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veterinary neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306496/use-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-biopsy-of-a-vertebral-body-mass-to-diagnose-osteosarcoma-in-a-rottweiler
#1
Rebecca A Krimins, Jan Fritz, Larry A Gainsburg, Patrick R Gavin, Elizabeth A Ihms, David L Huso, Dara L Kraitchman
CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old spayed female Rottweiler with hind limb ataxia was examined because of anorexia and an acute onset of hind limb paresis. CLINICAL FINDINGS Neurologic evaluation revealed hind limb ataxia and symmetric paraparesis with bilaterally abnormal hind limb postural reactions including hopping, hemiwalking, hemistanding, and delayed proprioception, which were suggestive of a lesion somewhere in the T3-L3 segment of the spinal cord. Thoracolumbar radiography revealed an abnormal radiopacity suggestive of a mass at T11...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300871/glial-scar-modulation-as-therapeutic-tool-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-animal-models
#2
Jéssica Rodrigues Orlandin, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio, Valéria Maria Lara
PURPOSE: Spinal Cord injury represents, in veterinary medicine, most of the neurological attendances and may result in permanent disability, death or euthanasia. Due to inflammation resulting from trauma, it originates the glial scar, which is a cell interaction complex system. Its function is to preserve the healthy circuits, however, it creates a physical and molecular barrier that prevents cell migration and restricts the neuroregeneration ability. METHODS: This review aims to present innovations in the scene of treatment of spinal cord injury, approaching cell therapy, administration of enzyme, anti-inflammatory, and other active principles capable of modulating the inflammatory response, resulting in glial scar reduction and subsequent functional improvement of animals...
February 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284628/japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-diagnosis-and-control-in-domestic-animals
#3
REVIEW
Karen L Mansfield, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Ashley C Banyard, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283076/prevalence-of-thoracic-vertebral-malformations-in-french-bulldogs-pugs-and-english-bulldogs-with-and-without-associated-neurological-deficits
#4
R Ryan, R Gutierrez-Quintana, G Ter Haar, Steven De Decker
Congenital vertebral malformations are common incidental findings in small breed dogs. This retrospective observational study evaluated the type and prevalence of thoracic vertebral malformations in 171 neurologically normal and 10 neurologically abnormal screw-tailed brachycephalic dogs. Neurologically normal dogs underwent CT for reasons unrelated to spinal disease, while affected dogs underwent MRI. Imaging studies were reviewed and vertebral malformations including hemivertebrae, block vertebrae, transitional vertebrae, and spina bifida were documented...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283074/vertical-force-distribution-in-the-paws-of-sound-labrador-retrievers-during-walking
#5
N Schwarz, A Tichy, C Peham, B Bockstahler
In contrast to gait analysis in humans, where pedobarography is an integral part of biomechanical studies, veterinary researchers have rarely investigated vertical force distribution (VFD) in the paws of dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the VFD of peak of vertical force (PFz), vertical impulse (IFz) and time of occurrence of PFz during stance phase (TPFz) in 20 sound, adult Labrador retrievers walking normally on a pressure plate. A technique was used that divided the canine paw prints into quadrants...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190498/classification-of-involuntary-movements-in-dogs-paroxysmal-dyskinesias
#6
REVIEW
Mark Lowrie, Laurent Garosi
Paroxysmal dyskinesias (PDs) are a group of hyperkinetic movement disorders characterised by circumscribed episodes of disturbed movement, superimposed on a background state in which such abnormality is absent. There is no loss of consciousness. Episodes can last seconds, minutes or hours, and the beginning and end of the movement disturbance are abrupt. Neurological examination is typically normal between episodes. PDs are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, encompassing various aetiologies...
February 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176615/identification-by-next-generation-sequencing-of-aichivirus-b-in-a-calf-with-enterocolitis-and-neurologic-signs
#7
Ana S D Moreira, Sarah M Raabis, Melissa E Graham, Jennifer M Dreyfus, Samuel D Sibley, Jennifer A Godhardt-Cooper, Kathy L Toohey-Kurth, Tony L Goldberg, Simon F Peek
An 11-d-old Holstein bull calf was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of Wisconsin-Madison because of a 4-d history of diarrhea and persistent low-grade fever. Initial diagnosis was enteritis caused by Cryptosporidium and rotavirus. During hospitalization, the calf became stuporous and was only responsive to noxious stimuli, with hypotonia of all 4 limbs, tail, head, and neck. A cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed xanthochromia, with marked lymphocytic pleocytosis, which was suggestive of viral meningitis and/or encephalitis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166933/neurologic-examination-of-the-ruminant
#8
REVIEW
Gilles Fecteau, Joane Parent, Lisle W George
In this article, the neurologic examination of ruminants is reviewed. The proposed approach is simple, although thorough and methodical. The bovine veterinary practitioner should be able to efficiently assess the nervous system to rule out a primary neurologic disorder. Simple observations and procedures are suggested to allow evaluation of the nervous system. The appropriate method and interpretation are reviewed as well as the danger of misinterpretation.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156189/feline-glioma-a-retrospective-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Daniel R Rissi, Andrew D Miller
Case series summary This study aimed to evaluate the pathologic and diagnostic features of 13 cases of feline glioma diagnosed at two veterinary diagnostic institutions over 16 years. A retrospective search was conducted using the laboratory information system. Selected cases were reviewed, tumors were classified according to the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System, and tissue sections were submitted to an immunohistochemistry panel for further characterization...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122140/disorders-of-micturition-in-small-animal-patients-clinical-significance-etiologies-and-management-strategies
#10
Eric Langfitt, Jennifer E Prittie, Yekaterina Buriko, Janine M Calabro
OBJECTIVES: To review the physiology of micturition, the pathophysiology of micturition disorders, and current pharmacological agents used to treat these disorders. To discuss different urinary catheterization techniques, along with the risks of catheter-associated urinary tract infections attributed with these techniques. ETIOLOGY: Many critically ill veterinary patients are at risk of developing a number of neurological and non neurological micturition-related disorders...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062844/phenobarbital-administration-every-eight-hours-improvement-of-seizure-management-in-idiopathic-epileptic-dogs-with-decreased-phenobarbital-elimination-half-life
#11
F Stabile, C R Barnett, L De Risio
Estimated prevalence of canine idiopathic epilepsy is 0.6 per cent in the first-opinion canine population in the UK. Phenobarbital monotherapy has been reported to reduce/eradicate seizure activity in 60-93 per cent of idiopathic epileptic dogs (IEDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of the administration of phenobarbital orally every eight hours in IEDs with phenobarbital elimination half-life less than 20 hours. Medical records of 10 IEDs in which steady state trough serum phenobarbital levels were within the reference range and phenobarbital elimination half-life had become less than 20 hours following prolonged administration every 12 hours were reviewed...
February 18, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025450/application-of-fiber-tractography-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-to-evaluate-spinal-cord-diseases-in-dogs
#12
Yuko Konishi, Hiroyuki Satoh, Yasuyoshi Kuroiwa, Mizuki Kusaka, Atsushi Yamashita, Yujiro Asada, Taketoshi Asanuma
Fiber tractography is a technique capable of depicting the three-dimensional structure and connectivity of nerve fibers using serial magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). To establish fiber tractography and DTI methods in veterinary clinical medicine, we evaluated fiber tractography and DTI parameters: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and fractional anisotropy (FA) values, in various spinal cord diseases. Spinal cord DTI was examined in 28 dogs with spinal cord diseases. The ADC and FA values were measured at lesion sites and cranial normal sites on spinal cords, and both values of lesion sites were compared with normal sites...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001116/features-of-stimulus-specific-seizures-in-dogs-with-reflex-epilepsy-43-cases-2000-2014
#13
Linda Shell, Rachel Scariano, Mark Rishniw
OBJECTIVE To describe the occurrence and management of reflex epilepsy (ie, seizure activity triggered by exposure to specific locations or situations) in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 43 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Discussions by veterinarians participating in the Veterinary Information Network online community for the years 2000 through 2014 were reviewed to identify dogs with a diagnosis of reflex epilepsy and seizure activity in response to stimuli. History, signalment (including age at onset), the specific stimulus or stimuli that provoked seizures, treatments, and any concurrent neurologic diagnoses were recorded...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936156/primary-postnatal-dorsal-root-ganglion-culture-from-conventionally-slaughtered-calves
#14
A Fadda, M Bärtschi, A Hemphill, H R Widmer, A Zurbriggen, P Perona, B Vidondo, A Oevermann
Neurological disorders in ruminants have an important impact on veterinary health, but very few host-specific in vitro models have been established to study diseases affecting the nervous system. Here we describe a primary neuronal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) culture derived from calves after being conventionally slaughtered for food consumption. The study focuses on the in vitro characterization of bovine DRG cell populations by immunofluorescence analysis. The effects of various growth factors on neuron viability, neurite outgrowth and arborisation were evaluated by morphological analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933300/head-tilting-elicited-by-head-turning-in-three-dogs-with-hypoplastic-cerebellar-nodulus-and-ventral-uvula
#15
Shinji Tamura, Yuya Nakamoto, Takashi Uemura, Yumiko Tamura
The nodulus and ventral uvula (NU) of the cerebellum play a major role in vestibular function in humans and experimental animals; however, there is almost no information about NU function in the veterinary clinical literature. In this report, we describe three canine cases diagnosed with presumptive NU hypoplasia. Of them, one adult dog presented with cervical intervertebral disk disease, and two juvenile dogs presented with signs of central vestibular disease. Interestingly, an unusual and possibly overlooked neurological sign that we called "positioning head tilt" was observed in these dogs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877000/psychiatric-aspects-of-toxoplasmosis-an-indian-perspective
#16
Ajish G Mangot
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the well-studied parasites because of its medical and veterinary importance, and its suitability as a model for cell biology and molecular studies. Latent toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host was considered benign until recently. The importance of this parasite has been steadily rising in the field of psychiatry and neurology as it has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers in India have unfortunately restricted themselves to finding the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in special populations and animals...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829458/retrospective-epidemiological-study-of-canine-epilepsy-in-japan-using-the-international-veterinary-epilepsy-task-force-classification-2015-2003-2013-etiological-distribution-risk-factors-survival-time-and-lifespan
#17
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in veterinary practice. However, contrary to human medicine, epilepsy classification in veterinary medicine had not been clearly defined until recently. A number of reports on canine epilepsy have been published, reflecting in part updated proposals from the human epilepsy organization, the International League Against Epilepsy. In 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) published a consensus report on the classification and definition of canine epilepsy...
November 9, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778083/-first-ciguatera-outbreak-in-germany-in-2012
#18
Miriam Friedemann
In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year...
December 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771072/mouse-model-for-the-rift-valley-fever-virus-mp12-strain-infection
#19
Yuekun Lang, Jamie Henningson, Dane Jasperson, Yonghai Li, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuhao Li, Nan Cao, Haixia Liu, William Wilson, Juergen Richt, Mark Ruder, Scott McVey, Wenjun Ma
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a Category A pathogen and select agent, is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever. To date, no fully licensed vaccine is available in the U.S. for human or animal use and effective antiviral drugs have not been identified. The RVFV MP12 strain is conditionally licensed for use for veterinary purposes in the U.S. which was excluded from the select agent rule of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The MP12 vaccine strain is commonly used in BSL-2 laboratories that is generally not virulent in mice...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769883/brazilian-borreliosis-with-special-emphasis-on-humans-and-horses
#20
Roberta Carvalho Basile, Natalino Hajime Yoshinari, Elenice Mantovani, Virgínia Nazário Bonoldi, Delphim da Graça Macoris, Antonio de Queiroz-Neto
Borreliosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called Lyme disease in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Lyme-like or Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome in Brazil. However, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in Brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. Brazilian Lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. Thus, domestic animals can serve as key carriers in pathogen dissemination...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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