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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927001/a-review-and-database-of-snake-venom-proteomes
#1
REVIEW
Theo Tasoulis, Geoffrey K Isbister
Advances in the last decade combining transcriptomics with established proteomics methods have made possible rapid identification and quantification of protein families in snake venoms. Although over 100 studies have been published, the value of this information is increased when it is collated, allowing rapid assimilation and evaluation of evolutionary trends, geographical variation, and possible medical implications. This review brings together all compositional studies of snake venom proteomes published in the last decade...
September 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920799/presumptive-pit-viper-envenomation-in-psittacines-in-a-brazilian-zoo
#2
Mathias Dislich, Peter Wohlsein, Anna Sophie Croukamp, Ulrich Neumann
Snake bites represent a serious public health risk in many regions of the globe, especially in tropical areas. Clinical signs and postmortem changes are well described in human and other mammalian species. However, detailed case reports about venomous snake attacks in avian species are limited. This report describes presumptive fatal envenomations in three psittacines caused by pit vipers in a Brazilian zoo. In one case, a Brazilian lancehead (Bothrops moojeni) was captured in the aviary. In all three cases the dermis around the suspected snake bite area exhibited hemorrhages and edema...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855322/the-thermal-background-determines-how-the-infrared-and-visual-systems-interact-in-pit-vipers
#3
Qin Chen, Yang Liu, Steven E Brauth, Guangzhan Fang, Yezhong Tang
The thermal infrared (IR) sensing system of pit vipers is believed to complement vision and provide a substitute imaging system in dark environments. Theoretically, the IR system would best image a scene consisting of a homothermal target in cold surroundings as a bright spot on a dark background. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated how the pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) discriminates and strikes prey when the background temperature is either higher or lower than that of the prey (approximately 32-33°C) in different parts of the scene...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755820/prolonged-coagulopathy-ecchymoses-and-microangiopathic-hemolytic-anemia-following-hump-nosed-pit-viper-hypnale-hypnale-bite-in-sri-lanka
#4
Rathnayaka Mudiyanselage M K Namal Rathnayaka, Senanayake A M Kularatne, Anusha Nishanthi Ranathunga, Mahinda Kumarasinghe, Jayantha Rajapakse, Shirani Ranasinghe
A 74-year-old previously healthy woman was bitten by a hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) at dusk causing incoagulable blood lasting for 6 days. Further, she developed ecchymoses over her forearms, upper arms, hands, and lower back on day 4 after the snakebite, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA). Features of this nature are rare after hump-nosed pit viper bite.
July 26, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735968/epidemiology-and-clinical-features-of-green-pit-viper-trimeresurus-trigonocephalus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#5
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, P E A N Ranathunga, S A M Kularatne
Green pit viper is a venomous endemic snake in Sri Lanka. But little is known regarding its envenoming in the country. This study was carried out in order to find out epidemiology and clinical profile of its bites. A series of 17 patients with Sri Lankan Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) bites was prospectively studied over 4 years. The mean age was 36 ½ years (range 12-61 years) and comprised 14 (82%) males. Except one case, all bites occurred during day time (0600 h-1800 h) due to inadvertent provocation...
July 21, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708892/cross-recognition-of-a-pit-viper-crotalinae-polyspecific-antivenom-explored-through-high-density-peptide-microarray-epitope-mapping
#6
Mikael Engmark, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Andreas H Laustsen, Federico De Masi, Mikael R Andersen, Ole Lund
Snakebite antivenom is a 120 years old invention based on polyclonal mixtures of antibodies purified from the blood of hyper-immunized animals. Knowledge on antibody recognition sites (epitopes) on snake venom proteins is limited, but may be used to provide molecular level explanations for antivenom cross-reactivity. In turn, this may help guide antivenom development by elucidating immunological biases in existing antivenoms. In this study, we have identified and characterized linear elements of B-cell epitopes from 870 pit viper venom protein sequences by employing a high-throughput methodology based on custom designed high-density peptide microarrays...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704364/dramatic-and-concerted-conformational-changes-enable-rhodocetin-to-block-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-integrin-selectively
#7
Johannes A Eble, Matthew McDougall, George L Orriss, Stephan Niland, Benjamin Johanningmeier, Gottfried Pohlentz, Markus Meier, Simone Karrasch, Maria Inacia Estevão-Costa, Augusto Martins Lima, Jörg Stetefeld
The collagen binding integrin α2β1 plays a crucial role in hemostasis, fibrosis, and cancer progression amongst others. It is specifically inhibited by rhodocetin (RC), a C-type lectin-related protein (CLRP) found in Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom. The structure of RC alone reveals a heterotetramer arranged as an αβ and γδ subunit in a cruciform shape. RC specifically binds to the collagen binding A-domain of the integrin α2 subunit, thereby blocking collagen-induced platelet aggregation...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657429/safety-profile-of-snake-antivenom-use-in-hong-kong-a-review-of-191-cases-from-2008-to-2015
#8
Rupeng Mong, Vember C H Ng, Man Li Tse
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay of treatment for significant envenoming from snakebites is antivenom. However, there is insufficient data regarding the safety of antivenom used in Hong Kong. We describe the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions from antivenom use and review the frequency and reasons for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS: The Hong Kong Poisons Information Centre database was reviewed. All patients given snake antivenom between 2008 and 2015 were included...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647127/infrared-light-detection-by-the-haller-s-organ-of-adult-american-dog-ticks-dermacentor-variabilis-ixodida-ixodidae
#9
Robert D Mitchell, Jiwei Zhu, Ann L Carr, Anirudh Dhammi, Grayson Cave, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe
The Haller's organ (HO), unique to ticks and mites, is found only on the first tarsus of the front pair of legs. The organ has an unusual morphology consisting of an anterior pit (AP) with protruding sensilla and a posterior capsule (Cp). The current thinking is that the HO's main function is chemosensation analogous to the insect antennae, but the functionality of its atypical structure (exclusive to the Acari) is unexplained. We provide the first evidence that the HO allows the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, to respond to infrared (IR) light...
August 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443568/the-compartment-syndrome-associated-with-deep-vein-thrombosis-due-to-rattlesnake-bite-a-case-report
#10
Radu Ciprian Tincu, Zoie Ghiorghiu, Dana Tomescu, Radu Alexandru Macovei
BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a health issue specific to some parts of the world, especially in the tropical area, where it produces many victims. The main clinical damage caused by snake bite involves hemotoxic, neurotoxic and myotoxic reactions. It is also established that the importance of systemic impairment varies according to individual factors and are related to organ dysfunction, shock or hypotension. We report the case of a young woman suffering from snakebite who developed deep vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396683/preparation-and-neutralization-efficacy-of-igy-antibodies-raised-against-deinagkistrodon-acutus-venom
#11
Jinhua Liu, Qiyi He, Wenwen Wang, Bin Zhou, Bo Li, Yingfeng Zhang, Cong Luo, Diancheng Chen, Jia Tang, Xiaodong Yu
BACKGROUND: The five-paced pit viper (Deinagkistrodon acutus), endemic to China and northern Vietnam, is responsible for most snakebites in the Chinese territory. Antivenom produced from horses is the main treatment for snakebites, but it may cause numerous clinical side effects and have other disadvantages involved in their production such as the welfare of animals. The present study was conducted aiming to develop an alternative antibody (IgY) from the egg yolk of leghorn chickens immunized with snake venom...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293253/can-anti-bothropstoxin-i-antibodies-discriminate-between-bothrops-jararaca-and-bothrops-jararacussu-venoms
#12
Ricardo Teixeira Araujo, Carlos Corrêa-Netto, Leonora Brazil-Más, Caio Raony Farina Silveira, Irene Fernandes, Russolina Benedeta Zingali
BACKGROUND: Snakes of the genus Bothrops, popularly known as pit vipers, are responsible for most cases of snakebite in Brazil. Within this genus, Bothrops jararacussu and B. jararaca deserve special attention due to the severity of their bites and for inhabiting densely populated areas. Regarding the treatment of snakebites by Bothrops jararacussu, questions have been raised about the effectiveness of the specific bothropic antivenom in neutralizing myotoxic effects; however, there are no accurate data for humans...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265084/lys49-myotoxin-from-the-brazilian-lancehead-pit-viper-elicits-pain-through-regulated-atp-release
#13
Chuchu Zhang, Katalin F Medzihradszky, Elda E Sánchez, Allan I Basbaum, David Julius
Pain-producing animal venoms contain evolutionarily honed toxins that can be exploited to study and manipulate somatosensory and nociceptive signaling pathways. From a functional screen, we have identified a secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like protein, BomoTx, from the Brazilian lancehead pit viper (Bothrops moojeni). BomoTx is closely related to a group of Lys49 myotoxins that have been shown to promote ATP release from myotubes through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that BomoTx excites a cohort of sensory neurons via ATP release and consequent activation of P2X2 and/or P2X3 purinergic receptors...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240232/venomics-of-tropidolaemus-wagleri-the-sexually-dimorphic-temple-pit-viper-unveiling-a-deeply-conserved-atypical-toxin-arsenal
#14
Choo Hock Tan, Kae Yi Tan, Michelle Khai Khun Yap, Nget Hong Tan
Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216410/coagulopathy-and-extensive-local-swelling-following-green-pit-viper-trimeresurus-trigonocephalus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#15
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, P E A N Ranathunga
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus (Sri Lankan Green pit viper) is a moderately venomous arboreal snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Even though, its bites are not uncommon, published reports of such cases are limited to three in literature. We report three cases of coagulopathy following Green pit viper bites and treatment with fresh frozen plasma.
April 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188761/kangaroo-rats-change-temperature-when-investigating-rattlesnake-predators
#16
Hannes A Schraft, Rulon W Clark
Predator presence causes acute stress in mammals. A prey animal's stress response increases its chance of survival during life-threatening situations through adaptive changes in behavior and physiology. Some components of the physiological stress response can lead to changes in body surface temperatures. Body temperature changes in prey could provide information about prey state to predators that sense heat, such as pit vipers. We determined whether wild rodents undergo a stress-induced change in body surface temperature upon detecting and investigating rattlesnake predators...
February 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909267/comparison-of-green-pit-viper-and-agkistrodon-halys-antivenom-in-inhibition-of-coagulopathy-due-to-trimeresurus-albolabris-venom-an-in-vitro-study-using-human-plasma
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
S K Lam, S F Yip, P Crow, H T Fung, J Mh Cheng, K S Tan, O F Wong, D Yt Yeung, Y K Wong, K M Poon, G Ades
INTRODUCTION: There are two antivenoms that may be administered in Hong Kong following a bite by Trimeresurus albolabris: the green pit viper antivenom from the Thai Red Cross Society in Thailand and the Agkistrodon halys antivenom from the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products in China. Both are recommended by the Central Coordinating Committee of Accident and Emergency Services of the Hospital Authority for treating patients with a bite by Trimeresurus albolabris. The choice of which antivenom to use is based on physician preference...
February 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876196/clinically-significant-envenomation-from-postmortem-copperhead-agkistrodon-contortrix
#18
Michael P Emswiler, F Phillip Griffith, Kirk L Cumpston
Over 14,000 copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) bites were reported to United States poison centers between 1983 and 2008, and 1809 cases were reported to poison centers in 2014. The copperhead is primarily found in the southeastern United States and belongs to the pit viper subfamily Crotalinae, which also includes the water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and rattlesnakes (Crotalus and Sistrurus genera). Postmortem rattlesnakes have been reported to cause clinically significant envenomation; we report a case of a postmortem copperhead causing clinically significant envenomation after inadvertent puncture with the deceased copperhead fang...
March 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806970/snake-bite-mortality-in-children-beyond-bite-to-needle-time
#19
M P Jayakrishnan, M G Geeta, P Krishnakumar, T V Rajesh, Biju George
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality from snake bite envenomation in children. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with a one-group cohort design. SETTING: Paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in South India. SUBJECTS: The study cohort consisted of 145 children (55 girls and 90 boys) <12 years of age with snake bite envenomation. METHODS: Demographic and clinical details were recorded in a semistructured pro forma...
May 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787696/carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-2-inhibition-of-snake-venom-thrombin-like-activity-novel-biochemical-brake
#20
Vance G Nielsen, Charles M Bazzell
A complication of defibrinogenation therapy with snake venom enzymes such as ancrod is hypofibrinogenemia associated bleeding secondary to no human-derived inhibitor being available to inactivate or diminish the activity of such enzymes. Of interest, ancrod contains a critical histidine residue without which enzymatic activity is inhibited, and carbon monoxide has been demonstrated to inhibit biomolecular function by interacting with histidine moieties in ion channels. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of three different snake venoms containing serine proteases with thrombin-like activity (which included ancrod) to carbon monoxide derived from carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 would diminish their effects on plasmatic coagulation as assessed by thrombelastography...
February 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
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