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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749606/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-increased-rostral-middle-frontal-gyrus-cortical-thickness-a-family-based-and-discordant-sibling-investigation
#1
L J Michalski, C H Demers, D A A Baranger, D M Barch, M P Harms, G C Burgess, R Bogdan
BACKGROUND: Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. METHODS: RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n=879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project...
July 27, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747985/comparative-study-of-fertilization-rates-of-c57bl-6nkorl-and-c57bl-6n-mice-obtained-from-two-other-sources
#2
Woo Bin Yun, Hye Ryeong Kim, Ji Eun Kim, Jun Young Choi, Mi Rim Lee, Jin Ju Park, Bo Ram Song, Young Suk Jung, Hyun Keun Song, Joon Young Cho, Kil Soo Kim, Dae Youn Hwang
C57BL/6N is the most widely used inbred mouse strain applied in a wide variety of research areas including cancer, cardiovascular biology, developmental biology, diabetes and obesity, genetics, immunology, neurobiology, and sensorineural research. To compare the fertilization rates of C57BL/6NKorl mice with two commercial C57BL/6N stocks, differences in reproductive organ structures, sperm and egg numbers, fertilization rates, and embryo development rates among C57BL/6NKorl (Korea FDA source), C57BL/6NA (USA source), and C57BL/6NB (Japan source) mice were determined...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747895/combining-standard-conventional-measures-and-ecological-momentary-assessment-of-depression-anxiety-and-coping-using-smartphone-application-in-minor-stroke-population-a-longitudinal-study-protocol
#3
Camille Vansimaeys, Mathieu Zuber, Benjamin Pitrat, Claire Join-Lambert, Ruben Tamazyan, Wassim Farhat, Catherine Bungener
Context: Stroke has several consequences on survivors' daily life even for those who experience short-lasting neurological symptoms with no functional disability. Depression and anxiety are common psychological disorders occurring after a stroke. They affect long-term outcomes and quality of life but they are difficult to diagnose because of the neurobiological consequences of brain lesions. Current research priority is given to the improvement of the detection and prevention of those post-stroke psychological disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746335/adjudicating-between-face-coding-models-with-individual-face-fmri-responses
#4
Johan D Carlin, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
The perceptual representation of individual faces is often explained with reference to a norm-based face space. In such spaces, individuals are encoded as vectors where identity is primarily conveyed by direction and distinctiveness by eccentricity. Here we measured human fMRI responses and psychophysical similarity judgments of individual face exemplars, which were generated as realistic 3D animations using a computer-graphics model. We developed and evaluated multiple neurobiologically plausible computational models, each of which predicts a representational distance matrix and a regional-mean activation profile for 24 face stimuli...
July 26, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745267/revisiting-subcortical-brain-volume-correlates-of-autism-in-the-abide-dataset-effects-of-age-and-sex
#5
W Zhang, W Groen, M Mennes, C Greven, J Buitelaar, N Rommelse
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by substantial clinical, etiological and neurobiological heterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, previous imaging studies have highlighted the role of specific cortical and subcortical structures in ASD and have forwarded the notion of an ASD specific neuroanatomy in which abnormalities in brain structures are present that can be used for diagnostic classification approaches. METHOD: A large (N = 859, 6-27 years, IQ 70-130) multi-center structural magnetic resonance imaging dataset was examined to specifically test ASD diagnostic effects regarding (sub)cortical volumes...
July 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743254/association-between-serotonin-transporter-gene-polymorphisms-and-increased-suicidal-risk-among-hiv-positive-patients-in-uganda
#6
Allan Kalungi, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings, Lize van der Merwe, Moses L Joloba, Ann Nanteza, Noeline Nakassujja, Harriet Birabwa, Jennifer Serwanga, Pontiano Kaleebu, Eugene Kinyanda
BACKGROUND: Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at an increased risk of suicide. Increased suicidal risk is a predictor of future attempted and completed suicides and has been associated with poor quality of life and poor adherence with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical risk factors have low predictive value for suicide, hence the interest in potential neurobiological correlates and specific heritable markers of suicide vulnerability. The serotonin transporter gene has previously been implicated in the aetiology of increased suicidal risk in non-HIV infected study populations and its variations may provide a platform for identifying genetic risk for suicidality among PLWHA...
July 25, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743059/altered-connectivity-within-and-between-the-default-mode-central-executive-and-salience-networks-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Jie Fan, Mingtian Zhong, Jun Gan, Wanting Liu, Chaoyang Niu, Haiyan Liao, Hongchun Zhang, Jinyao Yi, Raymond C K Chan, Changlian Tan, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN) and salience network (SN) are the three most important intrinsic networks of the human brain. Recent studies emphasized the importance of the "triple-network model" which illustrated the interactions within and between DMN, CEN and SN in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. However, previous studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) just explored the altered connectivity within these networks while neglected the coupling between them...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742111/axonal-outgrowth-neuropeptides-expression-and-receptors-tyrosine-kinase-phosphorylation-in-3d-organotypic-cultures-of-adult-dorsal-root-ganglia
#8
Estrela Neto, Cecília J Alves, Luís Leitão, Daniela M Sousa, Inês S Alencastre, Francisco Conceição, Meriem Lamghari
Limited knowledge from mechanistic studies on adult sensory neuronal activity was generated, to some extent, in recapitulated adult in vivo 3D microenvironment. To fill this gap there is a real need to better characterize the adult dorsal root ganglia (aDRG) organotypic cultures to make these in vitro systems exploitable for different approaches, ranging from basic neurobiology to regenerative therapies, to address the sensory nervous system in adult stage. We conducted a direct head-to-head comparison of aDRG and embryonic DRG (eDRG) organotypic culture focusing on axonal growth, neuropeptides expression and receptors tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation associated with neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740249/neanderthal-derived-genetic-variation-shapes-modern-human-cranium-and-brain
#9
Michael D Gregory, J Shane Kippenhan, Daniel P Eisenberg, Philip D Kohn, Dwight Dickinson, Venkata S Mattay, Qiang Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Ziad S Saad, Karen F Berman
Before their disappearance from the fossil record approximately 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals, the ancient hominin lineage most closely related to modern humans, interbred with ancestors of present-day humans. The legacy of this gene flow persists through Neanderthal-derived variants that survive in modern human DNA; however, the neural implications of this inheritance are uncertain. Here, using MRI in a large cohort of healthy individuals of European-descent, we show that the amount of Neanderthal-originating polymorphism carried in living humans is related to cranial and brain morphology...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739584/distinct-trajectories-of-cortisol-response-to-prolonged-acute-stress-are-linked-to-affective-responses-and-hippocampal-gray-matter-volume-in-healthy-females
#10
Roee Admon, Michael T Treadway, Linda Valeri, Malavika Mehta, Samuel Douglas, Diego A Pizzagalli
The development of robust laboratory procedures for acute stress induction over the last decades has greatly advanced our understanding of stress responses in humans and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, attempts to uncover linear relationships between endocrine, neural, and affective responses to stress have generally yielded inconsistent results. Here, 79 healthy females completed a well-established laboratory procedure of acute stress induction that was modified in order to prolong its effect...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739582/gain-modulation-as-a-mechanism-for-coding-depth-from-motion-parallax-in-macaque-area-mt
#11
HyungGoo R Kim, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
Observer translation produces differential image motion between objects that are located at different distances from the observer's point of fixation (motion parallax). However, motion parallax can be ambiguous with respect to depth sign (near vs. far), and this ambiguity can be resolved by combining retinal image motion with signals regarding eye movement relative to the scene. We have previously demonstrated that both extra-retinal and visual signals related to smooth eye movements can modulate the responses of neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys, and that these modulations generate neural selectivity for depth sign...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739508/endocannabinoids-effectors-of-glucocorticoid-signaling
#12
REVIEW
Georgia Balsevich, Gavin N Petrie, Matthew N Hill
For decades, there has been speculation regarding the interaction of cannabinoids with glucocorticoid systems. Given the functional redundancy between many of the physiological effects of glucocorticoids and cannabinoids, it was originally speculated that the biological mechanisms of cannabinoids were mediated by direct interactions with glucocorticoid systems. With the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, additional research demonstrated that it was actually the opposite; glucocorticoids recruit endocannabinoid signalling, and that the engagement of endocannabinoid signalling mediated many of the neurobiological and physiological effects of glucocorticoids...
July 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738369/inflammatory-and-innate-immune-markers-of-neuroprogression-in-depressed-and-teenage-suicide-brain
#13
Ghanshyam N Pandey
Several studies suggest that major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are neuroprogressive illnesses. Besides clinical features, neurobiological mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the neuroprogression of mood disorders. Biological factors that have been shown to contribute significantly toward the neuroprogressive course of these disorders are inflammatory markers, such as cytokines. Cytokines have been extensively investigated, primarily in the serum of MDD and BPD patients, and these studies show cytokine abnormalities in both adolescent and adult patients with mood disorders...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738332/neuroprogression-and-immune-activation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Jeffrey H Meyer
Traditionally, the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been largely considered from the perspective of the state of major depressive episodes (MDE) versus being in remission, but the current accumulation of disease markers, largely acquired cross-sectionally, is strongly suggestive of neuroprogressive aspects of MDD. This chapter focuses on the changes in disease markers involved in the reorganization of the nervous system in MDD, including the translocator protein (TSPO; an index of microglial activation), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an index of astroglial activation), [11C]harmine (a marker of monoamine oxidase A; MAO-A), and several other indices (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 [mGluR5], excitatory amino acid transporters, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy measurements) of glutamate dysregulation...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736624/lyme-and-dopaminergic-function-hypothesizing-reduced-reward-deficiency-symptomatology-by-regulating-dopamine-transmission
#15
Kenneth Blum, Edward J Modestino, Marcelo Febo, Bruce Steinberg, Thomas McLaughlin, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The principal vector of Lyme disease in the United States is Ixodes scapularis: black legged or deer ticks. There is increased evidence that those infected may be plagued by anxiety or depression as well. Researchers have identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks, which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. It is hypothesized that protracted Lyme disease sequelae may be due to impairment of dopaminergic function of the brain reward circuitry. The subsequent recombinant proteins exhibited sulfotransferase function against two neurotransmitters: dopamine and octopamine...
May 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736541/hallucinations-in-healthy-older-adults-an-overview-of-the-literature-and-perspectives-for-future-research
#16
REVIEW
Johanna C Badcock, Hedwige Dehon, Frank Larøi
KEY POINTS ➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735368/mdma-induced-indifference-to-negative-sounds-is-mediated-by-the-5-ht2a-receptor
#17
K P C Kuypers, R de la Torre, Farre, N Pizarro, L Xicota, J G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND: MDMA has been shown to induce feelings of sociability, a positive emotional bias and enhanced empathy. While previous research has used only visual emotional stimuli, communication entails more than that single dimension and it is known that auditory information is also crucial in this process. In addition, it is, however, unclear what the neurobiological mechanism underlying these MDMA effects on social behaviour is. Previously, studies have shown that MDMA-induced emotional excitability and positive mood are linked to the action on the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735078/revisiting-the-role-of-the-insula-and-smoking-cue-reactivity-in-relapse-a-replication-and-extension-of-neuroimaging-findings
#18
A C Janes, J M Gilman, M Radoman, G Pachas, M Fava, A E Evins
INTRODUCTION: The ability to direct smoking cessation treatment based on neuroscientific findings holds incredible promise. However, there is a strong need for consistency across studies to confirm neurobiological targets. While our prior work implicated enhanced insula reactivity to smoking cues in tobacco smoking relapse vulnerability, this finding has not been confirmed. METHOD: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we evaluated the pre-cessation brain reactivity to smoking vs...
July 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734940/role-of-orbitofrontal-sulcogyral-pattern-on-lifetime-cannabis-use-and-depressive-symptoms
#19
Yann Chye, Nadia Solowij, Eleni P Ganella, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E Goudriaan, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Cali F Bartholomeusz, Valentina Lorenzetti
Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) sulcogyral patterns are stable morphological variations established early in life. They consist of three distinct pattern types, with Type III in particular being associated with poor regulatory control (e.g., high sensation seeking and negative emotionality, low constraint), which may confer risk for earlier onset of cannabis (CB) use and greater use in later life. The OFC sulcogyral pattern may therefore be a stable trait marker in understanding individual differences in substance-use vulnerability and associated affective disturbances in users...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734870/elucidation-of-the-neural-circuits-activated-by-a-gabab-receptor-positive-modulator-relevance-to-anxiety
#20
REVIEW
Riccardo Pizzo, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan
Although there is much evidence for a role of GABAB receptors in the pathophysiology of anxiety, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are largely unclear. The GABAB receptor allosteric positive modulator, GS39783, exerts anxiolytic effects without interfering with GABAB-mediated modulation of body temperature, cognitive performance and locomotor activity thus offering advantages over GABAB receptor agonists. However, the precise neural circuits underlying the anxiolytic effects of GS39783 are unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify brain structures and associated neuronal circuits that are modulated by GS39783 under either basal or mild stress conditions...
July 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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