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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918418/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-1-theoretical-background-of-a-hypothesis
#1
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918243/homeostatic-systems-biocybernetics-and-autonomic-neuroscience
#2
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, Irwin J Kopin
In this review we describe a series of major concepts introduced during the past 150years that have contributed to our current understanding about how physiological processes required for well-being and survival are regulated. One can theorize that hierarchical networks involving input-output relationships continuously orchestrate and learn adaptive patterns of observable behaviors, cognition, memory, mood, and autonomic systems. Taken together, these networks function as "good regulators" determining levels of internal variables and act as if there were homeostatic comparators ("homeostats")...
September 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880949/maternal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-response-to-foraging-uncertainty-a-model-of-individual-vs-social-allostasis-and-the-superorganism-hypothesis
#3
Jeremy D Coplan, Nishant K Gupta, Asif Karim, Anna Rozenboym, Eric L P Smith, John G Kral, Leonard A Rosenblum
INTRODUCTION: Food insecurity is a major global contributor to developmental origins of adult disease. The allostatic load of maternal food uncertainty from variable foraging demand (VFD) activates corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) without eliciting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation measured on a group level. Individual homeostatic adaptations of the HPA axis may subserve second-order homeostasis, a process we provisionally term "social allostasis." We postulate that maternal food insecurity induces a "superorganism" state through coordination of individual HPA axis response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880686/preliminary-evidence-of-attenuated-blood-pressure-reactivity-to-acute-stress-in-adults-following-a-recent-marital-separation
#4
Austin M Grinberg, Karey L O'Hara, Dave A Sbarra
OBJECTIVE: This study explores cardiovascular reactivity during an acute-stress task in a sample of recently separated adults. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional design, we examined the association between adults' subjective separation-related distress and changes in heart rate and blood pressure across the acute-stress laboratory paradigm in a sample of 133 (n = 49 men) recently separated adults. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate (HR) and Blood pressure (BP) were recorded across a resting baseline period, a math stressor task, and a recovery period...
September 7, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870356/the-childhood-roots-of-cardiovascular-disease-disparities
#5
REVIEW
Donald A Barr
A recent national review of the social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) underscored the growing recognition that poor socioeconomic conditions early in life place children at higher risk for CVD as adults. There is growing evidence that chronic elevation of allostatic load as a consequence of high levels of early childhood stress can trigger early atherosclerotic changes in children independently of behaviors. Elevated levels of circulating cortisol have been documented in children as young as 4 years who were raised in highly stressful circumstances...
September 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862266/genomic-and-epigenomic-mechanisms-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-brain
#6
REVIEW
Jason D Gray, Joshua F Kogan, Jordan Marrocco, Bruce S McEwen
Following the discovery of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, research has focused on understanding the effects of glucocorticoids in the brain and their role in regulating emotion and cognition. Glucocorticoids are essential for adaptation to stressors (allostasis) and in maladaptation resulting from allostatic load and overload. Allostatic overload, which can occur during chronic stress, can reshape the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through epigenetic modification of genes in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and other stress-responsive brain regions...
September 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856337/neurobiological-and-systemic-effects-of-chronic-stress
#7
Bruce S McEwen
The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress because it perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor, which promote adaptation ("allostasis") but also contribute to pathophysiology ("allostatic load/overload") when overused and dysregulated. The adult as well as developing brain possesses a remarkable ability to show structural and functional plasticity in response to stressful and other experiences, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling and synapse turnover...
January 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856219/circulating-markers-of-ageing-and-allostatic-load-a-slow-train-coming
#8
Paul G Shiels, Peter Stenvinkel, Jeroen P Kooman, Dagmara McGuinness
Dealing with the growing burden of age-related morbidities is one of the greatest challenges facing modern society. How we age across the lifecourse and how psychosocial and lifestyle factors interplay with the biology of ageing remains to be fully elucidated. Sensitive and specific biomarkers with which to interrogate the biology of the ageing process are sparse. Recent evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs are key determinants of such processes and that these can be used as potential circulatory bio-markers of ageing...
April 2017: Pract Lab Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813505/allostatic-load-as-a-predictor-of-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-the-general-population-evidence-from-the-scottish-health-survey
#9
Tony Robertson, Gayle Beveridge, Catherine Bromley
Allostatic load is a multiple biomarker measure of physiological 'wear and tear' that has shown some promise as marker of overall physiological health, but its power as a risk predictor for mortality and morbidity is less well known. This study has used data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) (nationally representative sample of Scottish population) linked to mortality records to assess how well allostatic load predicts all-cause and cause-specific mortality. From the sample, data from 4,488 men and women were available with mortality status at 5 and 9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804509/lifetime-stress-exposure-and-health-a-review-of-contemporary-assessment-methods-and-biological-mechanisms
#10
Grant S Shields, George M Slavich
Life stress is a central construct in health research because it is associated with increased risk for a variety of serious mental and physical health problems, including anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disorders, Alzheimer's disease, certain cancers, and other diseases of aging. In this review, we examine how lifetime stress exposure contributes to elevated disease risk, and explore ongoing measurement and scientific issues related to this topic. To accomplish these goals, we first review existing instruments that have been developed for assessing perceived stress, self-reported life events, interviewer-assessed life stressors, and lifetime stress exposure...
August 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767672/bi-stability-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-multi-organ-signalling-network
#11
Shubhankar Kulkarni, Sakshi Sharda, Milind Watve
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be irreversible although no component of the pathophysiology is irreversible. We show here with a network model that the apparent irreversibility is contributed by the structure of the network of inter-organ signalling. A network model comprising all known inter-organ signals in T2DM showed bi-stability with one insulin sensitive and one insulin resistant attractor. The bi-stability was made robust by multiple positive feedback loops suggesting an evolved allostatic system rather than a homeostatic system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765100/pacing-conventional-physical-activity-and-active-video-games-to-increase-physical-activity-for-adults-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Katia Elizabeth Ferrar, Ashleigh E Smith, Kade Davison
BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a serious illness of biological origin characterized by profound physical and cognitive exhaustion and postexertion malaise. Pacing is a common strategy used to manage available energy and complete activities of daily living; yet little research has investigated this as a strategy to increase physical activity levels. Typically, people living with ME/CFS are faced by unique barriers to physical activity participation and are less physically active than healthy peers...
August 1, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761937/allostatic-breakdown-of-cascading-homeostat-systems-a-computational-approach
#13
Alison Acevedo, Ioannis P Androulakis
Homeostasis posits that physiological systems compensate setpoint deviations in an attempt to maintain a state of internal constancy. Allostasis, on the other hand, suggests that physiological regulation is more appropriately described by predictive modulatory actions that, by adjusting setpoints, anticipate and react to changes in internal and external demand. In other words, "maintaining stability through change." The allostatic perspective enabled the rationalization of predictive and reactive homeostasis...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752903/erythropoietin-prevents-the-effect-of-chronic-restraint-stress-on-the-number-of-hippocampal-ca3c-dendritic-terminals-relation-to-expression-of-genes-involved-in-synaptic-plasticity-angiogenesis-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-male-rats
#14
Nadia Aalling, Ida Hageman, Kamilla Miskowiak, Dariusz Orlowski, Gregers Wegener, Gitta Wortwein
Stress-induced allostatic load affects a variety of biological processes including synaptic plasticity, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has shown promising neuroprotective effects. Recombinant human EPO is currently highlighted as a new candidate treatment for cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Because EPO enhances synaptic plasticity, attenuates oxidative stress, and inhibits generation of proinflammatory cytokines, EPO may be able to modulate the effects of stress-induced allostatic load at the molecular level...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742501/novel-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-generalized-glucocorticoid-resistance-and-hypersensitivity-syndromes
#15
REVIEW
Nicolas C Nicolaides, Evangelia Charmandari
Glucocorticoids play a fundamental role in many physiologic functions and contribute substantially to the achievement of homeostasis. These pleiotropic glucocorticoid actions are mediated by a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR), which may influence the transcription rate of numerous target genes, interact with other transcription factors, trigger the activation of several kinase pathways or modulate mitochondrial DNA expression. Any genetic defects in the NR3C1gene that encodes the hGR may cause Primary Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance or Hypersensitivity Syndromes, two rare allostatic endocrinologic conditions characterized by partial impaired tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709033/vegetated-land-cover-near-residence-is-associated-with-reduced-allostatic-load-and-improved-biomarkers-of-neuroendocrine-metabolic-and-immune-functions
#16
Andrey I Egorov, Shannon M Griffin, Reagan R Converse, Jennifer N Styles, Elizabeth A Sams, Anthony Wilson, Laura E Jackson, Timothy J Wade
BACKGROUND: Greater exposure to urban green spaces has been linked to reduced risks of depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and premature death. Alleviation of chronic stress is a hypothesized pathway to improved health. Previous studies linked chronic stress with a biomarker-based composite measure of physiological dysregulation known as allostatic load. OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to assess the relationship between vegetated land cover near residences and allostatic load...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693012/stress-measured-by-allostatic-load-in-neurologically-impaired-children-the-importance-of-nutritional-status
#17
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Annalisa de Silvestri, Riccardo Albertini, Mara De Amici, Mario Valenza, Gloria Pelizzo
BACKGROUND: Allostatic load (AL) is the cumulative physiological wear and tear that results from repeated efforts to adapt to stressors over time. The life stress response is modified by nutritional status. AIM: We estimated AL scores among neurologically impaired (NI) children; the association with malnutrition was also evaluated. METHODS: Forty-one patients with severe disabilities were included. Data based on 15 biomarkers were used to create the AL score...
July 10, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659244/long-term-physical-health-consequences-of-perceived-inequality-results-from-a-twin-comparison-design
#18
Joseph A Schwartz
RATIONALE: Previous research has identified long-term exposure to stress as a risk factor for negative mental and physical health outcomes. This pattern of findings suggests that environmental stimuli that evoke feelings of stress or strain may also result in physiological responses, which may accumulate over the life course and ultimately increase the overall risk of various physical health conditions. This physiological "wear and tear" resulting from sustained levels of stress or strain has been previously operationalized as allostatic load (AL), a comprehensive indicator of stress exposure...
June 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653044/neuroclinical-framework-for-the-role-of-stress-in-addiction
#19
Laura E Kwako, George F Koob
Addiction has been conceptualized as a three-stage cycle-binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation-that worsens over time and involves allostatic changes in hedonic function via changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Using the withdrawal/negative affect stage and negative reinforcement as an important source of motivation for compulsive drug seeking, we outline the neurobiology of the stress component of the withdrawal/negative affect stage and relate it to a derivative of the Research Domain Criteria research construct for the study of psychiatric disease, known as the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651371/sleep-and-physiological-dysregulation-a-closer-look-at-sleep-intraindividual-variability
#20
Bei Bei, Teresa E Seeman, Judith E Carroll, Joshua F Wiley
Study Objectives: Variable daily sleep (i.e., higher intraindividual variability; IIV) is associated with negative health consequences, but potential physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined the associations between sleep timing, duration, and quality IIV and physiological dysregulation, with diurnal cortisol trajectories as a proximal outcome, and allostatic load (AL) as a multi-system distal outcome. Methods: Participants are 436 adults (Mage±SD=54...
June 23, 2017: Sleep
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