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Yoshitaka Inui, Takashi Ichihara, Masaki Uno, Masanobu Ishiguro, Kengo Ito, Katsuhiko Kato, Hajime Sakuma, Hidehiko Okazawa, Hiroshi Toyama
OBJECTIVE: Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Takuma Ohmichi, Masaki Kondo, Masahiro Itsukage, Hidetaka Koizumi, Shigenori Matsushima, Nagato Kuriyama, Kazunari Ishii, Etsuro Mori, Kei Yamada, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
OBJECTIVE The gold standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is the CSF removal test. For elderly patients, however, a less invasive diagnostic method is required. On MRI, high-convexity tightness was reported to be an important finding for the diagnosis of iNPH. On SPECT, patients with iNPH often show hyperperfusion of the high-convexity area. The authors tested 2 hypotheses regarding the SPECT finding: 1) it is relative hyperperfusion reflecting the increased gray matter density of the convexity, and 2) it is useful for the diagnosis of iNPH...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sunao Mizumura, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Akihiro Murata, Kosei Yoshimura, Nobutomo Ishii, Tadashi Kokubo, Miyako Morooka, Akiko Kajiyama, Atsuro Terahara
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the Southampton method for dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT is widely used to quantitatively evaluate striatal radioactivity. The specific binding ratio (SBR) is the ratio of specific to non-specific binding observed after placing pentagonal striatal voxels of interest (VOIs) as references. Although the method can reduce the partial volume effect, the SBR may fluctuate due to the presence of low-count areas of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), caused by brain atrophy, in the striatal VOIs...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Daigo Kojima, Nobukazu Komoribayashi, Shinichi Omama, Kohki Oikawa, Shunrou Fujiwara, Masakazu Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Kubo, Kazunori Terasaki, Kuniaki Ogasawara
PURPOSE: Whereas SPECT images obtained 180 minutes after administration of I-iomazenil (IMZ) (late images) are proportional to the distribution of central benzodiazepine receptor-binding potential, SPECT images obtained within 30 minutes after I-IMZ administration (early images) correlate with regional brain perfusion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether crossed cerebellar tracer uptake on acute-stage I-IMZ SPECT imaging predicts 3-month functional outcome in patients with nonfatal hypertensive putaminal or thalamic hemorrhage...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Elinor Goshen, Leonid Beilin, Eli Stern, Tal Kenig, Ronen Goldkorn, Simona Ben-Haim
BACKGROUND: The performance of a prototype novel digital single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) camera with multiple pixelated CZT detectors and high sensitivity collimators (Digital SPECT; Valiance X12 prototype, Molecular Dynamics) was evaluated in various clinical settings. Images obtained in the prototype system were compared to images from an analog camera fitted with high-resolution collimators. Clinical feasibility, image quality, and diagnostic performance of the prototype were evaluated in 36 SPECT studies in 35 patients including bone (n = 21), brain (n = 5), lung perfusion (n = 3), and parathyroid (n = 3) and one study each of sentinel node and labeled white blood cells...
March 14, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
Peng Fu, Lingge Wei, Fang Zhang, Jianqing Gao, Jianmin Jing, Weijie Wu, Huaijun Liu
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the added value of NeuroGam software analysis in the localization diagnosis of epileptogenic zone during interictal phase of seizures. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical data of 67 patients, clinically diagnosed as epilepsy, were analyzed retrospectively. Visual analysis and NeuroGam software analysis were used for independent analysis. The 2 methods were used to compare the efficacy indicator of the diagnosis of epileptogenic zone, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve evaluated the diagnostic efficacy...
March 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Luqing Wei, Xiao Hu, Yonggui Yuan, Weiguo Liu, Hong Chen
Neuropathology suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) with depression may involve a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have shown that dopamine changes in individual brain regions constituting the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic circuits are associated with depression in PD. However, few studies have been conducted on the circuit-level alterations in this disease...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chie Suzuki, Mutsumi Kosugi, Yasuhiro Magata
BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantitation using technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99m Tc-HMPAO) generally requires assessment of input function by arterial blood sampling, which would be invasive for small animals. We therefore performed chest dynamic planar imaging, instead of arterial blood sampling, to estimate the input function and establish noninvasive quantitation method of rat CBF using the image-derived input function. RESULTS: Integrated radioactivity concentration in the heart-blood pool on planar images (AUCBlood -planar) was identical to that in arterial blood samples (AUCBlood -sampling)...
March 9, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Luca Bors, Kinga Tóth, Estilla Zsófia Tóth, Ágnes Bajza, Attila Csorba, Krisztián Szigeti, Domokos Máthé, Gábor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Gábor K Tóth, Franciska Erdő
Decreased beta-amyloid clearance in Alzheimer's disease and increased blood-brain barrier permeability in aged subjects have been reported in several articles. However, morphological and functional characterization of blood-brain barrier and its membrane transporter activity have not been described in physiological aging yet. The aim of our study was to explore the structural changes in the brain microvessels and possible functional alterations of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier with aging. Our approach included MR imaging for anatomical orientation in middle aged rats, electronmicroscopy and immunohistochemistry to analyse the alterations at cellular level, dual or triple-probe microdialysis and SPECT to test P-glycoprotein functionality in young and middle aged rats...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Geetanjali Arora, Punit Sharma, Anshul Sharma, Anil Kumar Mishra, Puja Panwar Hazari, Ahitagni Biswas, Ajay Garg, Deepak Aheer, Rakesh Kumar
OBJECTIVES: Posttherapy changes in treated glioma patients cannot be reliably differentiated from tumor recurrence. We evaluated the role of Tc-methionine SPECT/CT for the detection of recurrent glioma and compared the same with F-FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced MRI (CeMRI). METHODS: Forty-four patients with histologically proven, previously treated glioma and clinical suspicion of recurrence were prospectively enrolled in the study. Of these 44 patients, 39 (28 male and 11 female subjects; age, 38...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Satoshi Hayashi, Seishi Terada, Etsuko Oshima, Shuhei Sato, Kairi Kurisu, Shintaro Takenoshita, Osamu Yokota, Norihito Yamada
Objective: Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD). In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Marie-Ève Desjardins, Andrée-Ann Baril, Jean-Paul Soucy, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Alex Desautels, Dominique Petit, Jacques Montplaisir, Antonio Zadra
Study objectives: The present study assessed brain perfusion patterns with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during sleepwalkers' post-sleep deprivation slow-wave sleep and resting-state wakefulness. Methods: Following a 24-hr period of sleep deprivation, 10 sleepwalkers and 10 sex- and age-matched controls were scanned with a high-resolution SPECT scanner. Participants were injected with99mTc-ECD after 2 minutes of stable slow-wave sleep within their first sleep cycle as well as during resting-state wakefulness, both after a subsequent 24-hr period of sleep deprivation...
March 3, 2018: Sleep
Pantelis Maiovis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Georgios Gerasimou, Anna Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Dimitrios Karacostas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) mediates the clinical expression of brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease, while there are much less relevant data in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In the present study we examined whether CR, measured using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI), correlated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in Greek FTD patients. METHODS: Eighty FTD patients, i.e., 47 with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 33 with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), were enrolled into this study...
March 7, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Fumihito Yoshii, Chikako Kawaguchi, Saori Kohara, Mie Shimizu, Hiroe Onaka, Masafuchi Ryo, Wakoh Takahashi
The Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (Japanese version) cognitive subscale (ADAS-Jcog) is composed of a number of subscale tasks. However, it is not clear which subscale tasks are most susceptible to impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) or what is the relationship between reduction in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and decreased ADAS-Jcog scores. Subjects were 32 AD patients, aged 52-86 years. We examined the relationship between subscale tasks that showed marked score changes and brain regions that showed reduced rCBF over a 2-year period...
March 5, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Madhavi Tripathi, Atin Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal
Neuroimaging (NI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) includes functional techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and morphological imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial sonography to probe different aspects of the neurobiology of PD. Changes in neurotransmitters in various regions of the brain and their influence on brain networks is the basis for the motor symptoms of PD which are interrogated by NI. The recent Movement Disorders Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for PD (MDS-PD) have included the results of a few of these neuroimaging techniques to serve as single supportive criteria or absolute exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of PD...
March 2018: Neurology India
Bruno Zanotti, Nicola Zingaretti, Angela Verlicchi, Alex Alfieri, Pier Camillo Parodi
When a cranioplasty implant becomes infected, standard operating procedure dictates its removal and the initiation of a long course of antibiotic therapy. However, removing such a prosthesis can have a series of adverse consequences, including delayed cognitive and motor recovery, lack of brain tissue protection, unsightly deformity, and the need for two additional surgical procedures, not to mention the additional costs involved. To maintain the advantages of cranioplasty, we opted for a conservative approach (levofloxacin and rifampicin every 24 hours for 8 weeks) in a 68-year-old woman whose custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implant, fitted following aneurysm clipping, had become infected...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
M K Stam, E E Verwer, J Booij, S M Adriaanse, C M de Bruin, T C de Wit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the United States, especially for children and adolescents. Current epidemiological data estimate over 600,000 patients younger than 20 years are treated for TBI in emergency rooms annually. While many patients experience a full recovery, for others there can be long-lasting cognitive, neurological, psychological, and behavioral disruptions. TBI in youth can disrupt ongoing brain development and create added family stress during a formative period...
February 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Ramesh Naidu Annavarapu, Srujana Kathi, Vamsi Krishna Vadla
The aim of this article is to highlight current approaches for imaging elderly brain, indispensable for cognitive neuroscience research with emphasis on the basic physical principles of various non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the primary non-invasive neuroimaging modalities used by cognitive neuroscientists such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), Profusion imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) along with tractography and connectomics...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Brooke Donnelly, Stephen Touyz, Phillipa Hay, Amy Burton, Janice Russell, Ian Caterson
Objective: In recent decades there has been growing interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques to explore the structural and functional brain changes that take place in those with eating disorders. However, to date, the majority of research has focused on patients with anorexia nervosa. This systematic review addresses a gap in the literature by providing an examination of the published literature on the neurobiology of individuals who binge eat; specifically, individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
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