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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350198/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-induced-block-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-role-of-brain-coagulation-factor-iii-tissue-factor
#1
Eugene V Golanov, Evgeniy I Bovshik, Kelvin K Wong, Robia G Pautler, Chase H Foster, Richard G Federley, Jonathan Y Zhang, James Mancuso, Stephen Tc Wong, Gavin W Britz
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 95% of cases results in long-term disabilities due to brain damage, pathogenesis of which remains uncertain. Hindrance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation along glymphatic pathways is a possible mechanism interrupting drainage of damaging substances from subarachnoid space and parenchyma. We explored changes in CSF circulation at different time following SAH and possible role of brain tissue factor (TF). Fluorescent solute and fluorescent microspheres injected into cisterna magna were used to track CSF flow in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336376/effect-of-anesthetics-on-microglial-activation-and-nanoparticle-uptake-implications-for-drug-delivery-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Gokul Kannan, Siva P Kambhampati, Sapna R Kudchadkar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often with devastating consequences for patients and their families. Affordable and timely therapies can have a substantial impact on outcomes in severe TBI. Despite the common use of sedatives and anesthetics in the acute phase of TBI management, their effect on glial cells is not well understood. We investigated the effect of a commonly used sedative, pentobarbital, on glial cells and their uptake of nanoparticles. First, we studied how pentobarbital affects BV2 mouse microglial cells in culture...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323163/cerebrospinal-and-interstitial-fluid-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-modeled-by-optimal-mass-transport
#3
Vadim Ratner, Yi Gao, Hedok Lee, Rena Elkin, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284099/astrocytes-and-the-modulation-of-sleep
#4
REVIEW
Philip G Haydon
Astrocytes are being identified as having multiple roles in sleep. Initially they were shown to modulate the process of sleep homeostasis through the release of adenosine which acts on adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) to promote sleep drive. More recent studies indicate that the astrocyte also plays pivotal, sleep-dependent roles in 'cleaning the brain' during sleep. This work indicates that a glymphatic pathway that critically relies on astrocytic aquaporin 4, is able to flush solutes from the brain and that deficits in this pathway may contribute to Alzheimer's disease...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276776/brain-injury-with-diabetes-mellitus-evidence-mechanisms-and-treatment-implications
#5
REVIEW
Sherifa A Hamed
Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements...
April 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249715/sleep-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Brianne A Kent, Ralph E Mistlberger
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and currently there are no effective disease-modifying treatments available. Hallmark symptoms of AD include impaired hippocampus-dependent episodic memory and disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. The pathways connecting these symptoms are of particular interest because it is well established that sleep and circadian disruption can impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In rodents, these procedures also markedly suppress adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of brain plasticity that is believed to play an important role in pattern separation, and thus episodic memory...
April 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241427/potential-modes-of-intercellular-%C3%AE-synuclein-transmission
#7
REVIEW
Dario Valdinocci, Rowan A W Radford, Sue Maye Siow, Roger S Chung, Dean L Pountney
Intracellular aggregates of the α-synuclein protein result in cell loss and dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Each of these neurodegenerative conditions, known collectively as α-synucleinopathies, may be characterized by a different suite of molecular triggers that initiate pathogenesis. The mechanisms whereby α-synuclein aggregates mediate cytotoxicity also remain to be fully elucidated. However, recent studies have implicated the cell-to-cell spread of α-synuclein as the major mode of disease propagation between brain regions during disease progression...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228623/elucidation-of-mechanism-of-blood-brain-barrier-damage-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-vascular-dementia
#8
Masaki Ueno
It is well-known that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays significant roles in transporting intravascular substances into the brain. The BBB in cerebral capillaries essentially impedes the influx of intravascular compounds from the blood to the brain, while nutritive substances, such as glucose, can be selectively transported through several types of influx transporters in endothelial cells. In the choroid plexus, intravascular substances can invade the parenchyma as fenestrations exist in endothelial cells of capillaries...
March 28, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197821/evaluation-of-glymphatic-system-activity-with-the-diffusion-mr-technique-diffusion-tensor-image-analysis-along-the-perivascular-space-dti-alps-in-alzheimer-s-disease-cases
#9
Toshiaki Taoka, Yoshitaka Masutani, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kiwamu Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuno, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Shinji Naganawa
PURPOSE: The activity of the glymphatic system is impaired in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the activity of the human glymphatic system in cases of AD with a diffusion-based technique called diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion tensor images were acquired to calculate diffusivities in the x, y, and z axes of the plane of the lateral ventricle body in 31 patients. We evaluated the diffusivity along the perivascular spaces as well as projection fibers and association fibers separately, to acquire an index for diffusivity along the perivascular space (ALPS-index) and correlated them with the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score...
February 14, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197669/clearance-of-cerebral-a%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease-reassessing-the-role-of-microglia-and-monocytes
#10
REVIEW
Leah Zuroff, David Daley, Keith L Black, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
Deficiency in cerebral amyloid β-protein (Aβ) clearance is implicated in the pathogenesis of the common late-onset forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of misfolded Aβ in the brain is believed to be a net result of imbalance between its production and removal. This in turn may trigger neuroinflammation, progressive synaptic loss, and ultimately cognitive decline. Clearance of cerebral Aβ is a complex process mediated by various systems and cell types, including vascular transport across the blood-brain barrier, glymphatic drainage, and engulfment and degradation by resident microglia and infiltrating innate immune cells...
February 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196227/the-ocular-glymphatic-system-and-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-author-response-to-hypodense-holes-and-the-ocular-glymphatic-system
#11
Alastair K Denniston, Pearse A Keane, Anuriti Aojula, Alex J Sinclair, Susan P Mollan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196226/-hypodense-holes-and-the-ocular-glymphatic-system-author-response-black-holes-and-the-ocular-glymphatic-system
#12
Peter Wostyn, Veva De Groot, Debby Van Dam, Kurt Audenaert, Peter Paul De Deyn, Hanspeter Esriel Killer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193695/cortical-spreading-depression-closes-paravascular-space-and-impairs-glymphatic-flow-implications-for-migraine-headache
#13
Aaron J Schain, Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
Functioning of the glymphatic system, a network of paravascular tunnels through which cortical interstitial solutes are cleared from the brain, has recently been linked to sleep and traumatic brain injury, both of which can affect the progression of migraine. This led us to investigate the connection between migraine and the glymphatic system. Taking advantage of a novel in vivo method we developed using two-photon microscopy to visualize the paravascular space (PVS) in naive uninjected mice, we show that a single wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD), an animal model of migraine aura, induces a rapid and nearly complete closure of the PVS around surface as well as penetrating cortical arteries and veins lasting several minutes, and gradually recovering over 30 min...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188218/focal-solute-trapping-and-global-glymphatic-pathway-impairment-in-a-murine-model-of-multiple-microinfarcts
#14
Minghuan Wang, Fengfei Ding, SaiYue Deng, Xuequn Guo, Wei Wang, Jeffrey J Iliff, Maiken Nedergaard
Microinfarcts occur commonly in the aging brain as a consequence of diffuse embolic events and are associated with the development of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, the manner in which disperse microscopic lesions reduce global cognitive function and increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease is unclear. The glymphatic system, which is a brain-wide perivascular network that supports the recirculation of CSF through the brain parenchyma, facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes including amyloid β and tau...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186177/the-far-reaching-scope-of-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Dennis W Simon, Mandy J McGeachy, Hülya Bayır, Robert S B Clark, David J Loane, Patrick M Kochanek
The 'silent epidemic' of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been placed in the spotlight as a result of clinical investigations and popular press coverage of athletes and veterans with single or repetitive head injuries. Neuroinflammation can cause acute secondary injury after TBI, and has been linked to chronic neurodegenerative diseases; however, anti-inflammatory agents have failed to improve TBI outcomes in clinical trials. In this Review, we therefore propose a new framework of targeted immunomodulation after TBI for future exploration...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129671/glymphatic-stasis-at-the-site-of-the-lamina-cribrosa-as-a-potential-mechanism-underlying-open-angle-glaucoma
#16
REVIEW
Peter Wostyn, Hanspeter Esriel Killer, Peter Paul De Deyn
The underlying pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma remains unclear, but the lamina cribrosa seems to be the primary site of injury, and raised intraocular pressure is a major risk factor. In recent years, a decreased intracranial pressure, leading to an abnormally high trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference, has gained interest as a new risk factor for glaucoma. New research now lends support to the hypothesis that a paravascular transport system is present in the eye analogous to the recently discovered 'glymphatic system' in the brain, which is a functional waste clearance pathway that promotes elimination of interstitial solutes, including β-amyloid, from the brain along paravascular channels...
January 27, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123166/lack-of-contrast-enhancement-in-a-giant-perivascular-space-of-the-basal-ganglion-on-delayed-flair-images-implications-for-the-glymphatic-system
#17
Shinji Naganawa, Toshiki Nakane, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiaki Taoka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096295/does-selection-for-short-sleep-duration-explain-human-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Randolph M Nesse, Caleb E Finch, Charles L Nunn
Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer 's disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin - a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep - is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD...
January 16, 2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096246/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-is-latency-in-symptom-onset-explained-by-tau-propagation
#19
Joshua Kriegel, Zachary Papadopoulos, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive mild brain trauma. CTE, previously termed "dementia pugilistica," has been identified in American football, ice hockey, baseball, rugby and soccer players, boxers, wrestlers, and military personnel exposed to blast and other traumatic brain injuries. There is often a long latency period between an individual's exposure to repetitive brain trauma and the clinical symptoms of CTE. The pathology of CTE is characterized by a progression from isolated focal perivascular hyperphosphorylated tau lesions in the cerebral cortex to a widespread tauopathy that involves diffuse cortical and medial temporal lobe regions...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054371/review-tau-in-biofluids-relation-to-pathology-imaging-and-clinical-features
#20
Henrik Zetterberg
Tau is a microtubule-binding protein that is important for the stability of neuronal axons. It is normally expressed within neurons and is also secreted into the brain interstitial fluid that communicates freely with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and, in a more restricted manner, blood via the glymphatic clearance system of the brain. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuroaxonal degeneration results in increased release of tau from neurons. Further, tau is truncated and phosphorylated, which leads to aggregation of tau in neurofibrillary tangles of the proximal axoplasm...
January 5, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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