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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145764/plasma-corticosterone-epinephrine-and-norepinephrine-levels-increase-during-administration-of-nitrous-oxide-in-rats
#1
Salwa Al-Noori, Andreas Cimpan, Zoe Maltzer, Karl J Kaiyala, Douglas S Ramsay
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a gaseous drug with abuse potential. Despite its common clinical use, little is known about whether N2O administration activates the HPA axis and/or the sympathetic adrenomedullary system. The goal of this study was to determine whether 60% N2O alters plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CORT), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in male Long-Evans rats. A gas-tight swivel assembly in the lid of a gas administration chamber allowed the remote collection of blood samples from an indwelling jugular vein catheter at four time-points: baseline and at 30, 60, and 120 min during a two-hour administration of 60% N2O...
November 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124107/a-general-neurologist-s-perspective-on-the-urgent-need-to-apply-resilience-thinking-to-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Grazyna Pomorska, Judith K Ockene
The goal of this article was to look at the problem of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the lens of a socioecological resilience-thinking framework to help expand our view of the prevention and treatment of AD. This serious and complex public health problem requires a holistic systems approach. We present the view that resilience thinking, a theoretical framework that offers multidisciplinary approaches in ecology and natural resource management to solve environmental problems, can be applied to the prevention and treatment of AD...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108934/cardiovascular-control-is-associated-with-pair-bond-success-in-male-prairie-voles
#3
Robert Lewis, Brek Wilkins, Bruce Benjamin, J Thomas Curtis
Social support structures reduce mortality and morbidity in humans, but the mechanisms underlying these reductions are not fully understood. The prevailing hypothesis is that social support buffers stress and reduces allostatic load, thereby increasing longevity. However, the possibility that affiliative social interactions confer health benefits independent of stress buffering is understudied. We examined autonomic function in prairie voles - arguably the premier species for modeling human social affiliation - to assess the possibility that the formation of strong social bonds alters autonomic function and contributes to health benefits...
October 2, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107462/each-meal-matters-in-the-exposome-biological-and-community-considerations-in-fast-food-socioeconomic-associations
#4
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
Advances in omics and microbiome technology have transformed the ways in which the biological consequences of life in the 'ecological theatre' can be visualized. Exposome science examines the total accumulated environmental exposures (both detrimental and beneficial) as a means to understand the response of the 'total organism to the total environment' over time. The repetitive stimulation of compensatory physiological responses (immune, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine) in response to stress - including sources of stress highly relevant to socioeconomic disadvantage - may lead to metabolic dysregulation and cellular damage, ultimately influencing behavior and disease...
September 27, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082305/explaining-racial-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-postpartum-allostatic-load-results-from-a-multisite-study-of-low-to-middle-income-woment
#5
Patricia O'Campo, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Christine M Guardino, Maxine Reed Vance, Calvin J Hobel, Sharon Landesman Ramey, Madeleine U Shalowitz
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic inequalities in women's health are widely documented, but not for the postpartum period, and few studies examine whether neighborhood, psychosocial, and biological factors explain these gaps in women's health. METHODS: Using prospective longitudinal data collected from 1766 low to middle income women between 2008 and 2012 by the Community Child Health Network (CCHN), we tested the extent to which adjustment for neighborhood, economic, psychological, and medical conditions following a birth explained differences between African American, Latina, and White women in an indicator of physiological dysregulation allostatic load (AL), at one year postpartum as measured by 10 biomarkers: Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, Hemoglobin A1c, high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol ratio, and diurnal cortisol...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080216/c1-neurons-a-nodal-point-for-stress
#6
Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
The C1 cells are catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Collectively, these neurons innervate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and countless brain structures involved in autonomic regulation, arousal and stress. Optogenetic inhibition of rostral C1 neurons has little effect on BP at rest in conscious rats but produces large BP drops when the animals are anesthetized or exposed to hypoxia...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078038/influence-of-supraphysiological-cortisol-manipulation-on-predator-avoidance-behaviours-and-physiological-responses-to-a-predation-threat-in-a-wild-marine-teleost-fish
#7
Michael J Lawrence, Erika J Eliason, Jacob W Brownscombe, Kathleen M Gilmour, John W Mandelman, Lee F G Gutowsky, Steven J Cooke
The stress axis in teleost fish attempts to maintain internal homeostasis in the face of allostatic loading. However, stress axis induction has been associated with a higher predation rate in fish. To date, the physiological and behavioural factors associated with this outcome are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of experimental cortisol elevation on anti-predator behaviour and physiological responses to predator presence. We hypothesized that semi-chronic cortisol elevation would increase susceptibility to predation by increasing stress-induced risk taking behaviours...
October 27, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062338/allostatic-load-and-heart-rate-variability-as-health-risk-indicators
#8
Margaretha Viljoen, Nicolaas Claassen
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty often exists about the comparability of results obtained by different health risk indicator systems. OBJECTIVES: To compare two health risk indicator systems, i.e, allostatic load and heart rate variability (HRV). Additionally, to investigate the feasibility of inclusion of HRV indicators into allostatic load assessments and which HRV indicators are best to introduce. METHODS: Allostatic loads were calculated based on blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, BMI, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, CRP, albumin, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glucose and cortisol excretion...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056148/neuropeptides-and-addiction-an-introduction
#9
Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptides are short sequences of amino acids that are coexpressed with neurotransmitters and which are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. There is a large database of data pointing to critical roles for neuropeptides in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol and drugs of abuse. Continued alcohol and drug use promote allostatic alterations in neuropeptide systems, and these changes contribute to excessive and uncontrolled intake that emerges with dependence. The neuropeptides that are reviewed in this chapter represent some of the most well-studied targets in the current drug and alcohol abuse literature...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024973/re-employment-job-quality-health-and-allostatic-load-biomarkers-prospective-evidence-from-the-uk-household-longitudinal-study
#10
Tarani Chandola, Nan Zhang
Background: There is little evidence on whether becoming re-employed in poor quality work is better for health and well-being than remaining unemployed. We examined associations of job transition with health and chronic stress-related biomarkers among a population-representative cohort of unemployed British adults. Methods: A prospective cohort of 1116 eligible participants aged 35 to 75 years, who were unemployed at wave 1 (2009/10) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, were followed up at waves 2 (2010/11) and 3 (2011/12) for allostatic load biomarkers and self-reported health...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016550/assessing-lifetime-stress-exposure-using-the-stress-and-adversity-inventory-for-adults-adult-strain-an-overview-and-initial-validation
#11
George M Slavich, Grant S Shields
OBJECTIVE: Numerous theories have proposed that acute and chronic stressors may exert a cumulative effect on lifespan health by causing biological "wear and tear", or allostatic load, which in turn promotes disease. Very few studies have directly tested such models, though, partly because of the challenges associated with efficiently assessing stress exposure over the entire life course. To address this issue, we developed the first online system for systematically assessing lifetime stress exposure, called the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN), and describe its initial validation here...
October 10, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016420/prevention-strategies-in-post-tbi-depression-in-older-adults-a-case-study
#12
Esther Bay, Anne Marie Garbinski, Susan E Maycock
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe a theoretically focused intervention aimed toward chronic stress and depressive symptom management that is coordinated by a case manager and delivered within a home environment by the caregiver. PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTING: Home care, community setting. METHODS: A case study of an older adult with traumatic brain injury (TBI) secondary to a fall who had significant allostatic load at the time of his injury...
November 2017: Professional Case Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983518/evidence-for-a-large-scale-brain-system-supporting-allostasis-and-interoception-in-humans
#13
Ian R Kleckner, Jiahe Zhang, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Lorena Chanes, Chenjie Xia, W Kyle Simmons, Karen S Quigley, Bradford C Dickerson, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Large-scale intrinsic brain systems have been identified for exteroceptive senses (e.g., sight, hearing, touch). We introduce an analogous system for representing sensations from within the body, called interoception, and demonstrate its relation to regulating peripheral systems in the body, called allostasis. Employing the recently introduced Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding (EPIC) model, we used tract-tracing studies of macaque monkeys, followed by two intrinsic functional magnetic resonance imaging samples (N = 280 and N = 270) to evaluate the existence of an intrinsic allostatic/interoceptive system in the human brain...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982528/childhood-adolescent-stressors-and-allostatic-load-in-adulthood-support-for-a-calibration-model
#14
Mark T Berg, Ronald L Simons, Ashley Barr, Steven R H Beach, Robert A Philibert
RATIONALE: Past research has established an association between childhood and adolescent stressors and elevated inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in adulthood, but questions remain about the theoretical model most suited to explain this association. OBJECTIVE: This study examined alternative hypotheses from four theoretical models regarding the link between exposure to stressful early life circumstances and cumulative biological risk, or allostatic load, in adulthood...
November 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963986/a-systematic-review-of-allostatic-load-in-relation-to-socioeconomic-position-poor-fidelity-and-major-inconsistencies-in-biomarkers-employed
#15
REVIEW
Sarah C Johnson, Francesca L Cavallaro, David A Leon
BACKGROUND: The association between disease and socioeconomic position (SEP) is well established. Allostatic load (AL), or physiological 'wear and tear', is a concept that aims to elucidate the biological consequences of stress that may underlie these associations. The primary objective of this paper is to review the biomarkers and methods used to operationalise the concept of AL in studies analysing the association between AL and SEP. METHODS: Four databases (Embase, Global Health, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO) were searched using terms related to AL, biomarkers and SEP...
September 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938475/modeling-the-sex-differences-and-interindividual-variability-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#16
Rohit T Rao, Ioannis P Androulakis
Significant sex differences exist in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These differences are thought to contribute to the disparity in the prevalence of various autoimmune and infectious diseases between males and females. We used a mathematical model of the HPA axis to evaluate the hypothesis that differential sensitivity and negative feedback of the HPA axis network are causal factors for the observed sex differences in its activity. In doing so, we implicitly accounted for the differential influence of gonadal hormones on the HPA axis...
November 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936179/seasonal-variations-in-heart-rate-variability-as-an-indicator-of-stress-in-free-ranging-pregnant-przewalski-s-horses-e-ferus-przewalskii-within-the-hortob%C3%A3-gy-national-park-in-hungary
#17
Friederike Pohlin, Kristin Brabender, Gerhard Fluch, Gabrielle Stalder, Thierry Petit, Chris Walzer
Background: Ecosystems with seasonal fluctuations in climate and food availability present physiological challenges to resident mammals and may cause "stress." The two predominant physiological responses to stressors are (1) the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and (2) the modulation of the autonomic nervous system. To date, the primary indicator for "stress" in wildlife- and zoo animal research are glucocorticoid levels. By measuring the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity, particularly the vagal tone, heart rate variability (HRV) is presently emerging as a suitable indicator of "stress" in farm- and domestic animal research...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929914/the-conundrum-of-opioid-tapering-in-long-term-opioid-therapy-for-chronic-pain-a-commentary
#18
Ajay Manhapra, Albert A Arias, Jane C Ballantyne
BACKGROUND: In response to the opioid epidemic and new guidelines, many patients on high-dose long term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic pain are getting tapered off opioids. As a result, a unique clinical challenge is emerging: while many on LTOT have poor pain control, functional decline, psychiatric instability, aberrancies and misuse, these issues may often worsen with opioid tapering. Currently, a clear explanation and practical guidance on how to manage this perplexing clinical scenario is lacking...
September 20, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926525/effect-of-a-mentor-based-supportive-expressive-program-be-resilient-to-breast-cancer-on-survival-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-randomised-controlled-intervention-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Zeng Jie Ye, Hong Zhong Qiu, Mu Zi Liang, Mei Ling Liu, Peng Fei Li, Peng Chen, Zhe Sun, Yuan Liang Yu, Shu Ni Wang, Zhang Zhang, Kun Lun Liao, Cai Fen Peng, Hui Huang, Guang Yun Hu, Yun Fei Zhu, Zhen Zeng, Qu Hu, Jing Jing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Because of medical advances, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is now viewed as a chronic disease, rather than an imminent death sentence. Helping women live with this disease requires more than a medical approach to symptoms. Thus, a mentor-based and supportive-expressive program 'Be Resilient to Breast Cancer' (BRBC) was designed to help Chinese women with MBC enhance their resilience levels, biopsychosocial functions, and potentially extend their life span. METHODS: A total of 226 women with MBC were randomly assigned, in a 1 : 1 ratio, to an intervention group (IG) that participated in BRBC or to a control group (CG) that received no intervention...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918418/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-1-theoretical-background-of-a-hypothesis
#20
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
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