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Cerebrospinal fluid

Jing Zhao, Xin Ye, Yan Xu, Minjiang Chen, Wei Zhong, Yun Sun, Zhenfan Yang, Guanshan Zhu, Yi Gu, Mengzhao Wang
PURPOSE: Central nervous system (CNS) is the prevalent site for metastases in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-relapsed NSCLC patients. To understand the EGFR mutation status in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples after EGFR-TKI treatment failure might be useful to guide the treatment of intra- and extracranial tumors in those patients. METHODS: Paired CSF and plasma samples were collected from seven NSCLC patients with CNS metastases after EGFR-TKI failure...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Verena Clarissa Samara, Adam de Havenon
Acute myelopathy is a rare presentation of systemic T-cell lymphoma. We present the case of a man aged 68 years with a diffuse erythematous maculopapular rash, followed by lower extremity paresthesias and progressive lower extremity weakness. Spinal MRI showed longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity with diffuse contrast enhancement. An atypical clonal T-lymphocyte population was identified in cerebrospinal fluid, peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate, indicating a malignant T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Jia Cheng, XiaoFeng Guo, Tian Zhang, Li Zhong, GuoJun Bu, XiaoFen Chen
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREMs) receptors constitute a family modulators in human innate immunity system that encode by a gene cluster. Rare variants in TREM2 were reported to be associated with significant Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. However, inconsistent results were also reported in some studies of Non-European descents. Recently, the other TREM family members are also considered to involve in AD and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) soluble form of TREM2 (sTREM2) levels has also been associated with respond to progression of disease...
October 18, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Qiang Tan, Qianwei Chen, Zhou Feng, Xia Shi, Jun Tang, Yihao Tao, Bing Jiang, Liang Tan, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Yunfeng Yang, Zhi Chen
Fibrosis in ventricular system has a role in hydrocephalus following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been reported to participate in alleviating the fibrosis process of many diseases. However, its role in fibrosis after IVH was unclear so far, and we hypothesized that CB2 activation has potential to attenuate hydrocephalus after IVH via restricting fibrosis. So the present study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a modified rat IVH model. Autologous non-anticoagulative blood injection model was induced to mimic ventricular extension of hemorrhage in adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Wei Zhang, M Can Gulersonmez, Thomas Hankemeier, Rawi Ramautar
In metabolomics, a wide range of analytical techniques is used for the global profiling of (endogenous) metabolites in complex samples. In this paper, a protocol is presented for the analysis of anionic and cationic metabolites in biological samples by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS). CE is well-suited for the analysis of highly polar and charged metabolites as compounds are separated on the basis of their charge-to-size ratio. A recently developed sheathless interfacing design, i.e., a porous tip interface, is used for coupling CE to electrospray ionization (ESI) MS...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Dennis Chan, Laura Marie Gallaher, Kuven Moodley, Ludovico Minati, Neil Burgess, Tom Hartley
This protocol describes the administration of the 4 Mountains Test (4MT), a short test of spatial memory, in which memory for the topographical layout of four mountains within a computer-generated landscape is tested using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm. Allocentric spatial memory is assessed by altering the viewpoint, colors and textures between the initially presented and target images. Allocentric spatial memory is a key function of the hippocampus, one of the earliest brain regions to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impairment of hippocampal function predates the onset of dementia...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gvido Cebers, Robert C Alexander, Samantha Budd Haeberlein, David Han, Ronald Goldwater, Larry Ereshefsky, Tina Olsson, Naidong Ye, Laura Rosen, Muir Russell, Justine Maltby, Susanna Eketjäll, Alan R Kugler
AZD3293 (LY3314814) is a promising new potentially disease-modifying BACE1 (β-secretase) inhibitor in Phase III clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Reported here are the first two Phase I studies: (1) a single ascending dose study evaluating doses of 1-750 mg with a food-effect component (n = 72), and (2) a 2-week multiple ascending dose study evaluating doses of 15 or 50 mg once daily (QD) or 70 mg once weekly (QW) in elderly subjects (Part 1, n = 31), and 15, 50, or 150 mg QD in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (Part 2, n = 16)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
H Liu, R Tariq, G L Liu, H Yan, A D Kaye
The intrathecal space has become an important anatomic site for medical intervention not only in anesthesia practice, but also in many other medical specialties. Undesired/inadvertent intrathecal injections (UII) are generally rare. There is tremendous variation in reported inadvertent administrations via an intrathecal route in the literature, mainly as individual cases and very small case-series reports. This review aims to identify potential sources of UII, its clinical presentations, and appropriate management...
October 21, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Nathan T Zwagerman, Georgios Zenonos, Stefan Lieber, Wei-Hsin Wang, Eric W Wang, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has significantly evolved since its initial uses in pituitary and sinonasal surgery. The literature is filled with reports and case series demonstrating efficacy and advantages for the entire ventral skull base. With competence in 'minimally invasive' parasellar approaches, larger and more complex approaches were developed to utilize the endonasal corridor to create maximally invasive endoscopic skull base procedures. The challenges of these more complex endoscopic procedures include a long learning curve and navigating in a narrow corridor; reconstruction of defects presented new challenges and early experience revealed a significantly higher risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Betsy Cleave, Maria Cartmill, Shiu Shing Soo, Harish Vyas
Children with shunts commonly present with fever, and often the focus of infection will be unrelated to their shunt. However, as shunt infections may present with few or even no specific symptoms, evaluation of a child with a shunt presenting with fever should be careful and comprehensive to ensure shunt infections are not missed. Treatment of an infected shunt involves removal of the shunt followed by a long course of antibiotics; missing or partially treating shunt infections can result in significant morbidity and potentially even mortality...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Joseph S Hudson, Kingsley Abode-Iyamah, Yasunori Nagahama, Chandan G Reddy
BACKGROUND: Ionic contrast, if accidentally injected into the intrathecal space during routine imaging studies or interventional procedures, may significantly interfere with neuronal activity, potentially causing ascending tonic-clonic seizure syndrome and even death. As a result, ionic contrast is strictly contraindicated for intrathecal use. Rapid recognition of the condition followed by prompt management, typically involving aggressive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, is critical to improving patient outcome...
October 17, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Sebastien Breurec, Coralie Bouchiat, Jean-Marie Sire, Olivier Moquet, Raymond Bercion, Moussa Fafa Cisse, Philippe Glaser, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sidy Ka, Helene Salord, Abdoulaye Seck, Haby Signate Sy, Remy Michel, Benoit Garin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. METHODS: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rui Gao, Guangjian Zhang, Xueqi Chen, Aimin Yang, Gwenn Smith, Dean F Wong, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD...
2016: PloS One
Tanya Bogoslovsky, Jessica Gill, Andreas Jeromin, Cora Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU)...
October 18, 2016: Diagnostics
Kamyar Keramatian, Taj Dhanoa, Alexander McGirr, Donna J Lang, William G Honer, Raymond W Lam, Lakshmi N Yatham
OBJECTIVES: The neurobiological underpinnings of bipolar I disorder are not yet understood. Previous structural neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder have produced rather conflicting results. We hypothesize that clinical sub-phenotypes of bipolar I disorder defined by their psychotic symptoms, especially those with mood-incongruent psychotic features, may have more extensive structural brain abnormalities. METHODS: We investigated structural brain alterations in patients with first-episode mania (n = 55) with mood-congruent (n = 16) and mood-incongruent (n = 32) psychotic features, as well as those without psychotic symptoms (n = 7), relative to healthy subjects (n = 56)...
October 20, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Yasheng Chen, Rajat Dhar, Laura Heitsch, Andria Ford, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas, Caty Carrera, Joan Montaner, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen, Hongyu An, Jin-Moo Lee
Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume (∆ CSF) on serial computed tomography (CT) scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volumetric approach would be too cumbersome to perform manually on serial scans in a real-world setting...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mandreker Bahall, Antonio Jose Reyes, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Nadeem Hosein, Karan Seegobin, Krishni Bahall, Hiranyadeva Sharma, Stephanie Dhansingh, Amanda Mahabir
We report a case of a 22-year-old female student nurse who presented to hospital with an acute neuro-ophthalmological syndrome characterized by papilledema, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and headache after a single first time use of 150 mg medroxyprogesterone intramuscular injection. Clinical, laboratory, radiological and ophthalmological investigations were in keeping with the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension but lumbar puncture did not show a raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure suggesting a forme fruste of this entity...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
S Kemp, R S Allan, N Patanjali, M H Barnett, B P Jonker
We report a unique case of neurological deficit from late onset multiple sclerosis (MS), in a 65-year-old woman, after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). At 3.5months post-SRS for TN, the patient developed ataxia and left leg paraesthesiae and brain MRI showed altered signal and enhancement in the vicinity of the right trigeminal root entry zone (REZ). The symptoms remitted following treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, however, 10months post-SRS, the patient developed gait ataxia and left lower limb weakness...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
Carlo Wilke, Frank Gillardon, Christian Deuschle, Markus A Hobert, Iris E Jansen, Florian G Metzger, Peter Heutink, Thomas Gasser, Walter Maetzler, Cornelis Blauwendraat, Matthis Synofzik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reduced progranulin levels are a hallmark of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) caused by loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN). However, alterations of central nervous progranulin expression also occur in neurodegenerative disorders unrelated to GRN mutations, such as Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesised that central nervous progranulin levels are also reduced in GRN-negative FTD. METHODS: Progranulin levels were determined in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in 75 subjects (37 FTD patients and 38 controls)...
October 20, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
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