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Atopic dermatitis

Justin C Chia, P Régine Mydlarski
PURPOSE: Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits the binding of IgE to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FceRI) on the surface of mast cells and basophils. Omalizumab has been approved for use in asthma, and new reports show promise in a variety of dermatologic diseases. Herein, we review the literature on omalizumab in dermatology and discuss the safety, efficacy and mechanisms of action for this emerging therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMED, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were searched for the period January 1, 1990, to September 1, 2016...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Chung Eui You, Seok Hoon Moon, Kwang Hoon Lee, Kyu Han Kim, Chun Wook Park, Seong Joon Seo, Sang Hyun Cho
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, complex disease that follows a chronic relapsing course and significantly affects the quality of life of patients. Skin barrier dysfunction and inflammatory processes induce and aggravate this skin condition. Proper use of an emollient for hydration is a keystone of AD treatment. Bee venom is known to have anti-inflammatory effects and has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: To find out the beneficial effect of an emollient containing bee venom in the treatment of patients with AD...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Doris Weiss, Michaela Schaschinger, Robin Ristl, Robert Gruber, Tamara Kopp, Georg Stingl, Christine Bangert
BACKGROUND: It has recently been suggested that patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) may profit from anti-interleukin (IL)-12/-23 p40 therapy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the immunologic effects of ustekinumab treatment on AD skin and to correlate them with the clinical efficacy of this drug. METHODS: We investigated the course of 3 patients with severe AD who were administered 45 mg of subcutaneous ustekinumab over a period of 16 weeks...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Benjamin Farahnik, Kourosh Beroukhim, Melissa Danesh, Mio Nakamura, Michael Abrouk, Tian Hao Zhu, Rasnik Singh, Kristina Lee, Tina Bhutani, John Koo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Juhwan Noh, Jungwoo Sohn, Jaelim Cho, Seong-Kyung Cho, Yoon Jung Choi, Changsoo Kim, Dong Chun Shin
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients' prior history of allergic diseases. METHODS: Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10]), a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days) were also explored...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Masafumi Moriyama, Seiji Nakamura
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and a strong infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in various organs. IgG4-RD patients also frequently suffer from allergic diseases, including asthma and atopic dermatitis. It is well known that T helper type 2 (Th2) cells have an important role in the initiation of allergic diseases, and Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 promote class switching to IgG4. Therefore, IgG4-RD is considered to be a Th2-predominant disease...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Eun-Ju Choi, Trishna Debnath, Yujiao Tang, Young-Bae Ryu, Sang-Ho Moon, Eun-Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions and has been used as a vegetable and in traditional medicine. In this study, the anti-atopic dermatitis activity of the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaf was investigated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro study, HaCaT human keratinocytes were used for cytokines and MAPKinase assay. In the in vivo study, M. oleifera leaf ethanolic extract (MO) was topically applied to BALB/c mice with Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract)- and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)...
October 12, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yuki M F Andersen, Alexander Egeberg, Gunnar H Gislason, Lone Skov, Jacob P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: An increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease has been shown in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), but data remain scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the co-occurrence of selected autoimmune diseases in adult patients with AD. METHODS: Nationwide health registers were used. Adult patients with a hospital diagnosis of AD in Denmark between 1997 and 2012 were included as cases (n = 8112) and matched with controls (n = 40,560)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Alexander Egeberg, Lone Skov, Yuki M F Andersen, Lotus Mallbris, Gunnar H Gislason, Jonathan I Silverberg, Jashin J Wu, Jacob P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) are chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Mortality is increased in psoriasis, yet no studies on mortality in AD are currently available. OBJECTIVE: We investigated 10-year mortality after hospitalization for AD compared with psoriasis and the general population. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2002 all Danes aged 18 years or older with a first-time hospitalization as a result of AD or psoriasis and AD-matched healthy control subjects were examined in nationwide registers...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Anna Kurayev, Alice B Gottlieb
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case in which a patient developed Candida esophagitis (CE) after treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for 22 months. CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old Caucasian female with long-standing history of AD successfully treated with MMF presented to the dermatology clinic for follow-up appointment with 3 months' history of projectile vomiting, choking, and trouble swallowing. Patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) that demonstrated whitish plaques in esophagus consistent with CE, which was confirmed by biopsy and cytology...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Mark A Strom, Girish C Mohan, Peter A Lio
Dermatologists frequently employ combination therapy to treat various diseases, but the evidence to support the use of such combinations is often lacking. Synergy is an appealing although somewhat ambiguous concept in medicine. Utilizing synergy allows clinicians to provide the most efficacious combination of treatments to patients, while potentially minimizing adverse effects and reducing the development of drug resistance. Definitions of synergy vary, but ultimately converge on finding a therapeutic advantage in combining treatments...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Annalisa Allegorico
The role of vitamin D in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is well known; however, in addition to traditional functions, vitamin D modulates a variety of processes, and evidence shows that it has an important role in different allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Vitamin D acts by binding to the vitamin D receptor, which is present in a variety of tissues; for this reason it is considered a hormone. One of the most important functions is to modulate the immune system response, both innate and adaptive, by suppressing Th2-type response and increasing natural killer cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Ellen P Carlin, Nichole Giller, Rebecca Katz
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the population at risk of serious adverse reactions to replicating smallpox vaccine. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Conditions known or suspected to carry risk were identified via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention planning documents, other federal publications, and peer-reviewed literature. Conditions identified were categorized as historically recognized risks or more recently recognized immunocompromised states that may pose risk. Major historical risk factors were as follows: eczema/atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, HIV, and primary immunodeficiency...
October 13, 2016: Public Health Nursing
A Heratizadeh, T Werfel
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multi-factorial and complex. Consequently, clinical signs and symptoms vary strongly depending on individually relevant trigger factors and the stage of the disease. So far, treatment of AD was commonly limited to topical treatment or, in more severe cases, to systemic drugs mostly approved for other indications than AD. However, emerging data on new anti-inflammatory agents have been published in the recent years. As these new substances specifically focus on immune responses in AD, these are partially considered as possible "break-through" in the treatment of AD...
October 13, 2016: Allergy
Kazuhiko Nishimura, Naoki Aoyanagi, Eiji Uchino, Yutaka Itabashi
When hairless NCN24 mice with atopic dermatitis (AD) were sprayed with a petroleum-containing alkaline salt spring water rich in metaboric acid and sodium bicarbonate, AD symptoms diminished. Reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD) and online MS revealed that fatty acid (FA) composition of the skin surface lipids was similar to that in non-AD mice compared with that in AD mice. Strong negative correlations were noted between the levels of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and palmitoleic acid and between the levels of total serum IgE and branched-hexadecanoic acid...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Susanne Stemmler, Sabine Hoffjan
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common and complex skin disease associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene, encoding a structural protein with an important role in epidermal barrier function, constitutes a well recognised susceptibility locus for AD. Further, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including large meta-analyses, have discovered 38 additional susceptibility loci with genome-wide significance. However, the reported variations only explain a fraction of the overall heritability of AD...
October 7, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Thomas H A Ederveen, Danique A van der Krieken, Hanna Niehues, Jos Boekhorst, Sanja Kezic, Daniëlle A T Hanssen, Marisol E Otero, Ivonne M J J van Vlijmen-Willems, Diana Rodijk-Olthuis, Denise Falcone, Ellen H J van den Bogaard, Marijke Kamsteeg, Heleen D de Koning, Manon E J Zeeuwen-Franssen, Maurice A M van Steensel, Michiel Kleerebezem, Harro M Timmerman, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Joost Schalkwijk
Mutations in the filaggrin gene, which cause the skin disease ichthyosis vulgaris and are a genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis, alter the cutaneous microbiome thereby affecting keratinocyte host defense responses following skin barrier disruption.
October 7, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yuangang Liu, Zhiping Wang, Rachel De La Torre, Ashley Barling, Takahiro Tsujikawa, Noah Hornick, Jon Hanifin, Eric Simpson, Yun Wang, Emily Swanzey, Aaron Wortham, Hao Ding, Lisa M Coussens, Molly Kulesz-Martin
Altered innate immunity is a feature of certain skin inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we provide evidence that deficiency in Trim32 (a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein with innate antiviral activity) contributes to a Th2 biased response and predisposes to features of AD in mice. Upon treatment with the TLR7 agonist imquimod (IMQ), Trim32 knockout (KO) mice displayed compromised psoriasiform phenotypes and defective Th17 response. Instead, IMQ treatment of Trim32 KO mice induced AD-like phenotypes with enhanced skin infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells, elevation of Th2 cytokines/chemokines expression, and reduced expression of filaggrin protein expression...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Maroula G Kokotou, Dimitris Limnios, Aikaterini Nikolaou, Anastasia Psarra, George Kokotos
The regulation of the catalytic activity of the various phospholipase A2 enzymes is of high importance because these enzymes are involved in various pathological conditions such as arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, and cancer. Thus, a great effort has been devoted in developing synthetic inhibitors as new agents to treat inflammatory diseases. Some of them have reached clinical trials. Areas covered: This review article discusses the phospholipase A2 inhibitors presented in patent literature from October 2012 to June 2016, their activities in vitro and in vivo as well as the results of clinical trials using synthetic PLA2 inhibitors...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
A Mavroudi, A Karagiannidou, I Xinias, D Cassimos, N Karantaglis, E Farmaki, G Imvrios, M Fotoulaki, M Eboriadou, J Tsanakas
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disease of the skin, which is characterised by a chronic relapsing course. AIM: The aim of the study was to assign the prevalence of clinically active food allergies among a group of children between 3 months and 7 years of age, with AD. METHODS: Eighty-eight children with AD were screened for specific IgE antibodies to food proteins. All patients with AD and specific IgE antibodies to food proteins were subjected to Oral Food Challenges (OFCs) with the relevant foods...
October 4, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
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