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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335463/dysfunctional-mtorc1-signaling-a-convergent-mechanism-between-syndromic-and-nonsyndromic-forms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Juliana Magdalon, Sandra M Sánchez-Sánchez, Karina Griesi-Oliveira, Andréa L Sertié
Whereas autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibits striking heterogeneity in genetics and clinical presentation, dysfunction of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway has been identified as a molecular feature common to several well-characterized syndromes with high prevalence of ASD. Additionally, recent findings have also implicated mTORC1 signaling abnormalities in a subset of nonsyndromic ASD, suggesting that defective mTORC1 pathway may be a potential converging mechanism in ASD pathology across different etiologies...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331554/altered-functional-resting-state-hypothalamic-connectivity-and-abnormal-pituitary-morphology-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#2
Akvile Lukoshe, Suzanne E van Dijk, Gerbrich E van den Bosch, Aad van der Lugt, Tonya White, Anita C Hokken-Koelega
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by endocrine problems and hyperphagia, indicating hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. However, few studies have explored the underlying neurobiology of the hypothalamus and its functional connectivity with other brain regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the anatomical differences of the hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, and pituitary gland as well as resting state functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in children with PWS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330787/acute-impact-of-caffeinated-alcoholic-beverages-on-cognition-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Laurence Lalanne, Pierre-Eric Lutz, François Paille
INTRODUCTION: Energy drinks are popular beverages that are supposed to counteract sleepiness, increase energy, maintain alertness and reduce symptoms of hangover. Cognitive enhancing seems to be related to many compounds such as caffeine, taurine and vitamins. Currently, users mostly combine psychostimulant effects of energy drinks to counteract sedative effects of alcohol. However, recent literature suggests that this combination conducts to feel less intoxicated but still impaired. The goal of the present article is to review cognitive impact and subjective awareness in case of caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) intoxication...
March 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329204/new-neuroscience-tools-that-are-identifying-the-sleep-wake-circuit
#4
Priyattam J Shiromani, John H Peever
The complexity of the brain is yielding to technology. In the area of sleep neurobiology, conventional neuroscience tools such as lesions, cell recordings, c-Fos, and axon-tracing methodologies have been instrumental in identifying the complex and intermingled populations of sleep- and arousal-promoting neurons that orchestrate and generate wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep. In the last decade, new technologies such as optogenetics, chemogenetics and the CRISPR-Cas system have begun to transform how biologists understand the finer details associated with sleep-wake regulation...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328306/integration-and-evaluation-of-substance-abuse-research-education-training-saret-into-a-master-of-social-work-program
#5
Ellen Tuchman, Kathleen Hanley, Madeline Naegle, Frederick More, Sewit Bereket, Marc N Gourevitch
BACKGROUND: The Substance Abuse Research and Education Training (SARET) program is funded by the National Institutes of Drug Abuse in 2006 as a novel approach to spark interest in substance abuse research among medical, dental, nursing, and social work graduate students through a Web-based curriculum and research mentorships. This report presents the initial integration of the intervention in a Master of Social Work (MSW) program, the components of the program, and the mixed-methods evaluation of its effect on students' attitudes towards substance abuse research and treatment...
February 8, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326945/descending-facilitation
#6
Min Zhuo
It is documented that sensory transmission, including pain, is subject to endogenous inhibitory and facilitatory modulation at the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Descending facilitation has received a lot of attention, due to its potentially important roles in chronic pain. Recent investigation using neurobiological approaches has further revealed the link between cortical potentiation and descending facilitation. Cortical-spinal top-down facilitation, including those relayed through brainstem neurons, provides powerful control for pain transmission at the level of the spinal cord...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326533/dysregulated-fear-social-inhibition-and-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-a%C3%A2-replication-and-extension
#7
Kristin A Buss, Elizabeth L Davis, Nilam Ram, Michael Coccia
Behavioral inhibition indicates increased risk for development of social anxiety. Recent work has identified a pattern of dysregulated fear (DF), characterized by high fear in low-threat situations, that provides a more precise marker of developmental risk through early childhood. This study tested a new longitudinal sample of children (n = 124) from ages 24 to 48 months. Replicating prior findings, at 24 months, we identified a pattern of fearful behavior across contexts marked by higher fear to putatively low-threat situations...
March 21, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325680/prefrontal-activity-and-impaired-memory-encoding-strategies-in-schizophrenia
#8
Synthia Guimond, Colin Hawco, Martin Lepage
Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325573/brain-network-characteristics-separating-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-into-normality-or-psychosis
#9
Soo-Hee Choi, Sunghyon Kyeong, Kang Ik K Cho, Je-Yeon Yun, Tae Young Lee, Hye Yoon Park, Sung Nyun Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
We aimed to separate individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) state into subgroups according to neurobiological characteristics using structural and functional network constructs and examine their clinical characteristics. Structural diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed in 61 healthy controls (HC), 57 individuals at CHR and 29 patients with schizophrenia (SZ). The main outcome was a likelihood ratio calculated from measures of structural and functional network efficiencies, coupling strength of structural and functional networks, and a disease-specific data analysis, resulting in the most probable classification of CHR into HC or SZ...
March 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325179/pain-management-in-horses
#10
REVIEW
Alonso Guedes
There has been great progress in the understanding of basic neurobiologic mechanisms of pain, but this body of knowledge has not yet translated into new and improved analgesics. Progress has been made regarding pain assessment in horses, but more work is needed until sensitive and accurate pain assessment tools are available for use in clinical practice. This review summarizes and updates the knowledge concerning the cornerstones of pain medicine (understand, assess, prevent, and treat). It highlights the importance of understanding pain mechanisms and expressions to enable a rational approach to pain assessment, prevention, and management in the equine patient...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#11
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324757/perceptual-category-learning-and-visual-processing-an-exercise-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#12
George Cantwell, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Jessica L Roeder, F Gregory Ashby
The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning...
March 6, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324134/-between-psyche-and-brain-state-of-the-art-in-psychiatry
#13
T Fuchs
Since its development around 1800 psychiatry has been oscillating between the poles of the sciences and the humanities, being directed towards subjective experience on the one hand and towards the neural substrate on the other hand. Today, this dualism seems to have been overcome by a naturalism, which identifies subjective experience with neural processes, according to Griesinger's frequently quoted statement "mental diseases are brain diseases". The progress achieved by the neurobiological paradigm on the level of a fundamental science is in contrast to the tendency to isolate mental illnesses from the patients' social relationships and to neglect subjectivity and intersubjectivity in their explanation...
March 21, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323920/perinatal-exposure-to-low-dose-bisphenol-a-bpa-disrupts-the-structural-and-functional-development-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-circuitry
#14
Harry MacKay, Zachary R Patterson, Alfonso Abizaid
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics to which humans are regularly exposed at low levels. BPA is characterized as an endocrine disruptor due to observations of its estrogenic activity in various experimental models. We have previously shown evidence of disrupted hypothalamic feeding circuitry and leptin sensitivity in adult BPA-exposed animals subject to a high-fat diet, but because these animals were already exhibiting a diet-induced obese phenotype, we could not rule out the possibility that these observations were simply consequences of the obesity, not a pre-existing phenotype produced by BPA exposure...
February 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322981/imaging-genetics-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-linking-genetics-and-brain-imaging-in-the-pursuit-of-the-underlying-neurobiological-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a wide range of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions that affect an individual in several aspects of social communication and behavior. Recent advances in molecular genetic technologies have dramatically increased our understanding of ASD etiology through the identification of several autism risk genes, most of which serve important functions in synaptic plasticity and protein synthesis. However, despite significant progress in this field of research, the characterization of the neurobiological mechanisms by which common genetic risk variants might operate to give rise to ASD symptomatology has proven to be far more difficult than expected...
March 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322246/genetic-correlation-between-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia
#16
Russell L McLaughlin, Dick Schijven, Wouter van Rheenen, Kristel R van Eijk, Margaret O'Brien, René S Kahn, Roel A Ophoff, An Goris, Daniel G Bradley, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Leonard H van den Berg, Jurjen J Luykx, Orla Hardiman, Jan H Veldink
We have previously shown higher-than-expected rates of schizophrenia in relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting an aetiological relationship between the diseases. Here, we investigate the genetic relationship between ALS and schizophrenia using genome-wide association study data from over 100,000 unique individuals. Using linkage disequilibrium score regression, we estimate the genetic correlation between ALS and schizophrenia to be 14.3% (7.05-21.6; P=1 × 10(-4)) with schizophrenia polygenic risk scores explaining up to 0...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322236/the-role-of-mesolimbic-reward-neurocircuitry-in-prevention-and-rescue-of-the-activity-based-anorexia-aba-phenotype-in-rats
#17
Claire J Foldi, Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic; unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) model recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, including anhedonia, and allows investigation of the underlying neurobiology of AN. The potential for increased neuronal activity in reward/hedonic circuits to prevent and rescue weight loss is investigated in this model. The mesolimbic pathway extending from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was activated using a dual viral strategy, involving retrograde transport of Cre (CAV2-Cre) to the VTA and coincident injection of DREADD receptors (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mCherry)...
March 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321770/cognitive-control-processes-and-functional-cerebral-asymmetries-association-with-variation-in-the-handedness-associated-gene-lrrtm1
#18
Christian Beste, Larissa Arning, Wanda M Gerding, Jörg T Epplen, Alexandra Mertins, Melanie C Röder, Josef J Bless, Kenneth Hugdahl, René Westerhausen, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Cognitive control processes play an essential role not only in controlling actions but also in guiding attentional selection processes. Interestingly, these processes are strongly affected by organizational principles of the cerebral cortex and related functional asymmetries, but the neurobiological foundations are elusive. We ask whether neurobiological mechanisms that affect functional cerebral asymmetries will also modulate effects of top-down control processes on functional cerebral asymmetries. To this end, we examined potential effects of the imprinted gene leucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 1 (LRRTM1) on attentional biasing processes in a forced attention dichotic listening task in 983 healthy adult participants of Caucasian descent using the "iDichotic smartphone app...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321467/-sexual-dysfunction-associated-with-psychotropic-drugs-and-treatment-options
#19
M Berner
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction associated with psychotropic drugs is a threat to patient quality of life and a major reason for non-compliance. Psychotropic agents can impair the sexual response in different ways due to their neurobiological mode of action. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the frequencies of sexual functional disorders for selected psychopharmacological groups and the available treatment modalities. METHODS: Literature search, selection and review of relevant studies...
March 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321439/overexpression-of-parkinson-s-disease-associated-mutation-lrrk2-g2019s-in-mouse-forebrain-induces-behavioral-deficits-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology
#20
Yulan Xiong, Stewart Neifert, Senthilkumar S Karuppagounder, Jeannette N Stankowski, Byoung Dae Lee, Jonathan C Grima, Guanxing Chen, Han Seok Ko, Yunjong Lee, Debbie Swing, Lino Tessarollo, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been identified as an unambiguous cause of late-onset, autosomal-dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and LRRK2 mutations are the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic PD known to date. A number of transgenic mice expressing wild-type or mutant LRRK2 have been described with varying degrees of LRRK2-related abnormalities and modest pathologies. None of these studies directly addressed the role of the kinase domain in the changes observed and none of the mice present with robust features of the human disease...
March 2017: ENeuro
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