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pit viper

Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Md Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili, Iekhsan Othman, Rakesh Naidu
Tropidolaemus wagleri and Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus are venomous pit viper species commonly found in Malaysia. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the crude venoms has detected different proteins in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus. They were classified into 13 venom protein families consisting of enzymatic and nonenzymatic proteins. Enzymatic families detected in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus venom were snake venom metalloproteinase, phospholipase A₂, ʟ-amino acid oxidase, serine proteases, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Erika Camacho, Libia Sanz, Teresa Escalante, Alicia Pérez, Fabián Villalta, Bruno Lomonte, Ana Gisele C Neves-Ferreira, Andrés Feoli, Juan J Calvete, José María Gutiérrez, Alexandra Rucavado
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play key biological roles in prey immobilization and digestion. The majority of these activities depend on the hydrolysis of relevant protein substrates in the tissues. Hereby, we describe several isoforms and a cDNA clone sequence, corresponding to PII SVMP homologues from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothriechis lateralis, which have modifications in the residues of the canonical sequence of the zinc-binding motif HEXXHXXGXXH. As a consequence, the proteolytic activity of the isolated proteins was undetectable when tested on azocasein and gelatin...
October 12, 2016: Toxins
Hai-Long Duan, Qi-Yi He, Bin Zhou, Wen-Wen Wang, Bo Li, Ying-Zheng Zhang, Qiu-Ping Deng, Ying-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Dong Yu
BACKGROUND: Snakebite incidence in southwestern China is mainly attributed to one of the several venomous snakes found in the country, the white-lipped green pit viper Trimeresurus albolabris. Since antivenom produced from horses may cause numerous clinical side effects, the present study was conducted aiming to develop an alternative antivenom antibody (immunoglobulin Y - IgY) from leghorn chickens. METHODS: IgY in egg yolk from white leghorn chicken previously injected with T...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Leslie Victoria Boyer, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Lucia Irazu, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Paula Leticia Sabattini, Carlos Fabián Damin
The amount of venom that a snake can inject is related to its body size. The body size is related to head size and to the distance between fangs. To correlate snake body size, distance between fangs and distance between puncture wounds with the venom yield (and consequently with the venom dose potentially injected in a single snakebite), we studied these variables in two species of public health importance in South America, Bothrops (Rhinocerophis) alternatus, and Crotalus durissus terrificus. In all cases a positive correlation was observed between body length, fang separation distance, distance between puncture wounds and venom yield, with a regression coefficient over 0...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Angelica Rocio Bonilla-Porras, Leidy Johana Vargas, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Vitelbina Nuñez, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Nasulysin-1, a new zinc-metalloproteinase from the snake venom of the hognose pit viper Porthidium nasutum, was purified to homogeneity using molecular exclusion chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography on a reverse phase column. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 25,900 kDa and pI 4.1, as determined by 1D and 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence (1FSPRYIELVVVADHGMFKKYNSNLNTIR28; 1TASLANLEVWSK12; 1DLLPR6) of the purified nasulysin-1, shows close structural homology with other snake venom metalloproteinases isolated from different snake venoms...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Guoning Guo, Yuliang Cao, Guoyan Zhu, Zhu Tian, Yajun Gou, Cong Chen, Minghua Liu
OBJECTIVE: To design a specific polyclonal antibody against Deinagkistrodon acutus venom (DA-pAb) by immunizating New Zealand white rabbits. RESULTS: The IgG fraction was purified by affinity chromatography, and specific antibodies were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies were subjected to ELISA and western blotting to evaluate their immune reactivity. We identified the mimotopes by screening a phage display 12-mer peptide library against D...
July 15, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Esther Lai Har Tang, Choo Hock Tan, Shin Yee Fung, Nget Hong Tan
UNLABELLED: The venom of Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) is highly toxic but also valuable in drug discovery. However, a comprehensive proteome of the venom that details its toxin composition and abundance is lacking. This study aimed to unravel the venom complexity through a multi-step venomic approach. At least 96 distinct proteins (29 basic, 67 acidic) in 11 families were identified from the venom. The venom consists of mainly snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP, 41.17% of total venom proteins), within which the P-I (kistomin, 20...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Jordan Debono, Chip Cochran, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Amanda Nouwens, Niwanthi W Rajapakse, Minami Kawasaki, Kelly Wood, James Dobson, Kate Baumann, Mahdokht Jouiaei, Timothy N W Jackson, Ivan Koludarov, Dolyce Low, Syed A Ali, A Ian Smith, Andrew Barnes, Bryan G Fry
Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis) were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis...
2016: Toxins
Kenneth W Larson, Keith R Schaefer, Cindy Austin, Rhy Norton, Phillip J Finley
Although initially created for the treatment of rattlesnake (genus: Crotalus) bites, Crotalidae-Fab antivenin is used to treat many different pit viper envenomations. However, the efficacy of Crotalidae-Fab in preventing tissue loss from copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) or cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakebites remains unclear. Recent reports show that Agkistrodon-related bites rarely require treatment beyond simple observation and pain control. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of tissue loss in patients who received Crotalidae-Fab compared with those who did not after an Agkistrodon bite...
May 2016: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Rupeng Mong, Hock Heng Tan
Although snakebites are uncommon, there are several species of medically important venomous snakes native to Singapore. We present a case of envenoming by the shore pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) that showed clinical improvement when treated with the Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom. A 40-year-old man was bitten on his right hand by a snake, which was identified through photos and his description to be a shore pit viper, which is native to the local mangrove area. Severe swelling and pain developed immediately after the bite, which progressed up the arm...
June 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Inthanomchanh Vongphoumy, Phankham Chanthilat, Phongmany Vilayvong, Joerg Blessmann
Snakebites are a seriously neglected public health problem in Lao PDR. Community-based cross-sectional surveys in two districts of Savannakhet province in Southern Laos revealed an incidence of up to 1105 snakebites per 100,000 persons per year. In contrast the number of snakebite patients treated in district and provincial hospitals are low. In order to improve health care for snakebite victims, antivenom was introduced to Savannakhet provincial hospital in July 2013 and medical staff has been trained in management of venomous snakebites at the same time...
July 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Montamas Suntravat, Néstor L Uzcategui, Chairat Atphaisit, Thomas J Helmke, Sara E Lucena, Elda E Sánchez, Alexis Rodríguez Acosta
BACKGROUND: Bothrops colombiensis is a highly dangerous pit viper and responsible for over 70% of snakebites in Venezuela. Although the composition in B. colombiensis venom has been identified using a proteome analysis, the venom gland transcriptome is currently lacking. RESULTS: We constructed a cDNA library from the venom gland of B. colombiensis, and a set of 729 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was identified. A total number of 344 ESTs (47.2% of total ESTs) was related to toxins...
2016: BMC Molecular Biology
Felix Kaldenbach, Horst Bleckmann, Tobias Kohl
Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities...
June 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Travis D Olives, Jill M Topeff, Laurie A Willhite, Virginia L Kubic, Daniel E Keyler, Jon B Cole
INTRODUCTION: Protobothrops mangshanensis, the Mangshan pit viper, is a rare pit viper native to the area surrounding Mount Mang in China's Hunan province. Toxicity from envenomation is not well characterized. CASE DETAILS: A 33-year-old male presented to an emergency department (ED) after being bitten on the forearm by his P. mangshanensis. He complained of mild swelling and pain at the bite site. He was admitted for observation and toxicology consultation. Following initially normal coagulation studies including platelets, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and D-dimer, fibrinogen decreased to 121 mg/dL and D-dimer concurrently rose to 377 ng/mL over 24 h...
March 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Maria Inácia Estevão-Costa, Carlos Alexandre H Fernandes, Maurício de Alvarenga Mudadu, Glória Regina Franco, Marcos Roberto M Fontes, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias
Phospholipases A2 are major components of snake venoms (svPLA2s) and are able to induce multiple local and systemic deleterious effects upon envenomation. Several snake species are provided with svPLA2 inhibitors (sbPLIs) in their circulating blood, which confer a natural resistance against the toxic components of homologous and heterologous venoms. The sbPLIs belong to any of three structural classes named α, β and γ. In the present study, we identified, characterized and performed structural and evolutionary analyses of sbαPLIs transcripts and the encoded proteins, in the most common Latin American pit vipers belonging to Crotalus, Bothrops and Lachesis genera...
March 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Stephen C Gale, Jo Ann Peters, LaDonna Allen, Robert Creath, Viktor Y Dombrovskiy
BACKGROUND: Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) (FabAV) antivenin is commonly recommended after pit viper snakebites. Because copperhead envenomations are usually self-limited, some physicians are reluctant to use this costly treatment routinely, while others follow a more liberal approach. We hypothesized that, in practice, only patients with evidence of significant (moderate or severe) copperhead envenomation [those with snakebite severity score (SSS) > 3] receive FabAV and examined a large cohort to determine the relationship between clinical findings and FabAV administration...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Liang Li, Wen-Ting Zhao, Hui-Xia Chen, Yan-Ning Guo, Lu-Ping Zhang
Ophidascaris excavata Hsü & Hoeppli, 1931 is a poorly known ascaridid parasite reported from the short-tailed pit viper Gloydius brevicaudus (Stejneger) (Reptilia: Viperidae) in China. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of this nematode was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based on newly collected material. The results revealed several important, but previously unreported, morphological features, including the presence of one pair of small, finger-like prolongations on each lip, narrow cervical alae beginning well posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the second pair of postcloacal ventro-lateral papillae being double; in addition, there is no intestinal caecum...
January 2016: Systematic Parasitology
Mark J Margres, Kenneth P Wray, Margaret Seavy, James J McGivern, Nathanael D Herrera, Darin R Rokyta
Protein expression level is one of the strongest predictors of protein sequence evolutionary rate, with high-expression protein sequences evolving at slower rates than low-expression protein sequences largely because of constraints on protein folding and function. Expression evolutionary rates also have been shown to be negatively correlated with expression level across human and mouse orthologs over relatively long divergence times (i.e., ∼100 million years). Long-term evolutionary patterns, however, often cannot be extrapolated to microevolutionary processes (and vice versa), and whether this relationship holds for traits evolving under directional selection within a single species over ecological timescales (i...
January 2016: Genetics
Vance G Nielsen, Daniel T Redford, Patrick K Boyle
Annually, thousands suffer poisonous snakebite, often from defibrinogenating species. It has been demonstrated that iron and carbon monoxide change the ultrastructure of plasma thrombi and improve coagulation kinetics. Thus, this investigation sought to determine whether pre-treatment of plasma with iron and carbon monoxide could attenuate venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen obtained from Agkistrodon species with fibrinogenase activity. Human plasma was pre-treated with ferric chloride (0-10 μM) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2, 0-100 μM) prior to exposure to 0...
May 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Claudio Borges Falcao, Clara Pérez-Peinado, Beatriz G de la Torre, Xavier Mayol, Héctor Zamora-Carreras, M Ángeles Jiménez, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, David Andreu
In silico dissection of crotalicidin (Ctn), a cathelicidin from a South American pit viper, yielded fragments Ctn[1-14] and Ctn[15-34], which were tested to ascertain to what extent they reproduced the structure and activity of the parent peptide. NMR data showing Ctn to be α-helical at the N-terminus and unstructured at the C-terminus were matched by similar data from the fragments. The peptides were tested against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and for toxicity against both tumor and healthy cells...
November 12, 2015: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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