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Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Manuela Cristina Matesan, Saeed Elojeimy, Satoshi Minoshima
Molecular brain imaging I-FP-CIT SPECT is an important tool in evaluation of patients with parkinsonism. However, various neurodegenerative etiologies cannot be differentiated by I-FP-CIT SPECT alone. We present a case of progressive supranuclear palsy with abnormal I-FP-CIT SPECT and abnormal Tc-HMPAO SPECT depicted by quantitative analyses but unremarkable MRI 16 months after the onset of symptoms. Brain autopsy demonstrated presence of neuronal and glial tau pathology in both cortical and subcortical regions confirming the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Nobuhiro Yada, Hideo Onishi, Masahiro Miyai, Kentarou Ozasa, Masuo Haramoto, Yasushi Yamamoto, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Hajime Kitagaki
PURPOSE: This study aimed to verify the resolution recovery for each collimator in the brain perfusion image. METHOD: To verify the effect of the resolution recovery for each collimator, we evaluated via the three-dimensional brain phantom (phantom) and the normal brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. These data were reconstructed using the three-dimensional ordered subset expectation maximization method (3D-OSEM) (Evolution for bone(TM)) that was performed with scatter correction, attenuation correction, and resolution recovery (RR)...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Robert S Miletich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are now available for routine clinical applications in neurology. This article discusses their diagnostic use in dementia, brain tumors, epilepsy, parkinsonism, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromolecular imaging, also known as nuclear neurology, involves clinical imaging of both basal regional physiology (perfusion, metabolism, and transport mechanisms) and specific neurochemical physiology (currently, only the dopamine transporter)...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Samuel Lapalme-Remis, Gregory D Cascino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses structural and functional neuroimaging findings in patients with seizures and epilepsy. The indications for neuroimaging in these patients and the potential diagnostic utility of these studies are presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients presenting with new seizures typically require urgent imaging to rule out a critical underlying cause. MRI is the structural neuroimaging procedure of choice in individuals with epilepsy. Specific epilepsy protocols should be considered to increase the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in patients with structural lesions associated with focal or generalized seizures...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Johan Lundberg, Emma Jussing, Zhenjiang Liu, Qingda Meng, Martin Rao, Erik Samén, Rikard Grankvist, Peter Damberg, Ernest Dodoo, Markus Maeurer, Staffan Holmin
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most severe form of malignant gliomas. The prognosis is poor with current combinations of pharmaceutical-, radio- and surgical therapy. A continuous search for new treatments has therefore been ongoing for many years. Therapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is a clinically promising strategy to treat various cancers, including GBM. An endovascular intra-arterial injection of TIL as a method of delivery may, instead of intravenous infusion, result in better retention of effector cells within the tumor...
October 7, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Jin Song, Zehui Wu, Phumvadee Wangtrakuldee, Seok Rye Choi, Zhihao Zha, Karl Ploessl, Robert H Mach, Hank F Kung
Aromatase (CYP19) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of estrogens. Imaging agents based on aromatase inhibitors (AIs) has been developed for a PET/SPECT study. A series of compounds was synthesized based on YM511, which has previously been used for breast cancer treatment. Two examples of these derivatives, 4-(((4-iodophenyl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-amino)-benzonitrile (5) and 4-((1H-imidazol-1-yl)(4-iodobenzyl)amino)benzonitrile (11), displayed potent binding affinities to human aromatase (IC50 = 0...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Masahiro Ono, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Ayane Kitada, Kenji Matsumura, Masafumi Ihara, Hideo Saji
Neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in addition to the deposition of β-amyloid plaques. Since the deposition of tau aggregates is closely associated with the severity of AD, the in vivo detection of tau aggregates may be useful as a biomarker for the diagnosis and progression of AD. In this study, we designed and synthesized a new series of radioiodinated benzoimidazopyridine (BIP) derivatives, and evaluated their utility as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging agents targeting tau aggregates in AD brains...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marina Hodolic, Raffi Topakian, Robert Pichler
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by epileptic seizures as a result of excessive neuronal activity in the brain. Approximately 65 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; 20-40% of them are refractory to medication therapy. Early detection of disease is crucial in the management of patients with epilepsy. Correct localization of the ictal onset zone is associated with a better surgical outcome. The modern non-invasive techniques used for structural-functional localization of the seizure focus includes electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Xiaoyang Zhang, Pingrong Yu, Yanping Yang, Yaqin Hou, Cheng Peng, Zhigang Liang, Jing Lu, Baian Chen, Jiapei Dai, Boli Liu, Mengchao Cui
A series of 2-arylbenzothiazole derivatives conjugated with bis(aminoethanethiol) (BAT) chelating groups were designed and synthesized. A competitive binding assay-based screening was used to select seven rhenium complexes with potent binding affinity toward Aβ1-42 aggregates (Ki < 50 nM) for (99m)Tc labeling and further evaluation. The (99m)Tc-labeled probes showed good affinity and specificity to Aβ plaques in Tg mouse brain tissue in in vitro autoradiography studies. Moreover, [(99m)Tc]14b exhibited favorable brain pharmacokinetics in normal mice (2...
October 7, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Csaba Juhász, Edit Bosnyák
Molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in the pretreatment evaluation of low-grade gliomas. While glucose positron emission tomography (PET) can be helpful to differentiate low-grade from high-grade tumors, PET imaging with amino acid radiotracers has several advantages, such as better differentiation between tumors and non-tumorous lesions, optimized biopsy targeting, and improved detection of tumor recurrence. This review provides a brief overview of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies followed by a more detailed review of the clinical applications of glucose and amino acid PET imaging in low-grade hemispheric gliomas...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Satoshi Hayashi, Seishi Terada, Shuhei Sato, Etsuko Oshima, Tomoko Miki, Osamu Yokota, Takeshi Ishihara, Norihito Yamada
Quality of life (QOL) has been recently recognized as the central purpose of healthcare, and positive affect is one of the core dimension of QOL. However, positive affect among patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not received much attention in the medical research field. One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with AD were recruited from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The positive affect score was evaluated using the positive affect domain of the Quality of Life questionnaire for Dementia (QOL-D)...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Jianhua Jia, Kaixiang Zhou, Jiapei Dai, Boli Liu, Mengchao Cui
An array of complexes, (99m)Tc/Re-labeled cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl and 2-phenyl/pyridylbenzothiazoles, conjugated through an ester linkage were tested as potential β-amyloid (Aβ) probes for SPECT imaging. The [CpRe/(99m)Tc(CO)3] complexes were prepared by double ligand transfer reactions from ferrocene precursors, and the X-ray structure of one rhenium surrogate revealed a classical "piano stool" like geometry. Several of the rhenium complexes displayed high affinity for Aβ1-42 aggregates in in vitro inhibition assays, and they could intensely stain Aβ deposits on brain sections from transgenic mice and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients...
September 2, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Paolo Zamboni, Erica Menegatti, Corrado Cittanti, Francesco Sisini, Sergio Gianesini, Fabrizio Salvi, Francesco Mascoli
OBJECTIVE: Increased ventricle volume and brain hypoperfusion are linked to neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that in patients with restricted jugular flow, surgical restoration may reduce brain ventricle volume, because it should improve the pressure gradient, hence promoting cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption into the venous system. METHODS: The effects of restoring the jugular flow were assessed by means of a validated echocardiography with color Doppler (ECD) protocol of flow quantification, magnetic resonance venography, and single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT-CT)...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Ruth I Versteeg, Karin E Koopman, Jan Booij, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Unga A Unmehopa, Eric Fliers, Susanne E la Fleur, Mireille J Serlie
BACKGROUND: Altered brain dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways have been shown in obese rodents and humans, but it is unknown whether this is related to obesity per se or to the metabolic derangements associated with obesity. METHODS: We performed a case-control study in insulin sensitive obese (ISO) and insulin resistant obese (IRO) subjects (n = 12) and age-matched lean controls (n = 8) and measured serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in the whole diencephalon and specifically in the hypothalamus, as well as dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum using 123I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
September 14, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Irma L Molina-Vicenty, Michelaldemar Santiago-Sánchez, Iván Vélez-Miró, Keryl Motta-Valencia
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as damage to the brain resulting from an external force. TBI, a global leading cause of death and disability, is associated with serious social, economic, and health problems. In cases of mild-to-moderate brain damage, conventional anatomical imaging modalities may or may not detect the cascade of metabolic changes that have occurred or are occurring at the intracellular level. Functional nuclear medicine imaging and neurophysiological parameters can be used to characterize brain damage, as the former provides direct visualization of brain function, even in the absence of overt behavioral manifestations or anatomical findings...
September 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Etsuko Imabayashi, Kota Yokoyama, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Daichi Sone, Kaoru Sumida, Yukio Kimura, Noriko Sato, Miho Murata, Hiroshi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: In addition to occipital hypoperfusion, preserved metabolism of the posterior cingulate gyri (PCG) relative to the precunei is known as the cingulate island sign (CIS) in the patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). CIS has been detected using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography but not using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The purpose of this study was to optimize brain perfusion SPECT to enable differentiation of DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD) using CIS and occipital hypoperfusion...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Irina Esterlis, Ansel T Hillmer, Frederic Bois, Brian Pittman, Erin McGovern, Stephanie S O'Malley, Marina R Picciotto, Bao-Zhu Yang, Joel Gelernter, Kelly P Cosgrove
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoking leads to increased numbers of β2*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChRs) throughout the brain, which return to nonsmoker levels over extended abstinence. The goal of the current study was to determine whether the degree of tobacco smoking-induced changes in β2*-nAChR availability is genetically influenced. METHODS: In this study, 113 European Americans participated in one or two [(123)I]5-IA-85380 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scans...
September 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Philippe Garrigue, Guillaume Hache, Youssef Bennis, Pauline Brige, Jimmy Stalin, Lionel Pellegrini, Lionel Velly, Francesca Orlandi, Elena Castaldi, Françoise Dignat-George, Florence Sabatier, Benjamin Guillet
BACKGROUND: endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are promising candidates for cell therapy of ischemic diseases, as less than 10% of patients suffering from an ischemic stroke are eligible for thrombolysis. We previously reported that erythropoietin priming of ECFCs increased their in vitro and in vivo angiogenic properties in mice with hind limb ischemia. OBJECTIVE: the present study aimed to evaluate whether priming of ECFCs with erythropoietin could enhance their homing into the ischemic site after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion in rats and potentiate their protective or regenerative effects on brain-blood barrier disruption (BBBd), cerebral apoptosis and cerebral blood flow (CBF) by Single Photon Emission/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Stelvio Sestini, Rosanna Perone, Sandro Domenichetti, Christian Mazzeo, Veronica Massai, Alessandra Rispoli, Agnese Barbacci, Angela Valtancoli, Antonio Castagnoli, Luigi Mansi
PURPOSE: To assess changes in social and neuro-cognition and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in schizophrenic patients with psychotic syndrome treated with Social Skill Training (SST). METHODS: 17 patients underwent two high resolution rCBF SPECT at rest before and after a one-year treatment with SST. Patients were assessed using a neuropsychological evaluation (W.A.I.S.-R, T.M.T, Verbal Fluency, W.C.S.T.). SPM8 was used to investigate rCBF changes from the pre- to the post-SST condition and the relationship between rCBF and clinical scores used as covariates of interest...
2016: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
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