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Brain SPECT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534652/a-review-of-the-evidence-of-zolpidem-efficacy-in-neurological-disability-after-brain-damage-due-to-stroke-trauma-and-hypoxia-a-justification-of-further-clinical-trials
#1
J A Sutton, R P Clauss
During 15 years, 23 clinical reports and 6 studies have demonstrated associations between sub-sedative doses of zolpidem and recoveries from brain damage due to strokes, trauma and hypoxia. Clinical findings include unexpected awakenings from vegetative states and regressions of stroke symptoms after dosing that disappear during elimination and reappear on repeat dosing. Initially single-photon emission computed tomography scans showed improved perfusion within, around and distant from infarctions. Then positron emission tomography scans and electroencephalography detected renewed metabolic and neuronal activity...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527220/quantitative-erythrocyte-omega-3-epa-plus-dha-levels-are-related-to-higher-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-on-brain-spect
#2
Daniel G Amen, William S Harris, Parris M Kidd, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: The interrelationships between omega-3 fatty acids status, brain perfusion, and cognition are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if SPECT brain imaging of cerebral perfusion and cognition varies as a function of omega-3 fatty acid levels. METHODS: A random sample of 166 study participants was drawn from a psychiatric referral clinical for which erythrocyte quantification of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (the Omega-3 Index) was available...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525823/development-and-validation-of-a-reversed-phase-hplc-method-for-analysis-of-radiochemical-purity-in-123-i-ibzm
#3
Shiou-Shiow Farn, Yuen-Han Yeh, Chang-Chin Li, Ching-Shiuann Yang, Jenn-Tzong Chen, Chung-Shan Yu, Wuu-Jyh Lin
[(123)I]IBZM is used widely for in vivo imaging of D2 receptors in human brain and shows relatively fast kinetics and a greater susceptibility to synaptic dopamine release than other single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radioligands. A reliable and reversed-phase HPLC method using UV/VIS and radiometric detectors has been developed for qualitative analysis of BZM and IBZM and radiochemical purity in [(123)I]IBZM preparations. The method uses gradient elution on a Zorbax XDB C-18 column with a mobile phase that consists of 10mM 3,3-dimethylglutaric acid (DMGA), pH 7...
April 15, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522082/brain-perfusion-during-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-successfully-identifies-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Pauline Brayet, Dominique Petit, Andrée-Ann Baril, Nadia Gosselin, Jean-François Gagnon, Jean-Paul Soucy, Serge Gauthier, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Julie Carrier, Isabelle Rouleau, Jacques Montplaisir
INTRODUCTION: Prodromal markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been derived from wakefulness. However, brain perfusion during rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep could be a sensitive marker of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), as activation of REM sleep relies more on the cholinergic system. METHODS: Eight subjects with aMCI, and 16 controls, underwent two single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans with tracer injected during REM sleep then wakefulness...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520803/multiple-modality-biomarker-prediction-of-cognitive-impairment-in-prospectively-followed-de-novo-parkinson-disease
#5
Chelsea Caspell-Garcia, Tanya Simuni, Duygu Tosun-Turgut, I-Wei Wu, Yu Zhang, Mike Nalls, Andrew Singleton, Leslie A Shaw, Ju-Hee Kang, John Q Trojanowski, Andrew Siderowf, Christopher Coffey, Shirley Lasch, Dag Aarsland, David Burn, Lana M Chahine, Alberto J Espay, Eric D Foster, Keith A Hawkins, Irene Litvan, Irene Richard, Daniel Weintraub
OBJECTIVES: To assess the neurobiological substrate of initial cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) to inform patient management, clinical trial design, and development of treatments. METHODS: We longitudinally assessed, up to 3 years, 423 newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic PD, untreated at baseline, from 33 international movement disorder centers. Study outcomes were four determinations of cognitive impairment or decline, and biomarker predictors were baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; volume and thickness), diffusion tensor imaging (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; amyloid beta [Aβ], tau and alpha synuclein), and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PD cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515582/evaluation-of-mr-perfusion-abnormalities-in-organophosphorus-poisoning-and-its-correlation-with-spect
#6
K Uday Bhanu, Niranjan Khandelwal, Sameer Vyas, Paramjeet Singh, Anuj Prabhakar, B R Mittal, Ashish Bhalla
AIM: Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many imaging modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain, have been used for quantitative assessment of the acute brain insult caused by acute OP poisoning. Perfusion defects on SPECT in acutely poisoned patients with OPs have been described, however, MR perfusion abnormalities have not been described in the literature...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509077/relationships-between-cognitive-impairment-on-adas-cog-and-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-spect-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Toshiyuki Okubo, Yukihiko Shirayama
The aim of this study was to examine brain hypoperfusion and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty patients with late-onset AD and not receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography, and analyzed classified gyrus level segments with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and the stereotactic extraction estimation method level 3...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506213/voxel-wise-correlations-between-cognition-and-cerebral-blood-flow-using-arterial-spin-labeled-perfusion-mri-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Tomohiro Kaneta, Omi Katsuse, Takamasa Hirano, Matsuyoshi Ogawa, Ayako Shihikura-Hino, Keisuke Yoshida, Toshinari Odawara, Yoshio Hirayasu, Tomio Inoue
BACKGROUND: To analyze voxel-wise correlation between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using ASL-MRI and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Forty-one patients diagnosed with AD or mild cognitive impairment due to AD were recruited for this study. CBF images were obtained using ASL-MRI (n = 41) with a post-labeling delay (PLD) of 1.5 and 2.5 s (PLD1.5 and PLD2.5, respectively) using a 3 T scanner, in addition to brain perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-4-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (n = 28)...
May 15, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501470/possibility-of-predicting-sert-occupancy-from-the-in-vitro-inhibition-constant-for-sert-the-clinically-relevant-plasma-concentration-of-unbound-drugs-and-their-profiles-for-substrates-of-transporters
#9
REVIEW
Masahiro Yahata, Koji Chiba, Takao Watanabe, Yuichi Sugiyama
Accurate prediction of target occupancy facilitates CNS drug development. In this review, we discuss the predictability of serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy in human brain estimated from in vitro Ki values for human SERT and plasma concentrations of unbound drug (Cu,plasma) as well as the impact of drug transporters in the blood-brain barrier. First, the geometric means of in vitro Ki values were compared with the means of in vivo Ki values (Ki,u,plasma) which were calculated as Cu,plasma values at 50% occupancy of SERT obtained from previous clinical PET/SPECT imaging studies for 6 selective serotonin transporter reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and 3 serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489744/diagnostic-accuracy-of-spect-pet-and-mrs-for-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-in-hiv-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Mo Yang, James Sun, Harrison X Bai, Yongguang Tao, Xiangqi Tang, Lisa J States, Zishu Zhang, Jianhua Zhou, Michael D Farwell, Paul Zhang, Bo Xiao, Li Yang
BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the roles of SPECT, PET, and MRS in distinguishing primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) from other focal brain lesions (FBLs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Medline were systematically searched for eligible studies from 1980 to 2016. Two authors extracted characteristics of patients and their lesions using predefined criteria...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488756/cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-in-adults-and-children-a-hypothesis
#11
Sylvain Redon, Cécile Mareau, Eric Guedj, Anne Donnet
OBJECTIVE: To see how patients' clinical descriptions compare to the third classification of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta). BACKGROUND: CVS is an episodic syndrome associated with migraine. It is a rare disorder of childhood and adulthood. New criteria are proposed in the third classification of International Classification of Headache Disorders. METHODS: This study describes children and adults' CVS characteristics at a French tertiary-care center, according to the ICHD-II and ICHD-III beta criteria...
May 10, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488065/spect-imaging-and-radionuclide-therapy-of-glioma-using-131-i-labeled-buthus-martensii-karsch-chlorotoxin
#12
Wenli Qiao, Lingzhou Zhao, Shan Wu, Changcun Liu, Lilei Guo, Yan Xing, Jinhua Zhao
Gliomas, the most prevalent type of brain tumor in adults, are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies on (131)I labeled scorpion toxins suggest they can be developed as tumor-specific agents for glioma diagnosis and treatment. This study investigated the potential of (131)I labeled Buthus martensii Karsch chlorotoxin ((131)I-BmK CT) as a new approach for targeted imaging and therapy of glioma. The results showed that (131)I can be successfully linked to BmK CT with satisfactory radiochemical purity and stability and that (131)I-BmK CT markedly inhibited glioma cell growth in a dose and time dependent manner, with significant accumulation in glioma cells in vitro...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484383/when-playing-is-a-problem-an-atypical-case-of-alien-hand-syndrome-in-a-professional-pianist
#13
Arantxa Alfaro, Ángela Bernabeu, Francisco J Badesa, Nicolas García, Eduardo Fernández
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a neurological illness characterized by limb movements which are carried out without being aware of it. Many patients describe these movements as aggressive and some perceive a strong feeling of estrangement and go so far as to deny ownership. The sense of body ownership is the perception that parts of one's body pertain to oneself, despite it is moving or not and if movement is intentional or unintentional. These anomalous self-experiences may arise in patients with focal brain lesions and provide unique opportunities to disclose the neural components underlying self-body perception...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481794/spect-ct-detection-of-a-communicating-arachnoid-cyst-in-a-patient-with-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#14
Lisa Walker, Ali Gholamrezanezhad, Daniel Bucklan, Peter F Faulhaber, James K O'Donnell
A 59-year-old man with history of multiple sclerosis and residual sensory and motor dysfunction presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness, ataxic gait, and intermittent urinary incontinence. Brain MRI demonstrated volume loss with disproportionate ventricular dilatation, but no evidence of infarction or abnormal enhancement. Radionuclide cisternography showed early and persistent ventricular reflux, poor progression of radiopharmaceutical over convexities, and delayed clearance in a pattern consistent with normal pressure hydrocephalus...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481786/optimal-brain-99mtc-ethyl-cysteinate-dimer-spect-imaging-and-analysis-to-detect-misery-perfusion-on-15o-pet-imaging-in-patients-with-chronic-occlusive-disease-of-unilateral-major-cerebral-artery
#15
Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Kohki Oikawa, Jun-Ichi Nomura, Daigo Kojima, Sotaro Oshida, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kazunori Terasaki, Yoshitaka Kubo, Kuniaki Ogasawara
PURPOSE: Misery perfusion is defined as marginally sufficient cerebral blood supply relative to cerebral metabolic demand. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal brain Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT imaging and analysis to detect misery perfusion on O PET imaging in patients with chronic occlusive disease of unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA). METHODS: For 97 patients, cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured using O PET; Tc-ECD SPECT was performed using dynamic scanning with a scan duration of 10 minutes each for 50 minutes after tracer administration...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473460/corneal-dose-reduction-using-a-bismuth-coated-latex-shield-over-the-eyes-during-brain-spect-ct
#16
Norikazu Matsutomo, Masaaki Fukunaga, Onishi Hideo, Tomoaki Yamamoto
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether a bismuth-coated latex shield (B-shield) could protect the eyes during brain SPECT/CT. Methods: A B-shield containing the heavy metal bismuth (0.15 mm lead equivalent) was placed over a cylindrical phantom and the eyes of a three-dimensional brain phantom filled with Tc-99m solution. Subsequently, phantoms with and without the B-shield were compared using SPECT/CT. The CT parameters were 30-200 mA and 130 kV. The dose reduction achieved by the B shield was measured using a pencil-shaped ionization chamber...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450688/a-case-of-55-year-old-man-with-first-ever-generalized-seizure-diagnosed-with-sturge-weber-syndrome-type-iii-by-characteristic-mri-findings
#17
Hidehiro Ishikawa, Yuichiro Ii, Atsushi Niwa, Keita Matsuura, Masayuki Maeda, Hidekazu Tomimoto
A 55-year-old man with no mental retardation had presented a history of frequent transient clumsiness of his right upper and lower extremities for about 20 years. He was admitted to a general hospital with weakness of right side of the body, and first-ever generalized seizure attack occurred the next day. Brain CT showed calcification in the left cerebral cortices. So he was referred to our hospital. On neurological examination, he had mild clumsiness of his right upper limb and right pyramidal tract sign. He had neither facial port-wine stain nor glaucoma...
April 27, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446651/how-small-can-the-epileptogenic-region-be-a-case-in-point
#18
Graeme D Jackson, Mangor Pedersen, A Simon Harvey
OBJECTIVE: To present a case that demonstrates that seizures and interictal disturbances can be driven by a small area of functionally abnormal cortex. METHODS: Two novel functional MRI network analysis methods were used to supplement conventional seizure and lesion localization methods: (1) regional homogeneity to quantify local connectivity, or synchrony, with a resolution of less than 1 cm(3) of cortex; and (2) small-worldness to combine information about whole brain network segregation and integration...
April 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428473/technical-considerations-on-scanning-and-image-analysis-for-amyloid-pet-in-dementia
#19
Go Akamatsu, Akihito Ohnishi, Kazuki Aita, Yasuhiko Ikari, Yasuji Yamamoto, Michio Senda
Brain imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET), can provide essential and objective information for the early and differential diagnosis of dementia. Amyloid PET is especially useful to evaluate the amyloid-β pathological process as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews critical points about technical considerations on the scanning and image analysis methods for amyloid PET...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424054/an-unusual-delusion-of-duplication-in-a-patient-affected-by-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#20
Paolo Solla, Gioia Mura, Antonino Cannas, Gianluca Floris, Davide Fonti, Gianni Orofino, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Francesco Marrosu
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most frequent diagnosis of progressive degenerative dementia in older people. Delusions are common features in DLB and, among them, Capgras syndrome represents the most frequent disturbance, characterized by the recurrent and transient belief that a familiar person, often a close family member or caregiver, has been replaced by an identical-looking imposter. However, other delusional conditions near to misidentification syndromes can occur in DLB patients and may represent a major psychiatric disorder, although rarely studied systematically...
April 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
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