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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785877/hepatitis-b-virus-lymphotropism-emerging-details-and-challenges
#1
Shivali S Joshi, Carla S Coffin
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly a hepatotropic virus but also infects cells of the lymphatic system. HBV genomes (DNA, messenger (m)RNA, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA) and proteins have been found in extrahepatic sites such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. HBV entry into hepatocytes occurs by binding of the HBV preS1 surface protein to its specific receptor, the bile acid transporter, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)...
May 22, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785638/intermittent-convection-enhanced-delivery-of-gdnf-into-rhesus-monkey-putamen-absence-of-local-or-cerebellar-toxicity
#2
Matthias Luz, Philip C Allen, John Bringas, Chris Boiko, Diane E Stockinger, Kristen J Nikula, Owen Lewis, Max Woolley, H Christian Fibiger, Krystof Bankiewicz, Erich Mohr
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has demonstrated neurorestorative and neuroprotective effects in rodent and nonhuman primate models of Parkinson's disease. However, continuous intraputamenal infusion of GDNF (100 µg/day) resulted in multifocal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in a 6-month toxicity study in rhesus monkeys. It was hypothesized that continuous leakage of GDNF into the cerebrospinal fluid compartment during the infusions led to down-regulation of GDNF receptors on Purkinje cells, and that subsequent acute withdrawal of GDNF then mediated the observed cerebellar lesions...
May 22, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#3
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785412/horizontal-lateral-lamella-as-a-risk-factor-for-iatrogenic-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-clinical-retrospective-evaluation-of-24-cases
#4
A Preti, F Mozzanica, R Gera, S Gallo, J Zocchi, F Bandi, G Guidugli, F Ambrogi, A Yakirevitch, A Schindler, A Dragonetti, P Castelnuovo, F Ottaviani
BACKGROUND: Several authors highlighted the limitations of the Keros classification system in predicting intracranial entry risk. Recently, our group proposed a new classification system based on the angle formed between the lateral lamella of the cribriform plate (LLCP) and the continuation of an horizontal plane passing through the cribriform plate (Gera classification). The aim of this study was to analyze whether the risk of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF-L) was better predicted by Keros or Gera classification...
May 22, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784938/characterization-of-the-rat-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-following-acute-cerebral-ischemia-using-an-aptamer-based-proteomic-technology
#5
Alba Simats, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Laura Ramiro, Dolors Giralt, Natalia Gill, Anna Penalba, Alejandro Bustamante, Anna Rosell, Joan Montaner
The limited accessibility to the brain has turned the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into a valuable source that may contribute to the complete understanding of the stroke pathophysiology. Here we have described the CSF proteome in the hyper-acute phase of cerebral ischemia by performing an aptamer-based proteomic assay (SOMAscan) in CSF samples collected before and 30 min after male Wistar rats had undergone a 90 min Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) or sham-surgery. Proteomic results indicated that cerebral ischemia acutely increased the CSF levels of 716 proteins, mostly overrepresented in leukocyte chemotaxis and neuronal death processes...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784621/endoscope-assisted-retrosigmoid-approach-in-hemifacial-spasm-our-experience
#6
Giampietro Ricci, Arianna Di Stadio, Luca D'Ascanio, Ruggero La Penna, Franco Trabalzini, Antonio Della Volpe, Jacques Magnan
INTRODUCTION: The use of surgical decompression of facial hemispasm due to the loop in the internal auditory canal is not always accepted due to the risk related to the surgical procedure. Currently a new surgical technique allows surgeons to work in safer conditions. OBJECTIVE: To report the results with endoscope-assisted retrosigmoid approach for facial nerve microvascular decompression in hemifacial spasm due to neurovascular conflict. The surgical technique is described...
May 9, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784512/epidemiology-and-etiology-of-invasive-bacterial-infection-in-infants-%C3%A2-60-days-old-treated-in-emergency-departments
#7
Christopher Woll, Mark I Neuman, Christopher M Pruitt, Marie E Wang, Eugene D Shapiro, Samir S Shah, Russell J McCulloh, Lise E Nigrovic, Sanyukta Desai, Adrienne G DePorre, Rianna C Leazer, Richard D Marble, Fran Balamuth, Elana A Feldman, Laura F Sartori, Whitney L Browning, Paul L Aronson
OBJECTIVES: To help guide empiric treatment of infants ≤60 days old with suspected invasive bacterial infection by describing pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old with invasive bacterial infection (bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis) evaluated in the emergency departments of 11 children's hospitals between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016. Each site's microbiology laboratory database or electronic medical record system was queried to identify infants from whom a bacterial pathogen was isolated from either blood or cerebrospinal fluid...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784511/accuracy-of-herpes-simplex-virus-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-of-the-blood-for-central-nervous-system-herpes-simplex-virus-infections-in-infants
#8
Todd W Lyons, Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Lise E Nigrovic
There were 1038 infants with herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction testing performed of blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens. There were 21 (2.0%) with a positive cerebrospinal fluid PCR, of whom 16 also had a positive blood PCR (sensitivity 76%; 95% CI, 53%-92%). Blood PCR cannot exclude herpes simplex virus central nervous system infection.
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784249/multiple-sclerosis-biomarkers-helping-the-diagnosis
#9
REVIEW
E Thouvenot
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex heterogeneous disease. Diagnostic criteria are based on symptoms, biomarkers, MRI data and exclusion of differential diagnoses. Over the past few years, the usefulness of biomarkers has progressively decreased with the development of new MRI criteria, yet dozens of new biomarkers, especially in cerebrospinal fluid, for MS diagnosis and prognosis have been described. Large-scale studies validating some of these new biomarkers have also provided confirmation of a restricted set of biomarkers (presented here in this review) as having potential value for different stages of the disease, including as early as clinically isolated syndrome and radiologically isolated syndrome...
May 18, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782326/increased-albumin-oxidation-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#10
Montserrat Costa, Raquel Horrillo, Ana María Ortiz, Alba Pérez, Anna Mestre, Agustín Ruiz, Mercè Boada, Salvador Grancha
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral systems is considered a major player in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Albumin is the main transporter and the main extracellular antioxidant in the human body. OBJECTIVE: Here we explore for the first time the oxidation status of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma albumin in AD in comparison to healthy subjects. METHODS: Plasma and CSF samples were obtained from mild-moderate AD patients and control healthy age-matched donors...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782314/a-retrospective-belgian-multi-center-mri-biomarker-study-in-alzheimer-s-disease-remember
#11
Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Annemie Ribbens, Christine Bastin, Florence Benoit, Bruno Bergmans, Jean-Christophe Bier, Roxanne Bladt, Lene Claes, Peter Paul De Deyn, Olivier Deryck, Bernard Hanseeuw, Adrian Ivanoiu, Jean-Claude Lemper, Eric Mormont, Gaëtane Picard, Eric Salmon, Kurt Segers, Anne Sieben, Dirk Smeets, Hanne Struyfs, Evert Thiery, Jos Tournoy, Eric Triau, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Jan Versijpt, Maria Bjerke, Sebastiaan Engelborghs
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition/processing techniques assess brain volumes to explore neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We examined the clinical utility of MSmetrix and investigated if automated MRI volumes could discriminate between groups covering the AD continuum and could be used as a predictor for clinical progression. METHODS: The Belgian Dementia Council initiated a retrospective, multi-center study and analyzed whole brain (WB), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), cortical GM (CGM) volumes, and WM hyperintensities (WMH) using MSmetrix in the AD continuum...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781875/feasibility-of-microrna-profiling-in-human-inner-ear-perilymph
#12
Matthew Shew, Athanasia Warnecke, Thomas Lenarz, Heike Schmitt, Sumedha Gunewardena, Hinrich Staecker
Hearing loss is common and caused by a wide range of molecular and cellular pathologies. Current diagnosis of hearing loss depends on a combination of physiologic testing, patient history, and in some cases genetic testing. Currently, no biopsy or equivalent procedure exists to diagnose inner ear disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short ribonucleic acids that regulate a variety of cellular processes. They have been found to be reliable markers for a variety of disease processes. In particular, a variety of miRNAs that are markers for neurodegenerative disease have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 17, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781194/paraneoplastic-autoimmune-encephalitis-associated-with-pleomorphic-lung-carcinoma-an-autopsy-case-report
#13
Takashi Ando, Yoji Goto, Kazuo Mano, Fumio Nomura, Masako Kurashige, Masafumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Yasushi Iwasaki, Masahisa Katsuno, Mari Yoshida
A 64-year-old man was admitted with acute onset disturbed consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and elevated protein, with negative cultures and PCR. Serum antibodies for autoimmune encephalitis were also negative. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable, but whole-body CT scan showed a tumor in the left lower lung lobe. Bronchial brush cytology demonstrated clusters of malignant cells, and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed multiple lesions and increased uptake in the lung tumor...
May 20, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781159/a-comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-five-body-fluids-plasma-urine-cerebrospinal-fluid-amniotic-fluid-and-saliva
#14
Mindi Zhao, Yehong Yang, Zhengguang Guo, Chen Shao, Haidan Sun, Yang Zhang, Ying Sun, Yaoran Liu, Yijun Song, Liwei Zhang, Qian Li, Juntao Liu, Mingxi Li, Youhe Gao, Wei Sun
PURPOSE: Body fluid is considered a rich source of disease biomarkers. Proteins in many body fluids have potential clinical applications for disease diagnostic and prognostic predictions. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To determine differences in the protein components and functional features of body fluids, a proteomic comparison of five body fluids (plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and amniotic fluid) was conducted by high-resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 4717 nonredundant proteins were identified, and the concentrations of 3433 proteins were estimated by an intensity-based algorithm quantitation method...
May 21, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780875/amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-are-differentially-vulnerable-to-preanalytical-surface-exposure-an-effect-incompletely-mitigated-by-the-use-of-ratios
#15
Jamie Toombs, Martha S Foiani, Henrietta Wellington, Ross W Paterson, Charles Arber, Amanda Heslegrave, Michael P Lunn, Jonathan M Schott, Selina Wray, Henrik Zetterberg
Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide ratios are more stable than Aβ42 alone when biofluids are exposed to two preanalytical conditions known to modify measurable Aβ concentration. Methods: Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and culture media (CM) from human cortical neurons were exposed to a series of volumes and polypropylene surfaces. Aβ42 , Aβ40 , and Aβ38 peptide concentrations were measured using a multiplexed electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780874/the-personalized-alzheimer-s-disease-cortical-thickness-index-predicts-likely-pathology-and-clinical-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Annie M Racine, Michael Brickhouse, David A Wolk, Bradford C Dickerson
Introduction: An Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker adjusted for age-related brain changes should improve specificity for AD-related pathological burden. Methods: We calculated a brain-age-adjusted "personalized AD cortical thickness index" (pADi) in mild cognitive impairment patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We performed receiver operating characteristic analysis for discrimination between patients with and without cerebrospinal fluid evidence of AD and logistic regression in an independent sample to determine if a dichotomized pADi predicted conversion to AD dementia...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780859/monoaminergic-impairment-in-down-syndrome-with-alzheimer-s-disease-compared-to-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Alain D Dekker, Yannick Vermeiren, Maria Carmona-Iragui, Bessy Benejam, Laura Videla, Ellen Gelpi, Tony Aerts, Debby Van Dam, Susana Fernández, Alberto Lleó, Sebastian Videla, Anne Sieben, Jean-Jacques Martin, Rafael Blesa, Juan Fortea, Peter P De Deyn
Introduction: People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Defects in monoamine neurotransmitter systems are implicated in DS and AD but have not been comprehensively studied in DS. Methods: Noradrenaline, adrenaline, and their metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG); dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid; and serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were quantified in 15 brain regions of DS without AD (DS, n = 4), DS with AD (DS+AD, n = 17), early-onset AD (EOAD, n = 11) patients, and healthy non-DS controls (n = 10) in the general population...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780652/cardiac-tamponade-as-the-initial-presentation-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-case-report-with-review-of-the-literature
#18
Dillon Karmo, Adam Hafeez, Alexandra Halalau, Siddhartha Yadav
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex disease with a variety of presentations. A large pericardial effusion is rare, occurring in less than 0.5% of all patients with AML prior to treatment. A 34-year-old male presented with dyspnea, malaise, and weight loss. On physical exam, he was noted to be hypoxic, tachypneic, tachycardic, and hypotensive. He had cervical lymphadenopathy and jugular venous distention. His WBC count was 110 bil/L with 33% blasts. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed AML with 60% blasts. Leukemic cells were also seen in the cerebrospinal fluid on lumbar puncture...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780394/monosodium-urate-crystals-activate-the-inflammasome-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Federica Piancone, Marina Saresella, Ivana Marventano, Francesca La Rosa, Maria Antonia Santangelo, Domenico Caputo, Laura Mendozzi, Marco Rovaris, Mario Clerici
Inflammasome-driven inflammation is postulated to play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is no direct evidence that the nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in MS pathogenesis. Uric acid was shown to be one of the "danger" signals involved in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome; notably, the concentration of uric acid is increased in the serum and in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS individuals. To better investigate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in MS-associated inflammation, we primed with lipopolysaccharide and stimulated with monosodium urate crystals PBMCs of 41 MS patients with different disease phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780332/myoclonic-jerks-and-schizophreniform-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Dominique Endres, Dirk-M Altenmüller, Bernd Feige, Simon J Maier, Kathrin Nickel, Sabine Hellwig, Jördis Rausch, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, John P Doerr, Karl Egger, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Schizophreniform syndromes can be divided into primary idiopathic forms as well as different secondary organic subgroups (e.g., paraepileptic, epileptic, immunological, or degenerative). Secondary epileptic explanatory approaches have often been discussed in the past, due to the high rates of electroencephalography (EEG) alterations in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, temporal lobe epilepsy is known to be associated with schizophreniform symptoms in well-described constellations. In the literature, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been linked to emotionally unstable personality traits, depression, anxiety, and executive dysfunction; however, the association with schizophrenia is largely unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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