinxing Zhang, Yongdong Yan, Yuqing Wang, Li Huang, Meijuan Wang, Xuejun Shao, Zhengrong Chen, Wei Ji
B7-H3, a new member of the B7 superfamily, acts as both a T cell costimulator and coinhibitor. Recent studies identified B7-H3 plays a critical role in the development of asthma. But the definitive mechanism is not clear. In this study, we further report that B7-H3 participates in the development of OVA-induced asthma in a murine model. And study its mechanism through the vitro and vivo experiment. Exogenous administration of B7-H3 strongly amplified the inflammatory response and augmented proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and vivo...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093922/toll-like-receptors-and-their-soluble-forms-differ-in-the-knee-and-thumb-basal-osteoarthritic-joints
#4
Goncalo Barreto, Jerker Sandelin, Abdelhakim Salem, Dan C Nordström, Eero Waris
Background and purpose - Although the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood, chondrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses (triggered by the activation of innate immune receptors by damage-associated molecules) are thought to be involved. We examined the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and OA in cartilage from 2 joints differing in size and mechanical loading: the first carpometacarpal (CMC-I) and the knee. Patients and methods - Samples of human cartilage obtained from OA CMC-I and knee joints were immunostained for TLRs (1-9) and analyzed using histomorphometry and principal component analysis (PCA)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093329/antioxidant-antitumor-and-immunostimulatory-activities-of-the-polypeptide-from-pleurotus-eryngii-mycelium
#5
Yanan Sun, Xinlei Hu, Wenxiang Li
The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antitumor and immunological activities of the polypeptide from Pleurotus eryngii mycelium (PEMP). The ability of the polypeptide to stimulate Ana-1 macrophages to englobe neutral red, secrete NO, H2O2, TNF-α, and IL-6, increase TLR2 and TLR4 expression levels and Ana-1 cell survival rate were investigated to study its immunocompetence. Its antitumor activities were studied by examining the survival of cervical, breast, and stomach cancer cells...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092794/%C3%AE-defensin-3-modulates-macrophage-activation-and-orientation-during-acute-inflammatory-response-to-porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide
#6
Jinglu Lyu, Tianying Bian, Bin Chen, Di Cui, Lili Li, Ling Gong, Fuhua Yan
β-defensin 3, a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide, has immuno-regulatory activities. We investigated the modulatory mechanism of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) on acute inflammatory response resulted from Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P.g-LPS), which plays a pro-inflammatory role in periodontal infection and its derived systemic inflammation. P.g-LPS was administrated to mice and murine macrophages alone or along with hBD3. P.g-LPS could lead to acute inflammation as soon as 2h. And it was observed that hBD3 significantly decreased the production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers of in response to P...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090274/the-role-of-m2000-as-an-anti-inflammatory-agent-in-toll-like-receptor-2-microrna-155-pathway
#7
Fatemeh Pourgholi, Mahsa Hajivalili, Rasoul Razavi, Shadi Esmaeili, Behzad Baradaran, Ali Akbar Movasaghpour, Sanam Sadreddini, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad, Abbas Mirshafiey, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: M2000 is a newly designed and safe Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of M2000 on expression levels of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-1 (SOCS-1) and Src Homology-2 domain-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) proteins via Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2/microRNA-155 pathway. METHODS: HEK293 TLR2 cell line and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were treated by different concentrations of M2000 in MTT assay...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089363/pertussis-toxin-targets-the-innate-immunity-through-dap12-fcr%C3%AE-and-myd88-adaptor-proteins
#8
Vongsavanh Phongsisay, Ei'ichi Iizasa, Hiromitsu Hara, Hiroki Yoshida
Activation of the innate immunity by adjuvants, such as pertussis toxin (PTX), in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes and antigen mimicry is sufficient to trigger autoimmunity. Toll-like, C-type lectin, and immunglobulin-like receptors play an important role in the innate immunity by sensing a variety of microbial products through several adaptor proteins, including MyD88, DAP12, and FcRγ. This study investigated the interaction between PTX and innate immune components. The direct interactions between coated PTX and receptor-fusion proteins were examined using ELISA-based binding assays...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089357/localization-of-toll-like-receptor-tlr-2-and-tlr4-mrna-in-the-colorectal-mucosa-of-miniature-dachshunds-with-inflammatory-colorectal-polyps
#9
N Yokoyama, H Ohta, J Yamazaki, Y Kagawa, O Ichii, N Khoirun, T Morita, T Osuga, S Y Lim, N Sasaki, K Morishita, K Nakamura, M Takiguchi
Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) are characterized by the formation of multiple or solitary polyps with marked neutrophil infiltration in the colorectal area, and are speculated to be a novel form of breed-specific canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In human IBD, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA in the colorectal mucosa of dogs with ICRPs by in-situ hybridization using an RNAscope assay...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088611/lactobacillus-paracasei-modulates-lps-induced-inflammatory-cytokine-release-by-monocyte-macrophages-via-the-up-regulation-of-negative-regulators-of-nf-kappab-signaling-in-a-tlr2-dependent-manner
#10
Ke-Yi Sun, Dong-Hua Xu, Chao Xie, Susan Plummer, James Tang, Xiao Fan Yang, Xiao Hui Ji
The application of the probiotic lactobacillus is suggested in the treatment of some inflammatory diseases of intestines due to its potential ability to attenuate inflammation. However, the mechanism is not completely understood. In PBMCs, Lactobacillus paracasei (L. Paracasei) down-regulated the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-6. Using a macrophage-like differentiated THP-1 cell line induced by PMA, we investigated the effect of L. paracasei on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by monocyte-macrophages...
January 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088526/subcutaneous-immunization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-gapdh-confers-effective-protection-in-mice-via-tlr2-and-tlr4
#11
Xiaoyu Sun, Jichao Wang, Jie Zhou, Hong Wang, Xiaofang Wang, Jingwen Wu, Yujuan He, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu
The surface localized Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is best known as housekeeping protein. Currently, GAPDH has been recognized as moonlighting protein and virulent factor. Therefore, we investigate whether GAPDH can act as a suitable vaccine candidate protein to prevent pneumococcal infection. In this study, mice received subcutaneous vaccination with recombinant GAPDH followed by challenge with D39 and 19F showing higher survival rate and lower bacterial loads in nasal washes and lung homogenates than control...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087809/trim13-potentiates-tlr2-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-via-k29-linked-polyubiquitination-of-traf6
#12
Bin Huang, Suk-Hwan Baek
Ubiquitination is a versatile post-translational modification involved in NF-κB activation of TLR signaling. Here, we demonstrated that Trim13, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is up-regulated in macrophages upon stimulation with TLR2 ligand. Knock-down of Trim13 attenuated TLR2-mediated production of cytokines/chemokines and formation of foam cells, as well as activation of NF-κB. Trim13 interacts with TRAF6 and potentiates NF-κB activity via ubiquitination of TRAF6. Overexpression of inactive mutant (C10/13A) or RING deletion mutant of Trim13 did not potentiate ubiquitination of TRAF6 or activation of NF-κB...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087652/differential-regulation-of-cd103-%C3%AE-e-integrin-expression-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-retinoic-acid-and-toll-like-receptor-ligands
#13
Mandi M Roe, Steve Swain, T Andrew Sebrell, Marisa A Sewell, Madison M Collins, Brian A Perrino, Phillip D Smith, Lesley E Smythies, Diane Bimczok
CD103 (αE integrin) is an important dendritic cell (DC) marker that characterizes functionally distinct DC subsets in mice and humans. However, the mechanism by which CD103 expression is regulated in human DCs and the role of CD103 for DC function are not very well understood. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA) treatment of human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) increased the ability of the DCs to synthesize RA and induced MoDC expression of CD103 and β7 at the mRNA and protein level. In contrast, RA was unable to induce the expression of CD103 in primary human DCs isolated from the gastric mucosa...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087373/chronoinflammaging-in-alzheimer-a-systematic-review-on-the-roles-of-toll-like-receptor-2
#14
REVIEW
Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Derek Kennedy, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Aging is associated with a range of chronic low-grade inflammation (Chronoinflammaging) which may play a significant role in some chronic inflammatory based diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the events which lead to the induction of chronoinflammaging in AD are yet to be clarified. It has been proposed that the recognition of endogenous ligands by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) may be involved in the induction of chronoinflammaging. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of PRRs which recognize endogenous damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and subsequently induce inflammation...
January 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079153/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-is-critical-for-bacterial-lipoprotein-tolerance-enhanced-bactericidal-activity-in-macrophages-during-microbial-infection
#15
Jinghua Liu, Jing Xiang, Xue Li, Siobhan Blankson, Shuqi Zhao, Junwei Cai, Yong Jiang, H Paul Redmond, Jiang Huai Wang
Tolerance to bacterial components represents an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-induced tolerance confers protection against microbial sepsis by attenuating inflammatory responses and augmenting antimicrobial activity in innate phagocytes. It has been well-documented that BLP tolerance-attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production is associated with suppressed TLR2 signalling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism(s) involved in BLP tolerance-enhanced antimicrobial activity is unclear...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078083/over-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-2-up-regulates-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-decreases-oxidative-injury-in-dairy-goats
#16
Shoulong Deng, Kun Yu, Wuqi Jiang, Yan Li, Shuotian Wang, Zhuo Deng, Yuchang Yao, Baolu Zhang, Guoshi Liu, Yixun Liu, Zhengxing Lian
BACKGROUND: Mastitis, an infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, produces udder inflammation and oxidative injury in milk-producing mammals. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is important for host recognition of invading Gram-positive microbes. Over-expression of TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats is a useful model for studying various aspects of infection with Gram-positive bacteria, in vivo. METHODS: We over-expressed TLR2 in transgenic dairy goats. Pam3CSK4, a component of Gram-positive bacteria, triggered the TLR2 signal pathway by stimulating the monocytes-macrophages from the TLR2-positive transgenic goats, and induced over-expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammation factors downstream of the signal pathway...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076445/emerging-bordetella-pertussis-strains-induce-enhanced-signaling-of-human-pattern-recognition-receptors-tlr2-nod2-and-secretion-of-il-10-by-dendritic-cells
#17
Elise S Hovingh, Marjolein van Gent, Hendrik-Jan Hamstra, Marc Demkes, Frits R Mooi, Elena Pinelli
Vaccines against pertussis have been available for more than 60 years. Nonetheless, this highly contagious disease is reemerging even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Genetic changes of Bordetella pertussis over time have been suggested to contribute to the resurgence of pertussis, as these changes may favor escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Nonetheless, studies on the effects of these bacterial changes on the immune response are limited. Here, we characterize innate immune recognition and activation by a collection of genetically diverse B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076322/aeroallergen-der-p-2-promotes-motility-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-via-toll-like-receptor-mediated-up-regulation-of-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-and-integrin-focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling
#18
Chun-Hsiang Lin, Hui-Han Lin, Cheng-Yi Kuo, Shao-Hsuan Kao
House dust mite (HDM) allergens are one of the major causes leading to respiratory hypersensitiveness and airway remodeling. Here we hypothesized that a major HDM allergen Der p 2 could increase cell motility and invasiveness of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Our results showed that low dose (1 and 3 μg/mL) recombinant Der p 2 protein (DP2) enhanced the migration and invasiveness of human NSCLC cell A549, H1299 and CL1-5, but nonsignificantly altered their growth. Further investigation revealed that integrin αV level was increased and its downstream signaling including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin were activated in A549 cells exposed to DP2...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069966/inherited-human-irak-1-deficiency-selectively-impairs-tlr-signaling-in-fibroblasts
#19
Erika Della Mina, Alessandro Borghesi, Hao Zhou, Salim Bougarn, Sabri Boughorbel, Laura Israel, Ilaria Meloni, Maya Chrabieh, Yun Ling, Yuval Itan, Alessandra Renieri, Iolanda Mazzucchelli, Sabrina Basso, Piero Pavone, Raffaele Falsaperla, Roberto Ciccone, Rosa Maria Cerbo, Mauro Stronati, Capucine Picard, Orsetta Zuffardi, Laurent Abel, Damien Chaussabel, Nico Marr, Xiaoxia Li, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
Most members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) families transduce signals via a canonical pathway involving the MyD88 adapter and the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) complex. This complex contains four molecules, including at least two (IRAK-1 and IRAK-4) active kinases. In mice and humans, deficiencies of IRAK-4 or MyD88 abolish most TLR (except for TLR3 and some TLR4) and IL-1R signaling in both leukocytes and fibroblasts. TLR and IL-1R responses are weak but not abolished in mice lacking IRAK-1, whereas the role of IRAK-1 in humans remains unclear...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061318/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-promotes-the-invasion-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-upregulation-of-toll-like-receptor-2
#20
Shan Cheng, Bin Zhang, Ji-Ying Du, Yu-Hong Jin, Hai-Yang Lang, Li-Hua Zeng
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major risk factors leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) plays a pivotal role in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is also considered to mediate tumor progression. However, the interaction between HBsAg and TLR2 in HCC progression remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the study was to explore the effect of HBsAg-TLR2 pathway on growth and invasion of HBV-related HCC cells and examine the potential mechanisms been involved...
January 6, 2017: Viral Immunology
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