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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820467/aquaporin-4-functionality-and-virchow-robin-space-water-dynamics-physiological-model-for-neurovascular-coupling-and-glymphatic-flow
#1
REVIEW
Tsutomu Nakada, Ingrid L Kwee, Hironaka Igarashi, Yuji Suzuki
The unique properties of brain capillary endothelium, critical in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and restricting water permeability across the BBB, have important consequences on fluid hydrodynamics inside the BBB hereto inadequately recognized. Recent studies indicate that the mechanisms underlying brain water dynamics are distinct from systemic tissue water dynamics. Hydrostatic pressure created by the systolic force of the heart, essential for interstitial circulation and lymphatic flow in systemic circulation, is effectively impeded from propagating into the interstitial fluid inside the BBB by the tightly sealed endothelium of brain capillaries...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819612/uncommon-floating-knee-in-a-teenager-a-case-report-of-ipsilateral-physeal-fractures-in-distal-femur-and-proximal-tibia
#2
Youssef Othman, Lassaad Hassini, Aymen Fekih, Issam Aloui, Abderrazek Abid
INTRODUCTION: The concomitance of ipsilateral physeal fractures of the distal femur and the proximal tibia is an extremely scarce entity. It is conceptually similar to floating knee in the pediatric population. CASE REPORT: One case with this injury is reported in a 16-year-old teenager. He was treated surgically by close reduction and internal fixation. The diagnosis of the tibial fracture was initially missed, and the fracture was seen on the post-operative radiographs...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818693/hybrid-photoacoustic-and-electrophysiological-recording-of-neurovascular-communications-in-freely-moving-rats
#3
Lei Xi, Tian Jin, Junli Zhou, Paul Carney, Hubei Jiang
Uncovering the relationships between neural activities and capillary-level hemodynamics such as blood flow and concentration of hemoglobin in the brain plays an important role in the study of animal behaviors and brain disorders. Here, we developed a miniature probe integrating a photoacoustic sensor and micro-electrodes to simultaneously record the dynamics of blood flow and total hemoglobin inside a single capillary and the activities of surrounding neurons with high spatiotemporal resolution in freely-moving rats...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817595/predictive-factors-of-the-dimensions-and-location-of-mental-foramen-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#4
Juan Muinelo-Lorenzo, Ana Fernández-Alonso, Ernesto Smyth-Chamosa, Juan Antonio Suárez-Quintanilla, Jesús Varela-Mallou, María Mercedes Suárez-Cunqueiro
OBJECTIVE: The mental foramen (MF) hosts main neurovascular structures, making it of crucial importance for surgical procedures. This study aimed to analyze the factors influencing the dimensions and location of the MF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 344 patients were examined for MF dimensions, as well as for the distances from the MF to the alveolar crest (MF-MSB), and to the inferior mandibular border (MF-MIB). RESULTS: Gender, mandibular side and presence of accessory mental foramina (AMF) significantly influence MF area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816361/msel-1l-deficiency-affects-vasculogenesis-and-neural-stem-cell-lineage-commitment
#5
Cardano M, Diaferia G R, Conti L, Baronchelli S, Sessa A, Broccoli V, Barbieri A, De Blasio P, Biunno I
mSEL-1L is a highly conserved ER-resident type I protein, involved in the degradation of misfolded peptides through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a pathway known to control the plasticity of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) phenotype and survival. In this article we demonstrate that mSEL-1L deficiency interferes with the murine embryonic vascular network, showing particular irregularities in the intracranic and intersomitic neurovascular units and in the cerebral capillary microcirculation. During murine embryogenesis, mSEL-1L is expressed in cerebral areas known to harbor progenitor neural cells, while in the adult brain the protein is specifically restricted to the stem cell niches, co-localizing with Sox2 and Nestin...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814528/physician-training-protocol-within-the-web-intrasaccular-therapy-web-it-study
#6
Adam Arthur, Daniel Hoit, Alexander Coon, Josser E Delgado Almandoz, Lucas Elijovich, Saruhan Cekirge, David Fiorella
INTRODUCTION: The WEB Intra-saccular Therapy (WEB-IT) trial is an investigational device exemption study to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the WEB device for the treatment of wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms. The neurovascular replicator (Vascular Simulations, Stony Brook, New York, USA) creates a physical environment that replicates patient-specific neurovascular anatomy and hemodynamic physiology, and allows devices to be implanted under fluoroscopic guidance. OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a unique neurovascular replicator-based training program, which was incorporated into the WEB-IT study to optimize technical performance and patient safety...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813666/microrna-9-couples-brain-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#7
Romain Madelaine, Steven A Sloan, Nina Huber, James H Notwell, Louis C Leung, Gemini Skariah, Caroline Halluin, Sergiu P Paşca, Gill Bejerano, Mark A Krasnow, Ben A Barres, Philippe Mourrain
In the developing brain, neurons expressing VEGF-A and blood vessels grow in close apposition, but many of the molecular pathways regulating neuronal VEGF-A and neurovascular system development remain to be deciphered. Here, we show that miR-9 links neurogenesis and angiogenesis through the formation of neurons expressing VEGF-A. We found that miR-9 directly targets the transcription factors TLX and ONECUTs to regulate VEGF-A expression. miR-9 inhibition leads to increased TLX and ONECUT expression, resulting in VEGF-A overexpression...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811848/skull-base-tumors-and-tumor-like-lesions-a-pictorial-review
#8
REVIEW
Akira Kunimatsu, Natsuko Kunimatsu
A number of tumors and tumor-like non-neoplastic lesions with different cell types on histology occur in the skull base. A wide variety in disease and lesion appearance often complicates the process of radiological diagnosis. The main role of radiographic imaging is the detection and characterization of skull base lesions, with evaluation of the extent of invasion or preservation of adjacent critical organs. Evaluation of the skull base anatomy and surgical planning by using image guidance are also important for surgeons...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810893/subcutaneous-emphysema-of-the-leg-after-hardware-removal-and-bone-allografting-for-infected-non-union-of-the-distal-femur
#9
Vincenzo Denaro, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Giuseppe Salvatore, Vincenzo Candela, Nicola Maffulli
BACKGROUND: Infected non-unions of the supracondylar region of the femur are uncommon. Even though hardware removal is a common procedure, it may lead to complications, including neurovascular injury, refracture, worsening pain or recurrence of deformity. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a male who developed subcutaneous emphysema of the leg after hardware removal and bone allografting for an infected non-union of the distal femur. He was managed by debridement of the surgical wound, antibiotic therapy, multiple fasciotomies, and application of a VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) system...
August 15, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809635/-clinical-results-of-endoscopic-treatment-of-greater-trochanteric-pain-syndrome
#10
P Zeman, M Rafi, P Skala, J Zeman, J Matějka, T Pavelka
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This retrospective study aims to present short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment of patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The evaluated study population was composed of a total of 19 patients (16 women, 3 men) with the mean age of 47 years (19-63 years). In twelve cases the right hip joint was affected, in the remaining seven cases it was the left side. The retrospective evaluation was carried out only in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome caused by independent chronic trochanteric bursitis without the presence of m...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808728/-subpectoral-tenodesis-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-tendon-with-an-interference-screw-and-a%C3%A2-cortical-button-clinical-and-cosmetic-results-after-1-year
#11
P-C Nolte, N Pister, F Holz, M Egenolf, T Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Pathologies of the long head of biceps tendon (LHB) can cause anterior shoulder pain. Surgical treatment includes tenotomy and tenodesis (TD), however TD causes fewer cosmetic deformities and less cramping of the biceps muscle. To date, numerous techniques for TD have been described but the "gold standard" has not yet been established. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional and cosmetic outcome following subpectoral biceps TD with an interference screw and a cortical-button (STLHB-IC) after 1 year...
August 14, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808270/a-low-permeability-microfluidic-blood-brain-barrier-platform-with-direct-contact-between-perfusable-vascular-network-and-astrocytes
#12
Seokyoung Bang, Seung-Ryeol Lee, Jihoon Ko, Kyungmin Son, Dongha Tahk, Jungho Ahn, Changkyun Im, Noo Li Jeon
A novel three dimensional blood brain barrier (BBB) platform was developed by independently supplying different types of media to separate cell types within a single device. One channel (vascular channel, VC) is connected to the inner lumen of the vascular network while the other supplies media to the neural cells (neural channel, NC). Compared to co-cultures supplied with only one type of medium (or 1:1 mixture), best barrier properties and viability were obtained with culturing HUVECs with endothelial growth medium (EGM) and neural cells with neurobasal medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (NBMFBS) independently...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807409/a-decade-of-imaging-surgeons-brain-function-part-i-terminology-techniques-and-clinical-translation
#13
REVIEW
Hemel Narendra Modi, Harsimrat Singh, Guang-Zhong Yang, Ara Darzi, Daniel Richard Leff
BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging has the potential to deepen our understanding of technical and nontechnical skill acquisition in surgeons, particularly as established assessment tools leave unanswered questions about inter-operator differences in ability that seem independent of experience. METHODS: In this first of a 2-part article, we aim to utilize our experience in neuroimaging surgeons to orientate the nonspecialist reader to the principles of brain imaging...
August 11, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807148/acetylcholine-induces-intracellular-ca-2-oscillations-and-nitric-oxide-release-in-mouse-brain-endothelial-cells
#14
Estella Zuccolo, Dmitry Lim, Dlzar Ali Kheder, Angelica Perna, Paolo Catarsi, Laura Botta, Vittorio Rosti, Laura Riboni, Giulio Sancini, Franco Tanzi, Egidio D'Angelo, Germano Guerra, Francesco Moccia
Basal forebrain neurons increase cortical blood flow by releasing acetylcholine (Ach), which stimulates endothelial cells (ECs) to produce the vasodilating gasotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO). Surprisingly, the mechanism whereby Ach induces NO synthesis in brain microvascular ECs is unknown. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration recruits a multitude of endothelial Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, such as Ca(2+)/calmodulin endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). The present investigation sought to investigate the role of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in Ach-induced NO production in bEND5 cells, an established model of mouse brain microvascular ECs, by conventional imaging of cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye, Fura-2/AM, and the NO-sensitive fluorophore, DAF-DM diacetate...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#15
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804779/language-mapping-using-t2-prepared-bold-functional-mri-in-the-presence-of-large-susceptibility-artifacts-initial-results-in-patients-with-brain-tumor-and-epilepsy
#16
Jun Hua, Xinyuan Miao, Shruti Agarwal, Chetan Bettegowda, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, John Laterra, Peter C M Van Zijl, James J Pekar, Jay J Pillai
At present, presurgical functional mapping is the most prevalent clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Signal dropouts and distortions caused by susceptibility effects in the current standard echo planar imaging (EPI)-based fMRI images are well-known problems and pose a major hurdle for the application of fMRI in several brain regions, many of which are related to language mapping in presurgical planning. Such artifacts are particularly problematic in patients with previous surgical resection cavities, craniotomy hardware, hemorrhage, and vascular malformation...
June 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803167/igg4-related-disease-a-new-etiology-underlying-diffuse-intracranial-dilating-vasculopathy
#17
Evan S Marlin, Davis Dornbos, Daniel S Ikeda, Norman L Lehman, Ciarán J Powers
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intracranial aneurysmal vasculopathy is a rare condition, previously described in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. IgG4 related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recognized inflammatory disease of systemic organs, leading to fibrosis of connective tissues. It has also been linked to inflammatory dilating aortic aneurysms, coronary vascular disease, hypophysitis, orbital pseudotumor and pachymeningitis. It has not yet been described as a cause of diffuse intracranial dilating vasculopathy...
August 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801521/role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-of-the-neurovascular-unit-in-inflamm-aging
#18
Imola Wilhelm, Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Mihaly Kozma, Attila E Farkas, Istvan A Krizbai
Aging is associated with chronic inflammation (inflamm-aging) partly mediated by increased levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system. Furthermore, many aging-related disorders are associated with inflammation. PRRs, like Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are not only expressed in cells of the innate immune system, but other cells as well, including cells of the neurovascular unit (NVU) and cerebral vasculature forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801514/bilateral-painful-tic-convulsif
#19
Valentina Fenech, Julian Cassar, Ludvic Zrinzo, Malcolm Vella
'Painful tic convulsif' (PTC) describes the coexistence of hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia. In this report, we describe a unique presentation of bilateral PTC in a man with bilateral hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia secondary to neurovascular conflict of all four cranial nerves. Following failed medical and radiofrequency therapy, microvascular decompression of three of the four involved nerves was performed, where the offending vessels were mobilised and Teflon used to prevent conflict recurrence...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799873/-birdlime-technique-using-tachosil-tissue-sealing-sheet-soaked-with-fibrin-glue-for-sutureless-vessel-transposition-in-microvascular-decompression-operative-technique-and-nuances
#20
Naoki Otani, Terushige Toyooka, Kazuya Fujii, Kosuke Kumagai, Satoru Takeuchi, Arata Tomiyama, Yasuaki Nakao, Takuji Yamamoto, Kojiro Wada, Kentaro Mori
OBJECTIVE Microvascular decompression (MVD) is effective for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. The transposition technique is the standard procedure to avoid adhesions and granuloma around the decompression site but is more complex and difficult to perform than the interposition technique. The authors describe a simple and safe MVD transposition procedure they call the "birdlime" technique, which uses a tissue glue-coated collagen sponge soaked with fibrin glue, and the results of this technique...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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