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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327964/imaging-approaches-to-stroke-and-neurovascular-disease
#1
Seena Dehkharghani, Jalal Andre
Imaging is paramount to the diagnosis and management of ischemic stroke, offering a battery of structural and functional probes of cerebrovascular physiology. The technical underpinnings of stroke imaging continue to evolve, bringing the neuroscience community increasingly closer to high-resolution, tissue-level biomarkers of brain perfusion, metabolism, and viability. The rapid expansion of neuroimaging in this domain has met with controversies, and in many respects, a lack of generalizable conclusions regarding optimized use in cerebrovascular disease...
January 28, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326408/traumatic-anterior-knee-dislocation-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#2
Richard S Ahn, Matthew J Brown, Mario D Santilli
This article describes a traumatic complete anterior knee dislocation of a previously well-functioning total knee arthroplasty. A thorough physical examination with appropriate radiographic imaging study is required for proper evaluation and treatment of this injury, as it is often associated with neurovascular injury and subsequent global instability of the injured knee is likely.
September 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325558/l-citrulline-ameliorates-cerebral-blood-flow-during-cortical-spreading-depression-in-rats-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-and-prostanoids-mediated-pathway
#3
Yuki Kurauchi, Koichi Mokudai, Asami Mori, Kenji Sakamoto, Tsutomu Nakahara, Masahiko Morita, Ayako Kamimura, Kunio Ishii
l-Citrulline is a potent precursor of l-arginine, and exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system via nitric oxide (NO) production. Migraine is one of the most popular neurovascular disorder, and imbalance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) observed in cortical spreading depression (CSD) contributes to the mechanism of migraine aura. Here, we investigated the effect of l-citrulline on cardiovascular changes to KCl-induced CSD. in rats. Intravenous injection of l-citrulline prevented the decrease in CBF, monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry, without affecting mean arterial pressure and heart rate during CSD...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324204/tibial-nerve-neuropathy-following-medial-opening-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy-case-report-of-a-rare-technical-complication
#4
Young-Soo Shin, Hyun-Bo Sim, Jung-Ro Yoon
A 63-year-old woman developed tibial nerve injury caused by an overlong K wire and 4.5-mm cortical lag screw through the first distal hole below the osteotomy during medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), leading to a lack of sensation on the sole of the foot with no disturbances in motor functions. The temporary lag screw in the first distal hole below the osteotomy is often inserted by an excessive length in order to compress the potentially fractured opposite cortex. By doing so, posterior neurovascular structures including the tibial nerve and the popliteal vessels can be injured...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324130/the-oblique-popliteal-ligament-an-anatomic-and-mri-investigation
#5
Mandy Hedderwick, Mark D Stringer, Liam McRedmond, Grant R Meikle, Stephanie J Woodley
PURPOSE: Despite being the largest ligament on the posterior aspect of the knee, relatively little is known about the normal morphology of the oblique popliteal ligament (OPL). The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed anatomy of the OPL in cadavers and healthy volunteers. METHODS: The posterior knee was investigated in 25 cadaver lower limbs (mean age 76 ± 9.5 years; 7 men) by dissection, histology, and serial plastination and in 14 healthy individuals (mean age 23 ± 3...
March 21, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323767/how-to-get-to-the-distal-posterior-tibial-malleolus-a-cadaveric-anatomic-study-defining-the-access-corridors-through-3-different-approaches
#6
Mathieu Assal, Miki Dalmau-Pastor, Adrien Ray, Richard Stern
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to review the anatomy and exposure of the posterior column and posterior tibial malleolus (the posterior tibial plafond) by defining the access corridors through 3 different approaches-posteromedial, posterolateral, and modified posteromedial. METHODS: Cadaveric dissection with percentage of posterior tibial malleolus exposed, and strain gauge measurements to evaluate traction on the neurovascular bundle. RESULTS: The 3 different approaches are applicable for exposure of different portions of the distal posterior tibial malleolus...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323165/on-the-importance-of-modeling-fmri-transients-when-estimating-effective-connectivity-a-dynamic-causal-modeling-study-using-asl-data
#7
Martin Havlicek, Alard Roebroeck, Karl J Friston, Anna Gardumi, Dimo Ivanov, Kamil Uludag
Effective connectivity is commonly assessed using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals. In (Havlicek et al., 2015), we presented a novel, physiologically informed dynamic causal model (P-DCM) that extends current generative models. We demonstrated the improvements afforded by P-DCM in terms of the ability to model commonly observed neuronal and vascular transients in single regions. Here, we assess the ability of the novel and previous DCM variants to estimate effective connectivity among a network of five ROIs driven by a visuo-motor task...
March 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322920/stem-cell-transplantation-therapy-for-multifaceted-therapeutic-benefits-after-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Ling Wei, Zheng Z Wei, Michael Qize Jiang, Osama Mohamad, Shan Ping Yu
One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures...
March 16, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321468/hyperglycaemic-memory-affects-the-neurovascular-unit-of-the-retina-in-a-diabetic-mouse-model
#9
Patrick Friedrichs, Andrea Schlotterer, Carsten Sticht, Matthias Kolibabka, Paulus Wohlfart, Axel Dietrich, Thomas Linn, Grietje Molema, Hans-Peter Hammes
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate damage to the neurovascular unit in a mouse model of hyperglycaemic memory. METHODS: A streptozotocin-induced mouse model of diabetes (C57BL/6J background) received insulin-releasing pellets and pancreatic islet-cell transplantation. Damage to the neurovascular unit was studied by quantitative retinal morphometry for microvascular changes and microarray analysis, with subsequent functional annotation clustering, for changes of the retinal genome...
March 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321343/knee-dislocation-a-case-report-diagnostic-vascular-work-up-and-literature-review
#10
Matthijs R Douma, Michael D Burg, Björn L Dijkstra
Knee dislocation is an uncommon, potentially limb-threatening, knee injury. Most often caused by high-velocity trauma, it can also result from low- or even ultra-low-velocity trauma. Rapid identification of the injury, reduction, and definitive management are necessary to minimize neurovascular damage. We present a case of rotatory anterolateral knee dislocation sustained during a twisting sports-related event. Special emphasis is placed on diagnosing vascular injuries associated with knee dislocations.
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321269/exploratory-analysis-of-osteoarthritis-progression-among-medication-users-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#11
Jeffrey B Driban, Grace H Lo, Charles B Eaton, Kate L Lapane, Michael Nevitt, William F Harvey, Charles E McCulloch, Timothy E McAlindon
BACKGROUND: We conducted an exploratory analysis of osteoarthritis progression among medication users in the Osteoarthritis Initiative to identify interventions or pathways that may be associated with disease modification and therefore of interest for future clinical trials. METHODS: We used participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with annual medication inventory data between the baseline and 36-month follow-up visit (n = 2938). Consistent medication users were defined for each medication classification as a participant reporting at all four annual visits that they were regularly using an oral prescription medication at the time of the visit...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319318/urinary-continence-recovery-after-radical-prostatectomy-anatomic-reconstructive-and-nerve-sparing-techniques-to-improve-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Christian P Pavlovich, Bernardo Rocco, Sasha C Druskin, John W Davis
In an editorial board moderated debate format, two experts in prostate cancer surgery are challenged with presenting the key strategies in radical prostatectomy that improve urinary functional outcomes. Dr Bernardo Rocco was tasked with arguing the facts that support the anatomic preservation and reconstruction steps that improve continence. Drs. Christian Pavlovich and Sasha Druskin were tasked with arguing the facts supporting neurovascular bundle and high anterior release surgical planes that improve continence...
March 20, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318984/safety-and-efficacy-of-thrombectomy-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke-revascat-1-year-follow-up-of-a-randomised-open-label-trial
#13
Antoni Dávalos, Erik Cobo, Carlos A Molina, Angel Chamorro, M Angeles de Miquel, Luis San Román, Joaquín Serena, Elena López-Cancio, Marc Ribó, Mónica Millán, Xabier Urra, Pere Cardona, Alejandro Tomasello, Carlos Castaño, Jordi Blasco, Lucía Aja, Marta Rubiera, Meritxell Gomis, Arturo Renú, Blanca Lara, Joan Martí-Fàbregas, Brian Jankowitz, Neus Cerdà, Tudor G Jovin
BACKGROUND: The REVASCAT trial and other studies have shown that the neurovascular thrombectomy improves outcomes at 90 days post stroke. However, whether the observed benefit is sustained in the long term remains unknown. We report the results of the prespecified 12-month analysis of the REVASCAT trial. METHODS: Patients with acute ischaemic stroke who could be treated within 8 h of symptom onset were randomly assigned to medical therapy (including intravenous alteplase when eligible) and neurovascular thrombectomy with Solitaire FR or medical therapy alone...
March 16, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316867/bench-top-comparison-of-physical-properties-of-4-commercially-available-self-expanding-intracranial-stents
#14
Su-Hee Cho, Won-Il Jo, Ye-Eun Jo, Ku Hyun Yang, Jung Cheol Park, Deok Hee Lee
PURPOSE: To better understand the performance of four commercially available neurovascular stents in intracranial aneurysm embolization, the stents were compared in terms of their basic morphological and mechanical properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four different types of stents that are currently being used for cerebral aneurysm embolization were prepared (two stents per type). Two were laser-cut stents (Neuroform and Enterprise) and two were braided from a single nitinol wire (LEO and LVIS stents)...
March 2017: Neurointervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316864/in-vitro-quantification-of-the-radiopacity-of-onyx-during-embolization
#15
Yuan Yuan Jiang, Ye-Eun Jo, Jung Min Woo, Ok Kyun Lim, Changmo Hwang, Jun Young Maeng, Jieun Kim, Namkug Kim, Deok Hee Lee
PURPOSE: Onyx has been successfully applied in the treatment of various neurovascular lesions. However, some experience is required to get accustomed to its unpredictable fluoroscopic visibility during injection. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of radiopacity change in a simulated embolization procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a bench-top Onyx injection experiment simulating a typical brain arteriovenous malformation embolization, nine cycles of casting modes (continuous injection) and plugging modes (injection with intermittent pauses) were performed...
March 2017: Neurointervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304184/chronic-stress-induced-disruption-of-the-peri-infarct-neurovascular-unit-following-experimentally-induced-photothrombotic-stroke
#16
Zidan Zhao, Lin Kooi Ong, Sarah Johnson, Michael Nilsson, Frederick R Walker
How stress influences brain repair is an issue of considerable importance, as patients recovering from stroke are known to experience high and often unremitting levels of stress post-event. In the current study, we investigated how chronic stress modified the key cellular components of the neurovascular unit. Using an experimental model of focal cortical ischemia in male C57BL/6 mice, we examined how exposure to a persistently aversive environment, induced by the application of chronic restraint stress, altered the cortical remodeling post-stroke...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303559/-thoracic-outlet-syndrome
#17
Sven Seifert, Pavel Sebesta, Marian Klenske, Mirko Esche
Introduction Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is one of the most extensively discussed diagnoses. There is neither a clear and homogenous clinical presentation nor an accepted definition. The term describes a complex of symptoms and complaints caused by the compression of nerves and vascular structures at one of the three defined constrictions of the upper thoracic aperture. Methods Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article presents the etiology, epidemiology and clinical diagnostics as well as the possibilities and outcomes of surgical treatment...
February 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303534/chronic-tobacco-smoking-on-psychopathological-symptoms-impulsivity-and-cognitive-deficits-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#18
Linda Chang, Ahnate Lim, Eric Lau, Daniel Alicata
HIV-infected individuals (HIV+) has 2-3 times the rate of tobacco smoking than the general population, and whether smoking may lead to greater psychiatric symptoms or cognitive deficits remains unclear. We evaluated the independent and combined effects of being HIV+ and chronic tobacco-smoking on impulsivity, psychopathological symptoms and cognition. 104 participants [27 seronegative (SN)-non-Smokers, 26 SN-Smokers, 29 HIV+ non-Smokers, 22 HIV+ Smokers] were assessed for psychopathology symptoms (Symptom Checklist-90, SCL-90), depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, CES-D), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS), decision-making (The Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST), and cognition (seven neurocognitive domains)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302022/glial-cell-a-potential-target-for-cellular-and-drug-based-therapy-in-various-cns-diseases
#19
Shakeeb Ahmed, Yasmin Sultana, Azka Gull, Tahir Khuroo, Mohd Aqil
Glial cells are integrated part of neurovascular unit of blood brain barrier (BBB). They undergo mitosis and mainly classified as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells and nerve glial antigen 2 cells. Being a most versatile glial cell, astrocytes provide structural support to neurons, maintain brain homeostasis, take part in neuronal communication, and perform some housekeeping functions. Oligodendrocytes myelinate the neuronal axons for proper transmission of nerve impulse and microglia are brain immune cells...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300134/white-matter-repair-after-extracellular-vesicles-administration-in-an-experimental-animal-model-of-subcortical-stroke
#20
Laura Otero-Ortega, Fernando Laso-García, María Del Carmen Gómez-de Frutos, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Jorge Pascual-Guerra, Blanca Fuentes, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Mesenchymal stem cells have previously been shown to mediate brain repair after stroke; they secrete 50-100 nm complexes called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which could be responsible for provoking neurovascular repair and functional recovery. EVs have been observed by electron microscopy and NanoSight, and they contain associated proteins such as CD81 and Alix. This purified, homogeneous population of EVs was administered intravenously after subcortical stroke in rats. To evaluate the EVs effects, we studied the biodistribution, proteomics analysis, functional evaluation, lesion size, fiber tract integrity, axonal sprouting and white matter repair markers...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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