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Apparent Life Threatening

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737312/life-after-the-event-a-review-of-basic-life-support-training-for-parents-following-apparent-life-threatening-events-and-their-experience-and-practices-following-discharge
#1
W L Macken, N Clarke, M Nadeem, D Coghlan
Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17/25 (68%) were trained and 13/17 (76%) were contactable for interview...
May 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729318/a-national-survey-of-russian-physicians-knowledge-of-diagnosis-and-management-of-food-induced-anaphylaxis
#2
Daniel Munblit, Marina Treneva, Ilya Korsunskiy, Alan Asmanov, Alexander Pampura, John O Warner
OBJECTIVES: Food allergy is an increasing burden worldwide and is a common problem within paediatric populations, affecting 5%-8% of children. Anaphylaxis caused by food proteins is a potentially life-threatening condition and all healthcare practitioners should be aware of its recognition and management. Russia is the largest country in Europe but it is still unknown whether physicians are prepared to diagnose and manage food-induced anaphylaxis effectively. We aimed to examine physicians' knowledge of diagnosis and management of food-induced anaphylaxis...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720729/inhibition-of-inflammasome-dependent-interleukin-1%C3%AE-production-by-streptococcal-nad-glycohydrolase-evidence-for-extracellular-activity
#3
Dóra Hancz, Elsa Westerlund, Benedicte Bastiat-Sempe, Onkar Sharma, Christine Valfridsson, Lena Meyer, John F Love, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Michael R Wessels, Jenny J Persson
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common human pathogen and the etiologic agent of a large number of diseases ranging from mild, self-limiting infections to invasive life-threatening conditions. Two prominent virulence factors of this bacterium are the genetically and functionally linked pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO) and its cotoxin NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase). Overexpression of these toxins has been linked to increased bacterial virulence and is correlated with invasive GAS disease. NADase can be translocated into host cells by a SLO-dependent mechanism, and cytosolic NADase has been assigned multiple properties such as protection of intracellularly located GAS bacteria and induction of host cell death through energy depletion...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717387/human-mediated-evolution-in-a-threatened-species-juvenile-life-history-changes-in-snake-river-salmon
#4
Robin S Waples, Anna Elz, Billy D Arnsberg, James R Faulkner, Jeffrey J Hard, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Linda K Park
Evaluations of human impacts on Earth's ecosystems often ignore evolutionary changes in response to altered selective regimes. Freshwater habitats for Snake River fall Chinook salmon (SRFCS), a threatened species in the US, have been dramatically changed by hydropower development and other watershed modifications. Associated biological changes include a shift in juvenile life history: Historically essentially 100% of juveniles migrated to sea as subyearlings, but a substantial fraction have migrated as yearlings in recent years...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711234/sleep-related-breathing-disorders-and-indications-for-polysomnography-in-preterm-infants
#5
Koen Joosten, Robbin de Goederen, Angelique Pijpers, Karel Allegaert
There is a range of breathing problems which occur and may persist in preterm infants, such as central apneas, obstructive apneas and periodic breathing. Preterm infants may also suffer from respiratory distress syndrome and chronic lung disease necessitating prolonged use of oxygen therapy after discharge from the hospital. Due to these persistent breathing pattern abnormalities in preterm infants, there is a higher risk of altered sleep and apparent life threatening events. Polysomnography can be a helpful tool to identify those infants who have abnormalities in their breathing pattern, to identify those infants who have an increased risk to get a sleep related breathing event at home and to decide about the discontinuation of oxygen therapy...
July 12, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689530/congenital-vallecular-cyst-arare-and-potentially-lethal-condition
#6
Shabbir Ahmed Mallick, Tabinda Naz Qureshi, Ajoy Methew Varghese, Mona Mohammed Al Busaidi
Congenital vallecular cyst is a rare laryngeal lesion, accounting for 10-20% of all laryngeal cysts, with a potential to cause severe upper airway obstruction, which can be fatal. It can cause stridor, apnea, cyanosis, respiratory distress, and feeding difficulties. Diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and helps in timely intervention. Direct laryngoscopy is gold standard for definitive diagnosis. Treatment options include aspiration, marsupialization, and surgical excision. Here, we report a case of 7-week-old infant with complain of recurrent episodes of cyanosis when agitated, since the age of 3 weeks, admitted with impression of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs)...
June 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660459/plant-derived-antimicrobials-to-fight-against-multi-drug-resistant-human-pathogens
#7
REVIEW
Ramesh Subramani, Mathivanan Narayanasamy, Klaus-D Feussner
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a pivotal concern for public health that has accelerated the search for new antimicrobial molecules from nature. Numbers of human pathogens have inevitably evolved to become resistant to various currently available drugs causing considerable mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is apparent that novel antibiotics are urgently warranted to combat these life-threatening pathogens. In recent years, there have been an increasing number of studies to discover new bioactive compounds from plant origin with the hope to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631287/incidental-findings-of-implant-complications-on-postimplantation-cbcts-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Danielle Clark, Horia Barbu, Adi Lorean, Eitan Mijiritsky, Liran Levin
BACKGROUND: Survival rates of dental implants are reported to be very high and seem to indicate minimal complications related to dental implants. PURPOSE: The aim of this report was to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of implant positioning complications as appears in postimplantation Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) in two of the major imaging facilities in Bucharest, Romania. METHODS: Demographic and implant data was collected from two of the three main CBCT facilities in Bucharest, Romania...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620067/allele-specific-silencing-of-mutant-mrna-rescues-ultrastructural-and-arrhythmic-phenotype-in-mice-carriers-of-the-r4496c-mutation-in-the-ryanodine-receptor-gene-ryr2
#9
Rossana Bongianino, Marco Denegri, Andrea Mazzanti, Francesco Lodola, Alessandra Vollero, Simona Boncompagni, Silvia Fasciano, Giulia Rizzo, Damiano Mangione, Serena Barbaro, Alessia Di Fonso, Carlo Napolitano, Alberto Auricchio, Feliciano Protasi, Silvia G Priori
Rationale: Mutations in the cardiac Ryanodine Receptor gene (RYR2) cause dominant Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT), a leading cause of sudden death in apparently healthy individuals exposed to emotions or physical exercise. Objective: We investigated the efficacy of allele specific silencing by RNA interference to prevent CPVT phenotypical manifestations in our dominant CPVT mice model carriers of the heterozygous mutation R4496C in RYR2Methods and Results: We developed an in vitro mRNA and protein-based assays to screen multiple siRNAs for their ability to selectively silence mutant RYR2-R4496C mRNA over the corresponding wild-type (WT) allele...
June 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615700/urban-conservation-hotspots-predation-release-allows-the-grassland-specialist-burrowing-owl-to-perform-better-in-the-city
#10
Natalia Rebolo-Ifrán, José L Tella, Martina Carrete
Although habitat transformation is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss, there are many examples of species successfully occupying and even proliferating in highly human-modified habitats such are the cities. Thus, there is an increasing interest in understanding the drivers favoring urban life for some species. Here, we show how the low richness and abundance of predators in urban areas may explain changes in the habitat selection pattern of a grassland specialist species, the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia, toward urban habitats...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602484/red-blood-cell-transfusion-and-outcome-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Nayyer Iqbal, Kamal Haider, Vinita Sundaram, Julia Radosevic, Thierry Burnouf, Jerard Seghatchian, Hadi Goubran
Oncology services utilize about 15% of the blood transfusion resources in the USA. Red blood cell transfusion is performed immediately before, during or after major surgery to compensate for blood loss and hemodilution. However, a lack of evidence-based guidelines leads to variable transfusion practices among clinicians. The benefits of transfusing blood products are obvious in life-threatening low blood cell counts or bleeding, but it is becoming apparent that deliberate blood transfusion in some cancer patients can trigger negative clinical impacts...
May 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589296/-neglected-lonely-and-sick-the-social-breakdown-a%C3%A2-special-patient-group-in-the-emergency-department
#12
I Gräff, R C Dolscheid-Pommerich, S Ghamari, T Baehner, H Goost
BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) is increasingly becoming the primary care unit of patients who are no longer able to meet the necessary minimum requirements for a healthy life. In the emergency medical care of these patients, fixation errors and stereotyped thinking can distract from serious illnesses, which can be tended by emergency medicine. This group of patients, with their multifactorial problems, represents a special challenge for the staff of the ED. The aim of this study is to improve the quality of the care for a special patient group...
June 6, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555181/fundoplication-in-patients-with-esophageal-atresia-patient-selection-indications-and-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Risto J Rintala
Patients with esophageal atresia (EA) suffer from abnormal and permanent esophageal intrinsic and extrinsic innervation that affects severely esophageal motility. The repair of EA also results in esophageal shortening that affects distal esophageal sphincter mechanism. Consequently, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common in these patients, overall approximately half of them suffer from symptomatic reflux. GER in EA patients often resists medical therapy and anti-reflux surgery in the form of fundoplication is required...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555179/the-management-of-cyanotic-spells-in-children-with-oesophageal-atresia
#14
REVIEW
Mathieu Bergeron, Aliza P Cohen, Robin T Cotton
Cyanotic spells, also known as blue spells, dying spells, or apparent life-threatening events, refer to a bluish tone visible in the mucosal membranes and skin caused by an oxygen decrease in the peripheral circulation. Although this decrease may be transient and benign, it may also be indicative of a severe underlying problem that requires immediate intervention. Children with oesophageal atresia (OA) are at risk for a number of coexisting conditions that may trigger cyanotic spells. This current article will focus on the management of cyanotic spells both in children with innominate artery compression and those with tracheomalacia...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547246/indications-for-opioid-antagonists
#15
REVIEW
O J Michael Coppes, Christine N Sang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As opioids have become more common in clinical practice for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain, so too has the need for a deeper understanding of the clinical applications of opioid antagonists. The purpose of this review is to present both the longstanding and potential new indications for the use of drugs that block the effects of opioid receptors. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a growing body of data demonstrating the modulation of pain by opioid antagonists...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502515/lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-in-all-siblings-of-the-same-parents
#16
James J Maciejko, Premchand Anne, Saleem Raza, Hernando J Lyons
We present 4 normal-weight sibling children with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D). LAL-D was considered in the differential diagnosis based on the absence of secondary causes and primary inherited traits for their marked hyperlipidemia, together with unexplained hepatic transaminase elevation. Residual lysosomal acid lipase activity confirmed the diagnosis. DNA sequencing of LIPA indicated that the siblings were compound heterozygotes (c.894G>A and c.428+1G>A). This case describes the unusual occurrence of all offspring from the same nonconsanguineous mother and father inheriting compound heterozygosity of a recessive trait and the identification of an apparently unique LIPA mutation (c...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476236/genetics-of-lipodystrophy
#17
REVIEW
Marissa Lightbourne, Rebecca J Brown
Lipodystrophy disorders are characterized by selective loss of fat tissue with metabolic complications including insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and nonalcoholic liver disease. These complications can be life-threatening, affect quality of life, and result in increased health care costs. Genetic discoveries have been particularly helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of these diseases, and have shown that mutations affect pathways involved in adipocyte differentiation and survival, lipid droplet formation, and lipid synthesis...
June 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470179/autoimmune-channelopathies-as-a-novel-mechanism-in-cardiac-arrhythmias
#18
REVIEW
Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Pier Leopoldo Capecchi, Franco Laghi-Pasini, Mohamed Boutjdir
Cardiac arrhythmias confer a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Although coronary artery disease and heart failure are the prevalent causes of cardiac arrest, in 5-15% of patients, structural abnormalities at autopsy are absent. In a proportion of these patients, mutations in genes encoding cardiac ion channels are documented (inherited channelopathies), but, to date, the molecular autopsy is negative in nearly 70% of patients. Emerging evidence indicates that autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias...
May 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447886/drug-induced-hyperlactatemia
#19
Eike Blohm, Jeffrey Lai, Mark Neavyn
BACKGROUND: Hyperlactatemia is common in critically ill patients and has a variety of etiologies. Medication toxicity remains an uncommon cause that providers often fail to recognize. In this article, we review several medications that cause hyperlactatemia in either therapeutic or supratherapeutic dosing. When known, the incidence, mortality, pathophysiology, and treatment options are discussed. METHODS: We performed a literature search using PUBMED and Google Scholar for English language articles published after 1980 regarding medication induced hyperlactatemia and its management...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444167/electrical-cardiac-injuries-current-concepts-and-management
#20
Victor Waldmann, Kumar Narayanan, Nicolas Combes, Daniel Jost, Xavier Jouven, Eloi Marijon
Electrical injuries are a commonly encountered hazard in both the home and workplace. However, clinicians are often uncomfortable when faced with the patient who presents with an electric shock due to sparse literature and lack of systematic recommendations on this topic. Electrical injuries can range from minor skin burns to life threatening internal organ damage. A thorough clinical assessment to ascertain the path of current through the body and possible internal injury is essential. The main concern in an apparently stable individual after an electric shock is the potential for delayed occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias which will require monitoring in the intensive care setting...
April 20, 2017: European Heart Journal
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