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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439103/brain-age-predicts-mortality
#1
J H Cole, S J Ritchie, M E Bastin, M C Valdés Hernández, S Muñoz Maniega, N Royle, J Corley, A Pattie, S E Harris, Q Zhang, N R Wray, P Redmond, R E Marioni, J M Starr, S R Cox, J M Wardlaw, D J Sharp, I J Deary
Age-associated disease and disability are placing a growing burden on society. However, ageing does not affect people uniformly. Hence, markers of the underlying biological ageing process are needed to help identify people at increased risk of age-associated physical and cognitive impairments and ultimately, death. Here, we present such a biomarker, 'brain-predicted age', derived using structural neuroimaging. Brain-predicted age was calculated using machine-learning analysis, trained on neuroimaging data from a large healthy reference sample (N=2001), then tested in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N=669), to determine relationships with age-associated functional measures and mortality...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431971/influence-of-stress-associated-with-chronic-alcohol-exposure-on-drinking
#2
REVIEW
Howard C Becker
Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424895/risk-and-protective-factors-for-structural-brain-ageing-in-the-eighth-decade-of-life
#3
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Simon R Cox, David Alexander Dickie, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Janie Corley, Natalie A Royle, Paul Redmond, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alison Pattie, Benjamin S Aribisala, Adele M Taylor, Toni-Kim Clarke, Alan J Gow, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Individuals differ markedly in brain structure, and in how this structure degenerates during ageing. In a large sample of human participants (baseline n = 731 at age 73 years; follow-up n = 488 at age 76 years), we estimated the magnitude of mean change and variability in changes in MRI measures of brain macrostructure (grey matter, white matter, and white matter hyperintensity volumes) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity from diffusion tensor MRI). All indices showed significant average change with age, with considerable heterogeneity in those changes...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420362/clinical-hemispheric-and-autonomic-changes-associated-with-use-of-closed-loop-allostatic-neurotechnology-by-a-case-series-of-individuals-with-self-reported-symptoms-of-post-traumatic-stress
#4
Charles H Tegeler, Jared F Cook, Catherine L Tegeler, Joshua R Hirsch, Hossam A Shaltout, Sean L Simpson, Brian C Fidali, Lee Gerdes, Sung W Lee
BACKGROUND: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the use of a closed-loop, allostatic, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology for individuals with self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress, as a potential means to impact symptomatology, temporal lobe high frequency asymmetry, heart rate variability (HRV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). METHODS: From a cohort of individuals participating in a naturalistic study to evaluate use of allostatic neurotechnology for diverse clinical conditions, a subset was identified who reported high scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418198/stress-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-recurrent-seizures-in-adults
#5
Elisa Baldin, W Allen Hauser, Alison Pack, Dale C Hesdorffer
OBJECTIVE: The literature is sparse on the complex interrelationships between stressors, depression, anxiety disorders, and epilepsy. We hypothesized that a relationship exists between stress and epilepsy. We evaluated whether markers of stress are associated with seizure recurrence in a low income community-based cohort of adults with single unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS: We ascertained adult residents of Northern Manhattan and Harlem, New York City, with a first unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy, between December 2010 and January 2013...
April 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403421/reply-allostatic-load-as-an-approach-to-support-the-theoretical-assumptions-of-the-brief-measure-of-emotional-preoperative-stress-b-meps
#6
W Caumo, J D Segabinazi, L P C Stefani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400302/decreased-comfort-food-intake-and-allostatic-load-in-adolescents-carrying-the-a3669g-variant-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene
#7
Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues, Roberta Sena Reis, Roberta Dalle Molle, Tania Diniz Machado, Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Andressa Bortoluzzi, Rudineia Toazza, Juliano Adams Pérez, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Marilyn Agranonik, Luciano Minuzzi, Robert D Levitan, Augusto Buchweitz, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Gisele Gus Manfro, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
BACKGROUND: The A3669G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene NR3C1 is associated with altered tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs modulate the food reward circuitry and are implicated in increased intake of palatable foods, which can lead to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that presence of the G variant of the A3669G SNP would affect preferences for palatable foods and alter metabolic, behavioural, and neural outcomes...
April 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394145/increased-startle-potentiation-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-alcohol-dependence-possible-stress-neuroadaptation-in-humans
#8
Christine A Moberg, Daniel E Bradford, Jesse T Kaye, John J Curtin
Stress plays a key role in addiction etiology and relapse. Rodent models posit that following repeated periods of alcohol and other drug intoxication, compensatory allostatic changes occur in the central nervous system (CNS) circuits involved in behavioral and emotional response to stressors. We examine a predicted manifestation of this neuroadaptation in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent humans. Participants completed a translational laboratory task that uses startle potentiation to unpredictable (vs. predictable) stressors implicated in the putative CNS mechanisms that mediate this neuroadaptation...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384419/are-invasive-species-stressful-the-glucocorticoid-profile-of-native-lizards-exposed-to-invasive-fire-ants-depends-on-the-context
#9
Sean P Graham, Nicole A Freidenfelds, Christopher J Thawley, Travis R Robbins, Tracy Langkilde
Invasive species represent a substantial threat to native species worldwide. Research on the impacts of invasive species on wild living vertebrates has focused primarily on population-level effects. The sublethal, individual-level effects of invaders may be equally important but are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of invasive fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) on the physiological stress response of a native lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) within two experimental contexts: directly exposing lizards to a fire ant attack and housing lizards with fire ants in seminatural field enclosures...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364226/habitat-degradation-increases-stress-hormone-levels-during-the-breeding-season-and-decreases-survival-and-reproduction-in-adult-common-lizards
#10
Rémy Josserand, Andréaz Dupoué, Simon Agostini, Claudy Haussy, Jean-François Le Galliard, Sandrine Meylan
The allostatic load model describes how individuals maintain homeostasis in challenging environment and posits that costs induced by a chronic perturbation (i.e., allostatic load) are correlated to the secretion of glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone. Habitat perturbations from anthropogenic activities are multiple and functional responses to those are still unclear. Here, we manipulated the habitat quality in 24 semi-natural populations of the common lizard during 1 year. We tested the predictions of the allostatic load model that habitat degradation should increase baseline corticosterone levels, and should induce concomitant physiological changes, such as lipid mobilization and lower immunocompetence, and demographic changes, such as lower body growth, survival and/or reproductive performances...
March 31, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355428/health-disparities-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-african-american-women-a-review
#11
Lisa A Newman, Linda M Kaljee
Importance: Variation in cancer incidence and outcome has well-documented correlations with racial/ethnic identity. In the United States, the possible genetic and ancestral hereditary explanations for these associations are confounded by socioeconomic, cultural, and lifestyle patterns. Differences in the breast cancer burden of African American compared with European/white American women represent one of the most notable examples of disparities in oncology related to racial/ethnic identity...
March 29, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339417/cynicism-as-subscale-of-burnout
#12
Margaretha Viljoen, Nicolaas Claassen
BACKGROUND: Cynicism, as a personality trait, has adverse effects on health. The question was asked whether cynical attitudes that develop due to work-related stress correlate with stress levels and whether it has a negative influence on health. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of the cynicism subscale scores of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) with levels of stress, anxiety, questionnaire-based physical health and with a number of physiological health risk indicators...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332171/sport-and-male-sexuality
#13
REVIEW
P Sgrò, L Di Luigi
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330718/adult-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-volatility-in-response-to-an-acute-stressor-and-juvenile-csf-corticotropin-releasing-factor-a-pilot-neurodevelopmental-study
#14
Shariful A Syed, Eric L P Smith, Olcay Batuman, Leonard A Rosenblum, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Jeremy D Coplan
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to play a role in establishing persistent maladaptive HPA axis modifications that may contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. Central glucocorticoid receptor (GR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression may facilitate (mal)adaptive responsivity to ELS. The role of adult monocytic GR mRNA expression, a putative CNS proxy, during acute stress exposure was explored as well as the ELS marker, juvenile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor...
March 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328902/stressed-out-providing-laboratory-animals-with-behavioral-control-to-reduce-the-physiological-effects-of-stress
#15
Brianna N Gaskill, Joseph P Garner
Laboratory animals experience a large amount of environmental stress. An animal's environment can include both physiological and social stressors that may require an animal to adapt to maintain allostatic balance. For example, thermal stress can lead to changes in behavior, reproduction and immune function, which has been detrimental to cancer modeling in mice. Chronic uncontrollable stress is widely acknowledged for its negative alterations to physiology. However, there is a lack in the understanding of how the laboratory environment affects animal physiology and behavior, particularly as it relates to characteristics of the human disease being modeled...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286082/behavioural-and-hormonal-effects-of-member-replacement-in-captive-groups-of-blue-fronted-amazon-parrots-amazona-aestiva
#16
Laerciana Silva de Souza Matos, Rupert Palme, Angélica Silva Vasconcellos
Social species in captivity may face allostatic overload due to artificial grouping and other social constraints. In rescue centres, groups of psittacines are constantly mixed due to the arrival and/or release of individuals; this procedure is potentially harmful to animal welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the possible impacts of mate replacement on the stress levels of captive blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). During five weeks, we recorded agonistic interactions and dropping-glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) concentrations of individuals allocated in a group whose members were kept constant and in a group subjected to frequent member replacement...
March 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274137/post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-pathological-gambling-potential-evidence-of-anti-reward-processes
#17
Cheryl L Green, Ramzi W Nahhas, Arielle A Scoglio, Igor Elman
Background Excessive gambling is considered to be a part of the addiction spectrum. Stress-like emotional states are a key feature both of pathological gambling (PG) and of substance addiction. In substance addiction, stress symptomatology has been attributed in part to "anti-reward" allostatic neuroadaptations, while a potential involvement of anti-reward processes in the course of PG has not yet been investigated. Methods To that end, individuals with PG (n = 22) and mentally healthy subjects (n = 13) were assessed for trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) using the Life Events Checklist and the Civilian Mississippi Scale, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220108/adaptations-in-basal-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-activated-deoxycorticosterone-responses-following-ethanol-self-administration-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#18
Vanessa A Jimenez, Patrizia Porcu, A Leslie Morrow, Kathleen A Grant
Acute ethanol activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, while long-term exposure results in a blunted neuroendocrine state, particularly with regards to the primary endpoint, cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid produced in the adrenal cortex. However, it is unknown if this dampened neuroendocrine status also influences other adrenocortical steroids. Plasma concentration of the mineralocorticoid and neuroactive steroid precursor deoxycorticosterone (DOC) is altered by pharmacological challenges of the HPA axis in cynomolgus monkeys...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210209/lactate-shuttles-in-neuroenergetics-homeostasis-allostasis-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Shayne Mason
Understanding brain energy metabolism-neuroenergetics-is becoming increasingly important as it can be identified repeatedly as the source of neurological perturbations. Within the scientific community we are seeing a shift in paradigms from the traditional neurocentric view to that of a more dynamic, integrated one where astrocytes are no longer considered as being just supportive, and activated microglia have a profound influence. Lactate is emerging as the "good guy," contrasting its classical "bad guy" position in the now superseded medical literature...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190951/allostatic-load-as-a-complex-clinical-construct-a-case-based-computational-modeling-approach
#20
J Galen Buckwalter, Brian Castellani, Bruce McEwen, Arun S Karlamangla, Albert A Rizzo, Bruce John, Kyle O'Donnell, Teresa Seeman
Allostatic load (AL) is a complex clinical construct, providing a unique window into the cumulative impact of stress. However, due to its inherent complexity, AL presents two major measurement challenges to conventional statistical modeling (the field's dominant methodology): it is comprised of a complex causal network of bioallostatic systems, represented by an even larger set of dynamic biomarkers; and, it is situated within a web of antecedent socioecological systems, linking AL to differences in health outcomes and disparities...
September 2016: Complexity
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