keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neurobiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#1
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#2
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#3
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229904/regulation-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signalling-underpinning-neurobiology-of-mood-disorders-and-depression
#4
Dimitris K Grammatopoulos
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have long been at the centre of investigations of the neurobiology of depression and mood disorders. Different facets of GPCR signalling pathways, including those controlling monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic hormonal systems are believed to be dysregulated in major depressive and bipolar disorders. Although these receptors are key molecular targets for a variety of therapeutic agents and continue to be the focus of intense pharmaceutical development, the molecular mechanisms activated by these GPCRs and underpin the pathological basis of mood disorders remain poorly understood...
February 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229895/impulse-control-disorders-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, T Celeste Napier, Michael J Frank, Veronique Sgambato-Faure, Anthony A Grace, Maria Rodriguez-Oroz, Jose Obeso, Erwan Bezard, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut
Dopaminergic medications used in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease are associated with motor and non-motor behavioural side-effects, such as dyskinesias and impulse control disorders also known as behavioural addictions. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias occur in up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's after a few years of chronic treatment. Impulse control disorders, including gambling disorder, binge eating disorder, compulsive sexual behaviour, and compulsive shopping occur in about 17% of patients with Parkinson's disease on dopamine agonists...
March 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229114/the-trier-social-stress-test-principles-and-practice
#6
REVIEW
Andrew P Allen, Paul J Kennedy, Samantha Dockray, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke
Researchers interested in the neurobiology of the acute stress response in humans require a valid and reliable acute stressor that can be used under experimental conditions. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) provides such a testing platform. It induces stress by requiring participants to make an interview-style presentation, followed by a surprise mental arithmetic test, in front of an interview panel who do not provide feedback or encouragement. In this review, we outline the methodology of the TSST, and discuss key findings under conditions of health and stress-related disorder...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229111/the-chronic-mild-stress-cms-model-of-depression-history-evaluation-and-usage
#7
REVIEW
Paul Willner
Now 30 years old, the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression has been used in >1300 published studies, with a year-on-year increase rising to >200 papers in 2015. Data from a survey of users show that while a variety of names are in use (chronic mild/unpredictable/varied stress), these describe essentially the same procedure. This paper provides an update on the validity and reliability of the CMS model, and reviews recent data on the neurobiological basis of CMS effects and the mechanisms of antidepressant action: the volume of this research may be unique in providing a comprehensive account of antidepressant action within a single model...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229041/hemispheric-asymmetry-in-myelin-after-stroke-is-related-to-motor-impairment-and-function
#8
Bimal Lakhani, Kathryn S Hayward, Lara A Boyd
The relationships between impairment, function, arm use and underlying brain structure following stroke remain unclear. Although diffusion weighted imaging is useful in broadly assessing white matter structure, it has limited utility in identifying specific underlying neurobiological components, such as myelin. The purpose of the present study was to explore relationships between myelination and impairment, function and activity in individuals with chronic stroke. Assessments of paretic upper-extremity impairment and function were administered, and 72-hour accelerometer based activity monitoring was conducted on 19 individuals with chronic stroke...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228714/narrative-organization-deficit-in-lewy-body-disorders-is-related-to-alzheimer-pathology
#9
Murray Grossman, David J Irwin, Charles Jester, Amy Halpin, Sharon Ash, Katya Rascovsky, Daniel Weintraub, Corey T McMillan
Background: Day-to-day interactions depend on conversational narrative, and we examine here the neurobiological basis for difficulty organizing narrative discourse in patients with Lewy body disorders (LBD). Method: Narrative organization was examined in 56 non-aphasic LBD patients, including a non-demented cohort (n = 30) with Parkinson's disease (PD) or PD-Mild Cognitive Impairment PD-MCI,) and a cohort with mild dementia (n = 26) including PD-dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), with similar age and education but differing in MMSE (p < 0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#10
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226742/a-cnn-based-neurobiology-inspired-approach-for-retinal-image-quality-assessment
#11
Dwarikanath Mahapatra, Pallab K Roy, Suman Sedai, Rahil Garnavi, Dwarikanath Mahapatra, Pallab K Roy, Suman Sedai, Rahil Garnavi, Suman Sedai, Pallab K Roy, Rahil Garnavi, Dwarikanath Mahapatra
Retinal image quality assessment (IQA) algorithms use different hand crafted features for training classifiers without considering the working of the human visual system (HVS) which plays an important role in IQA. We propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) based approach that determines image quality using the underlying principles behind the working of the HVS. CNNs provide a principled approach to feature learning and hence higher accuracy in decision making. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed algorithm over competing methods...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226437/exploring-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-human-brain-by-multimodal-imaging
#12
Han Yuan, Jerzy Bodurka, Lei Ding, Han Yuan, Jerzy Bodurka, Lei Ding, Han Yuan, Lei Ding, Jerzy Bodurka
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies utilizing measures of hemodynamic signal, such as the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, have discovered that resting-state brain activities are organized into multiple large-scale functional networks, coined as resting state networks (RSNs). However, an important limitation of the available fMRI studies is that hemodynamic signals only provide an indirect measure of neuronal activity and that the neurobiological basis of the fMRI RSNs is not clear...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225852/tryptophan-overloading-activates-brain-regions-involved-with-cognition-mood-and-anxiety
#13
Luana C A Silva, Milena B Viana, José S Andrade, Melyssa A Souza, Isabel C Céspedes, Vânia D'Almeida
Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days...
February 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224686/addiction-research-and-theory-a-commentary-on-the-surgeon-general-s-report-on-alcohol-drugs-and-health
#14
Aldo Badiani, Kent C Berridge, Markus Heilig, David J Nutt, Terry E Robinson
The Office of the Surgeon General recently produced its first Report on the consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on health, making several very laudable policy recommendations. The Report also emphasizes the importance of adequate funding for biomedical research, which is good news for both researchers and patients. However, the Report is marred by a biased viewpoint on the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction. We highlight here four controversial issues that were depicted as facts in the Report, thereby potentially misleading non-expert readers about the current state-of-the-art understanding of the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction...
February 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221003/trends-in-high-throughput-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
REVIEW
Yongmin Cho, Charles L Zhao, Hang Lu
The nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the development and function of larger, more complex nervous systems. It is prized for its ease of handling, rapid life cycle, and stereotyped, well-cataloged development, with the development of all 302 neurons mapped all the way from zygote to adult. The combination of easy genetic manipulation and optical transparency of the worm allows for the direct imaging of its interior with fluorescent microscopy, without physically compromising the normal physiology of the animal itself...
February 21, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220395/single-cell-sequencing-a-distinct-new-field
#16
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Yuanlin Song
Single cell sequencing (SCS) has become a new approach to study biological heterogeneity. The advancement in technologies for single cell isolation, amplification of genome/transcriptome and next-generation sequencing enables SCS to reveal the inherent properties of a single cell from the large scale of the genome, transcriptome or epigenome at high resolution. Recently, SCS has been widely applied in various clinical and research fields, such as cancer biology and oncology, immunology, microbiology, neurobiology and prenatal diagnosis...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220044/pregnenolone-blocks-cannabinoid-induced-acute-psychotic-like-states-in-mice
#17
A Busquets-Garcia, E Soria-Gómez, B Redon, Y Mackenbach, M Vallée, F Chaouloff, M Varilh, G Ferreira, P-V Piazza, G Marsicano
Cannabis-induced acute psychotic-like states (CIAPS) represent a growing health issue, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines against CIAPS is limited by side effects and/or by their ability to tackle only certain aspects of psychosis. Thus, safer wide-spectrum treatments are currently needed. Although the blockade of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) had been suggested as a therapeutical means against CIAPS, the use of orthosteric CB1 receptor full antagonists is strongly limited by undesired side effects and low efficacy...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219775/topographic-organization-of-the-cerebral-cortex-and-brain-cartography
#18
Simon B Eickhoff, R Todd Constable, B T Thomas Yeo
One of the most specific but also challenging properties of the brain is its topographic organization into distinct modules or cortical areas. In this paper, we first review the concept of topographic organization and its historical development. Next, we provide a critical discussion of the current definition of what constitutes a cortical area, why the concept has been so central to the field of neuroimaging and the challenges that arise from this view. A key aspect in this discussion is the issue of spatial scale and hierarchy in the brain...
February 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219707/22-azidosalvinorin-a-exhibits-antidepressant-like-effect-in-mice
#19
James Oluwagbamigbe Fajemiroye, Polepally Reddy Prabhakar, Carlos Luiz da Cunha, Elson Alves Costa, Jordan K Zjawiony
The increasing cases of depression has made the searches for new drugs and understanding of the underligning neurobiology of this psychiatric disorder a necessity. Here, we modified the structure of salvinorin A (a known halucinogen) and investigated antidepressant-like activity of its four derivatives; 22-methylsulfanylsalvinorin A(SA1), 2-O-cinnamoylsalvinorin B (CSB), 22-azidosalvinorin A (SA2), and 2-O-(4(')-azidophenylsulfonyl)salvinorin B (SA3). Prior to behavioural tests (Irwin test, open field test - OFT, forced swimming test - FST and tail suspension test - TST), SA1 was prepared by reacting salvinorin B and methylthioacetic acid with 89% yield; CSB was obtained from the reaction of salvinorin B and cinnamic acid with 92% yield; SA2 was obtained from the reaction of salvinorin B and azidoacetic acid with 81% yield; and SA3 was prepared by reacting salvinorin B with 4-azidophenylsulfonyl chloride with 80% yield...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217813/-vegf-enhances-reconstruction-of-neurovascular-units-in-the-brain-after-injury
#20
Zhi-Guang Pan, Ying Mao, Feng-Yan Sun
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was originally recognized as a substance predominantly with vascular permeability and angiogenesis. Recently, more and more evidence indicated that VEGF is expressed in the neurons of the developing and adult brains. Functional investigation demonstrated that VEGF shows several important effects on the neuronal development and physiological function. For example, VEGF accelerates the development of neurons and neural dendritic and axon growth. Besides, VEGF directly and acutely regulates the functions of multiple ion channels of the neuron membrane and changes neural excitability...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
keyword
keyword
3843
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"