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M A Beydoun, H A Beydoun, N Mode, G A Dore, J A Canas, S M Eid, A B Zonderman
BACKGROUND: Studies uncovering factors beyond socio-economic status (SES) that would explain racial and ethnic disparities in mortality are scarce. METHODS: Using prospective cohort data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we examined all-cause and cause-specific mortality disparities by race, mediation through key factors and moderation by age (20-49 vs. 50+), sex and poverty status. Cox proportional hazards, discrete-time hazards and competing risk regression models were conducted (N = 16,573 participants, n = 4207 deaths, Median time = 170 months (1-217 months))...
October 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
Joshua F Wiley, Bei Bei, Julienne E Bower, Annette L Stanton
OBJECTIVES: Allostatic load (AL) represents cumulative wear-and-tear on the body and is operationalized as a multisystem index of biomarkers. Allostatic load is associated with morbidities and mortality, leading to a growing body of literature that uses AL as an outcome in its own right. Psychosocial resources (PSRs), such as mastery and social support, may influence health outcomes in part via AL, and the current review seeks to characterize the relations between PSRs and AL. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase for studies examining the relation between PSR(s) and AL in humans...
October 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Patricia O'Campo, Rhonda BeLue, Heidi Borenstein, Maxine Reed-Vance, Robin Gaines Lanzi, Peter Schafer, Loretta Jones, Richard Woolord
The inclusion of biomarkers in studies of stress and health outcomes is of growing interest, including for community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies. Yet the perspectives of participants and communities have been infrequently consulted to inform the biomarker collection process. The objective of this paper is to describe the process and outcomes of using CBPR in framing biomarker collection in a study of allostatic load in a maternal and child health population. Through analysis of focus group data, we identify aspects of CBPR that facilitate increased community trust and endorsement related to collecting biological samples, and also provide a community perspective that is often overlooked in the literature...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Ewa Szwejser, B M Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade, Magdalena Maciuszek, Magdalena Chadzinska
Clinical and experimental evidence shows that estrogens affect immunity in mammals. Less is known about this interaction in the evolutionary older, non-mammalian, vertebrates. Fish form an excellent model to identify evolutionary conserved neuroendocrine-immune interactions: i) they are the earliest vertebrates with fully developed innate and adaptive immunity, ii) immune and endocrine parameters vary with season iii) physiology is constantly disrupted by increasing contamination of the aquatic environment...
October 16, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Jasmin Remmes, Carina Bodden, S Helene Richter, Jörg Lesting, Norbert Sachser, Hans-Christian Pape, Thomas Seidenbecher
Behavioral profiles are strongly shaped by an individual's whole life experience. The accumulation of negative experiences over lifetime is thought to promote anxiety-like behavior in adulthood ("allostatic load hypothesis"). In contrast, the "mismatch hypothesis" of psychiatric disease suggests that high levels of anxiety-like behavior are the result of a discrepancy between early and late environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different life histories shape the expression of anxiety-like behavior and modulate fear memory...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Charles H Tegeler, Catherine L Tegeler, Jared F Cook, Sung W Lee, Lee Gerdes, Hossam A Shaltout, Christopher M Miles, Sean L Simpson
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions are needed for individuals with persisting post-concussion symptoms. High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring (HIRREM®) is an allostatic, closed-loop, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology, designed to facilitate relaxation and self-optimization of neural oscillations. METHODS: Fifteen athletes (seven females, mean age 18.1 years, SD 2.6) with persisting post-concussion symptoms received 18.7 (SD 6...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Antonio Piolanti, Emanuela Offidani, Jenny Guidi, Sara Gostoli, Giovanni A Fava, Nicoletta Sonino
BACKGROUND: The Psychosocial Index (PSI) is a self-rating scale based on clinimetric principles that is simple to use in a busy clinical setting. It can be integrated by observer-rated clinical judgment, providing a first-line, comprehensive assessment of stress, well-being, distress, illness behavior, and quality of life. By calculation of scores, it can be used for conventional psychological measurements. Its clinical applications and clinimetric properties are reviewed. The present version of the PSI has been slightly revised...
October 15, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Robert-Paul Juster, Jennifer J Russell, Daniel Almeida, Martin Picard
Stress-related pathophysiology drives comorbid trajectories that elude precise prediction. Allostatic load algorithms that quantify biological "wear and tear" represent a comprehensive approach to detect multisystemic disease processes of the mind and body. However, the multiple morbidities directly or indirectly related to stress physiology remain enigmatic. Our aim in this article is to propose that biological comorbidities represent discrete pathophysiological processes captured by measuring allostatic load...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Gary D James
Variability is a normative property of blood pressure necessary for survival which likely contributes to morbidity and mortality through allostatic load. Because of its allostatic and adaptive properties blood pressure responses to peculiar situations like the visit to the clinic can lead to the misdiagnosis of hypertension. Cuff methods of blood pressure measurement can also create blood pressure variation when there really is none. There are also physiological differences between populations related to their evolutionary history that likely further affect the extent of population differences in 24-h blood pressure variability...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ola Sayed Ali, Nadia Badawy, Sanaa Rizk, Hend Gomaa, Mai Sabry Saleh
AIM: Workplace stress is hazardous for its harmful impact on employees' health and organizational productivity. The aim of the study is to apply the Allostatic Load Index (ALI) which is a multi-component measure for health risk assessment and early detection of stress among workers in Egypt. METHODS: Sixty-two working adults randomly selected from two different working environments in Egypt were included in the study. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire for socio-demographic and work variables...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Christina Bauch, Juliane Riechert, Simon Verhulst, Peter H Becker
Telomere length is a candidate biomarker of ageing and phenotypic quality, but little is known of the (physiological) causes of telomere length variation. We previously showed that individual common terns Sterna hirundo with high reproductive success had short telomeres independent of age, and this pattern was particularly strong in the longer telomeres of the within-individual telomere length distribution. To test whether this relation can be attributed to effects of reproductive effort, we investigated baseline corticosterone in relation to reproductive success (number of fledglings) and telomere length...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Gene H Brody, Tianyi Yu, Steven R H Beach
For the past quarter century, scientists at the Center for Family Research at the University of Georgia have conducted research designed to promote understanding of normative developmental trajectories among low socioeconomic status African American children, youths, and young adults. In this paper, we describe a recent expansion of this research program using longitudinal, epidemiological studies and randomized prevention trials to test hypotheses about the origins of disease among rural African American youths...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Michael Rutter
Translational research focuses on innovation in healthcare settings, but this is a two-way process that may have implications for either treatment or prevention. Smoking and lung cancer and the fetal alcohol syndrome are used as examples. Experimental medicine that budges basic and clinical science often constitutes a key way forward. Areas of scientific progress and challenge are discussed in relation to drug action, social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics, gene-environment interaction, and epigenetics...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Jessica M Adams, Graham L Jones, Miho Yamashita, Martin Schlapschy, Arne Skerra, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: A major challenge for obesity treatment is the maintenance of reduced body weight. Diet-induced obese mice are resistant to achieving normoweight once the obesogenic conditions are reversed, in part because lowered circulating leptin leads to a reduction in metabolic rate and a rebound of hyperphagia that defend the previously elevated body weight set point. Because hypothalamic POMC is a central leptin target, we investigated whether changes in circulating leptin modify Pomc expression to maintain normal energy balance in genetically predisposed obese mice...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Catherine M Cahill, Wendy Walwyn, Anna M W Taylor, Amynah A A Pradhan, Christopher J Evans
Mechanisms of opioid tolerance have focused on adaptive modifications within cells containing opioid receptors, defined here as cellular allostasis, emphasizing regulation of the opioid receptor signalosome. We review additional regulatory and opponent processes involved in behavioral tolerance, and include mechanistic differences both between agonists (agonist bias), and between μ- and δ-opioid receptors. In a process we will refer to as pass-forward allostasis, cells modified directly by opioid drugs impute allostatic changes to downstream circuitry...
September 23, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Richard Stephenson, Aimee M Caron, Svetlana Famina
Sleep-wake behavior exhibits diurnal rhythmicity, rebound responses to acute total sleep deprivation (TSD), and attenuated rebounds following chronic sleep restriction (CSR). We investigated how these long-term patterns of behavior emerge from stochastic short-term dynamics of state transition. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to TSD (1day×24h, N=9), or CSR (10days×18h TSD, N=7) using a rodent walking-wheel apparatus. One baseline day and one recovery day following TSD and CSR were analyzed. The implications of the zero sum principle were evaluated using a Markov model of sleep-wake state transition...
September 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Tamara R Dietze, F F Rose, T A Moore
OBJECTIVE: Complications of prematurity may be related to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in preterm infants. Increased intrauterine exposure to cortisol may be responsible for adverse prenatal programming and subsequent dysfunction of the infant's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of the study was to describe maternal social variables and their association with infant cortisol levels and complications of prematurity. METHODS: Preterm infants <32 weeks' gestation were recruited...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Jennifer W Robinette, Susan T Charles, David M Almeida, Tara L Gruenewald
Poor neighborhoods may represent a situation of chronic stress, and may therefore be associated with health-related correlates of stress. We examined whether lower neighborhood income would relate to higher allostatic load, or physiological well-being, through psychological, affective, and behavioral pathways. Using data from the Biomarker Project of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study and the 2000 Census, we demonstrated that people living in lower income neighborhoods have higher allostatic load net of individual income...
September 2016: Health & Place
Lidia López-Jiménez, Julio Blas, Alessandro Tanferna, Sonia Cabezas, Tracy Marchant, Fernando Hiraldo, Fabrizio Sergio
In long-lived animals, the challenges that threaten individual homeostasis, and the way they are dealt with, are expected to vary in an age-related manner, encompassing the progressive selection of superior phenotypes and the acquisition and improvement of key skills (e.g. foraging, breeding and fighting abilities). Since exposure to homeostatic challenges typically elevates circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels in vertebrates (modulating the behavioural and physiological responses that mediate allostasis), we may expect concomitant age-related changes in these hormones...
August 27, 2016: Oecologia
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