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Alpo Vuorio, Gerald F Watts, Petri T Kovanen
Approximately 35 million people worldwide suffer from heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH), a condition characterized by genetically determined life-long elevation of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). One in three of these patients also inherit an elevated plasma concentration of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], a lipoprotein particle with atherogenic, inflammatory and prothrombotic properties. Accordingly, the combination of high plasma LDL-C and Lp(a) can markedly accelerate premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
October 3, 2017: European Heart Journal
Julia Seyfarth, Thomas Reinehr, Annika Hoyer, Christina Reinauer, Christina Bächle, Beate Karges, Ertan Mayatepek, Michael Roden, Sabine E Hofer, Susanna Wiegand, Joachim Woelfle, Wieland Kiess, Joachim Rosenbauer, Reinhard W Holl, Thomas Meissner
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) was identified as a strong predictor for cardiovascular events. Furthermore, it is highly associated with obesity. The role of Lp-PLA2 in diabetes mellitus is controversial and analyses, especially in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D), are missing. Therefore, we compared Lp-PLA2 activity between two obese age-, sex-, and BMI-matched cohorts of adolescents with and without T2D. Relationships between Lp-PLA2 activity and age, BMI, hemoglobin A1c, lipids, and adipokines were evaluated...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Haijun Gao, Eric Ho, Meena Balakrishnan, Vijay Yechoor, Chandra Yallampalli
Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue and enhanced glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet is reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide and L-arginine...
August 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
Jie Gao, Lianzhu Lin, Bao-Guo Sun, Mouming Zhao
Our previous study has suggested that the crude polysaccharide obtained from Laminaria japonica by acid assisted extraction (LP-A) have significant bile acid-binding capacity, which probably ascribed to its specific structure characterization. The relationship between structure characterization and bile acid-binding capacity of the purified LP-A fractions are still unknown. This paper conducted a comparison study on the structure characterization and bile acid-binding capacity of three LP-A fractions (LP-A4, LP-A6 and LP-A8)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yuki Sato, Ryuta Takenaka, Akihiro Matsumi, Kensuke Takei, Shotaro Okanoue, Eriko Yasutomi, Daisuke Kawai, Koji Takemoto, Hirofumi Tsugeno, Takayoshi Miyake, Shigeatsu Fujiki
Esophageal lichen planus (ELP) is rare and only about 80 cases have been reported in the literature. An 85-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and odynophagia. Endoscopy revealed a severe stricture in the proximal esophagus. Oral examinations at two years after the first endoscopy revealed erosions around the gingiva, and an examination of biopsy specimens taken from the site of erosion led to a diagnosis of oral LP. Esophageal endoscopy was performed again, and biopsy specimens showed spongiosis and necrotic keratinocytes in the epithelium (civatte bodies)...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
Martin Glimåker, Jan Sjölin, Styrbjörn Åkesson, Pontus Naucler
Background: Early treatment is pivotal for favourable outcome in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). Lumbar puncture (LP) is the diagnostic key. The aim was to evaluate the effect on outcome of adherence to European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and Swedish guidelines regarding neuroimaging before LP. Methods: The cohort comprised 815 adult ABM patients in Sweden registered prospectively between 2008-2015...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Arielle P Davis, Joshua Stern, Lauren Tantalo, Sharon Sahi, Sarah Holte, Shelia Dunaway, Christina M Marra
Background: Current guidelines recommend lumbar puncture (LP) in patients with syphilis who have neurologic syndromes. Methods: 81 HIV-uninfected individuals and 385 HIV-infected individuals enrolled in a study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities in syphilis underwent LP and a structured symptom history, including assessment of headache; stiff neck; photophobia; ocular inflammation; vision, hearing or sensory loss; or gait incoordination. Neurosyphilis was defined as a reactive CSF-Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Paul A Constable, David Ngo, Stephen Quinn, Dorothy A Thompson
BACKGROUND: The aim of the meta-analysis was to derive a range of mean normal clinical electrooculogram (EOG) values from a systematic review of published EOG studies that followed the guidelines of the ISCEV standard for clinical electro-oculography. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using four relevant databases limited to peer-reviewed articles in English between 1967 and February 2017. Studies reporting clinical EOG or FO normal values were included when the report used a standard 30° horizontal saccade, a retinal luminance of between 100 and 250 cd m(-2), and had > 10 subjects in their normative values...
October 10, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Yu Bon Man, Ka Lai Chow, Yiu Fai Tsang, Frankie Tat Kwong Lau, Wing Cheong Fung, Ming Hung Wong
This study aimed at investigating the removal efficiencies of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) of two major sewage treatment works in Hong Kong: Stonecutters Island STW (SCISTW) which adopts chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and Sha Tin STW (STSTW) which employs biological treatment. Liquid portion (LP) and particulate matter (PM) of liquid sewage samples and sludge samples were collected and followed by liquid chromatograph system. It was found that BPA (44...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Jacob Vorup, Mogens Theisen Pedersen, Lena Kirchner Brahe, Pia Sandfeld Melcher, Joachim Meno Alstrøm, Jens Bangsbo
The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17)...
2017: PloS One
Hiroyuki Ai, Kazuki Kai, Ajayrama Kumaraswamy, Hidetoshi Ikeno, Thomas Wachtler
Female honeybees use the 'waggle dance' to communicate the location of nectar sources to their hive mates. Distance information is encoded in the duration of the waggle phase (von Frisch, 1967). During the waggle phase the dancer produces trains of vibration pulses, which are detected by the follower bees via Johnston's organ located on the antennae. To uncover the neural mechanisms underlying the encoding of distance information in the waggle dance follower, we investigated morphology, physiology, and immunohistochemistry of interneurons arborizing in the primary auditory center of the honeybee (Apis mellifera)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Christopher N J Young, Natalia Chira, Justyna Róg, Rasha Al-Khalidi, Magalie Benard, Ludovic Galas, Philippe Chan, David Vaudry, Krzysztof Zablocki, Dariusz C Górecki
P2X7 purinoceptor promotes survival or cytotoxicity depending on extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulus intensity controlling its ion channel or P2X7-dependent large pore (LP) functions. Mechanisms governing this operational divergence and functional idiosyncrasy are ill-understood. We have discovered a feedback loop where sustained activation of P2X7 triggers release of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), which halts ion channel and LP responses via the MMP-2-dependent receptor cleavage...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Kyung-Hoon Song, Jaehuk Choi, Jung-Hoon Chun
In this paper, we describe a method for improving the quality of fingerprint images at long sensing distances by reducing the fringe capacitance formed between a pixel and surrounding fingerprint patterns. Air-walls were applied to the glass attached to a fingerprint sensor for reducing the edge capacitance. Fingerprints and air-wall structures were modeled using a three-dimensional capacitance analysis tool. A prototype was fabricated by stacking glass layers with air-walls with a depth of 50 μm and a pitch of 50 μm on a silicon-type capacitive sensor...
October 7, 2017: Sensors
Jeremie H Estepp, Matthew P Smeltzer, Guolian Kang, Scott C Howard, Ulrike M Reiss
Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoma (ALL) undergo multiple lumbar punctures (LPs) and frequently require low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for thromboembolic complications. We evaluated if withholding LMWH 24 hours before and after LPs prevented bleeding complications. Children (n=133) with ALL from who were: (1) treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, (2) received LMWH (2×/day of ~1 mg/kg) between January 2004 until December 2012, and (3) underwent a LP were analyzed. Spinal hematoma was defined as a clinical suspicion leading to diagnostic imaging...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Shashwati Sen, Mohit Tyagi, Kusha Sharma, Partha Sarathi Sarkar, Sudip Sarkar, Chandra Bhanu Basak, Shreyas Pitale, Manoranjan Ghosh, Sanjay C Gadkari
Organic-Inorganic nanocomposite films of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce (GGAG) scintillator uniformly dispersed in PMMA and PS polymer are prepared for X-ray imaging applications. Inorganic GGAG nano-scintillator has been chosen because of its high light output and fast decay time. The nano powder of GGAG with grain size 100 nm is synthesized by co-precipitation method and dispersed in the PMMA and PS polymer matrix by a simple blending technique. The nanocomposite films thus formed are self-standing in nature with thickness in the range of 150-450 micron and having a very high percentage of inorganic content...
October 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
L-W Chen, M-T Tint, M V Fortier, I M Aris, Lp-C Shek, K H Tan, S-Y Chan, P D Gluckman, Y-S Chong, K M Godfrey, V S Rajadurai, F Yap, M S Kramer, Y S Lee
BACKGROUND: Studying the determinants and the long-term consequences of fetal adipose accretion requires accurate assessment of neonatal body composition. In large epidemiological studies, in-depth body composition measurement methods are usually not feasible for cost and logistical reasons, and there is a need to identify anthropometric measures that adequately reflect neonatal adiposity. METHODS: In a multiethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, anthropometric measures (weight, length, abdominal circumference, skinfold thicknesses) were measured using standardized protocols in newborn infants, and anthropometric indices [weight/length, weight/length(2) (body mass index, BMI), weight/length(3) (ponderal index, PI)] derived...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Q Cao, M Brehler, A Sisniega, J W Stayman, J Yorkston, J H Siewerdsen, W Zbijewski
PURPOSE: CMOS x-ray detectors offer small pixel sizes and low electronic noise that may support the development of novel high-resolution imaging applications of cone-beam CT (CBCT). We investigate the effects of CsI scintillator thickness on the performance of CMOS detectors in high resolution imaging tasks, in particular in quantitative imaging of bone microstructure in extremity CBCT. METHODS: A scintillator thickness-dependent cascaded systems model of CMOS x-ray detectors was developed...
March 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
Sandra Amorim, Manuel Campelo, Brenda Moura, Elisabete Martins, João Rodrigues, Isaac Barroso, Margarida Faria, Tiago Guimarães, Filipe Macedo, José Silva-Cardoso, Maria Júlia Maciel
INTRODUCTION: Biomarkers in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) reflect various pathobiological processes, including neurohormonal activation, oxidative stress, matrix remodeling, myocyte injury and myocyte stretch. We assessed the role of biomarkers in clinical and echocardiographic parameters and in left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling (LVRR). METHODS: In this prospective study of 50 DCM patients (28 men, aged 59±10 years) with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%, LVRR was defined as an increase of >10 U in LVEF after optimal medical therapy...
October 5, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
Zhao Zhang, Mingbo Zhao, Fanzhang Li, Li Zhang, Shuicheng Yan
We propose a robust Alternating Low-Rank Representation (ALRR) model formed by an alternating forward-backward representation process. For forward representation, ALRR first recovers the low-rank PCs and random corruptions by an adaptive local Robust PCA (RPCA). Then, ALRR performs a joint Lp-norm and L2,p-norm minimization (0<p <1) based sparse LRR by taking the low-rank PCs as inputs and dictionary instead of using the original noisy data to learn the coding coefficients for subspace recovery, where the Lp-norm on the coefficients can ensure joint sparsity for subspace representation, while the L2,p-norm on the reconstruction error can handle outlier pursuit...
September 14, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Lei Li, Zhongrong Chen, Mingke Zhang, Fazil Panhwar, Cai Gao, Gang Zhao, Bo Jin, Bin Ye
HepG2 cells have a number of research applications and cryopreservation of these cells would improve supply and thus facilitate the study. Development of effective cryopreservation protocols relies on knowledges of the fundamental mass transport characteristics of HepG2 cell membrane. Currently, the permeability parameters estimated from single-step addition are routinely used to predict the osmotic responses of the cells in multistep protocols, as well as used for prediction of optimal cooling rates. However, the reasonability of this approach has not been rigorously studied...
October 5, 2017: Cryobiology
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