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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109158/using-the-volta-phase-plate-with-defocus-for-cryo-em-single-particle-analysis
#1
Radostin Danev, Dimitry Tegunov, Wolfgang Baumeister
Previously, we reported an in-focus data acquisition method for cryo-EM single particle analysis with the Volta phase plate (VPP) (Danev and Baumeister, 2016). Here, we extend the technique to include a small amount of defocus which enables contrast transfer function measurement and correction. This hybrid approach simplifies the experiment and increases the data acquisition speed. It also removes the resolution limit inherent to the in-focus method thus allowing 3D reconstructions with resolutions better than 3 Å...
January 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109145/-short-term-use-of-rapamycin-combined-with-tregs-prolongs-mouse-cardiac-graft-survival-but-attenuates-recipient-s-anti-tumor-immunity
#2
Ting Yan, Chen Luo, Xianmo Yang, Lei Ji, Shiqiao Luo
Objective To study the effect of short-term use of rapamycin(Rap) combined with regulatory T cells (Tregs) on the long-time survival of allogeneic mouse cardiac transplant, and its impact on the anti-tumor immunity of recipient. MethodsMouse Tregs were purified from recipients' spleen by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), and expanded by CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibody immunomagnetic beads and 2000 U/mL recombinant mouse IL-2 (rmIL-2) ex vivo. The purity was tested by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109035/competitive-benzyl-cation-transfer-proton-transfer-collision-induced-mass-spectrometric-fragmentation-of-protonated-n-n-dibenzylaniline
#3
Ge Ma, Gongye Liu, Shanshan Shen, Yunfeng Chai, Lei Yue, Shunping Zhao, Yuanjiang Pan
Collision-induced dissociation of protonated N,N-dibenzylaniline was investigated by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Various fragmentation pathways were dominated by benzyl cation and proton transfer. Benzyl cation transfers from the initial site (nitrogen) to benzylic phenyl or aniline phenyl ring. The benzyl cations transfer to the two different sites and both result in the benzene loss combined with 1,3-H shift. In addition, after the benzyl cation transfers to the benzylic phenyl ring, 1,2-H shift and 1,4-H shift proceed competitively to trigger the diphenylmethane loss and aniline loss respectively...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109011/individual-physician-penalties-resulting-from-violation-of-emtala-a-review-of-office-of-the-inspector-general-patient-dumping-settlements-2002-2015
#4
Sophie Terp, Brandon Wang, Brian Raffetto, Seth A Seabury, Michael Menchine
OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of civil monetary penalty settlements levied by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) against individual physicians related to violation of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA). METHODS: Descriptions of all civil monetary penalty settlements between 2002 and 2015 were obtained from the OIG. Characteristics of settlements against individual physicians related to EMTALA violations were described including settlement date, location, amount, whether there was an associated hospital settlement, the medical specialty of the physician involved, and the nature of the allegation...
January 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108919/modification-of-the-137-cs-90-sr-and-60-co-transfer-to-wheat-plantlets-by-nh4-fertilizers
#5
J Guillén, G Muñoz-Muñoz, A Baeza, A Salas, N Mocanu
Inorganic fertilizers are used as agricultural countermeasures intended to inhibit the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides after a radioactive fallout. Two NH4(+) fertilizers, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and NPK, were applied to soil contaminated with a mixture of radionuclides to analyze whether they modify the transfer of (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (60)Co and stable elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) to wheat plantlets grown under controlled laboratory conditions. DAP introduced NH4(+) in the soil, which can increase (137)Cs transfer, while NPK also introduced K(+), which can decrease it...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108865/transition-from-exponential-to-linear-photoautotrophic-growth-changes-the-physiology-of-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#6
R M Schuurmans, J C P Matthijs, K J Hellingwerf
Phototrophic microorganisms like cyanobacteria show growth curves in batch culture that differ from the corresponding growth curves of chemotrophic bacteria. Instead of the usual three phases, i.e., lag-, log-, and stationary phase, phototrophs display four distinct phases. The extra growth phase is a phase of linear, light-limited growth that follows the exponential phase and is often ignored as being different. Results of this study demonstrate marked growth phase-dependent alterations in the photophysiology of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp...
January 20, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108841/increased-incidence-of-post-term-delivery-and-cesarean-section-after-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer-during-a-hormone-replacement-cycle
#7
Kazuki Saito, Kenji Miyado, Kenji Yamatoya, Akira Kuwahara, Eisuke Inoue, Mami Miyado, Maki Fukami, Tomonori Ishikawa, Takakazu Saito, Toshiro Kubota, Hidekazu Saito
PURPOSE: This study aimed to clarify the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients who conceive singletons after frozen embryo transfer (FET) during a hormone replacement cycle and their offspring. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients who conceived after FET, based on the Japanese-assisted reproductive technology registry for 2013. The perinatal outcomes in cases with live-born singletons achieved through natural ovulatory cycle FET (NC-FET) (n = 6287) or hormone replacement cycle FET (HRC-FET) (n = 10,235) were compared...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108729/comparative-omega-3-fatty-acid-enrichment-of-egg-yolks-from-first-cycle-laying-hens-fed-flaxseed-oil-or-ground-flaxseed
#8
I J Ehr, M E Persia, E A Bobeck
When laying hen diets are enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate value-added eggs for human consumption markets, concentrations of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the yolk can reach 250 mg/50 g whole egg. Flaxseed, a rich source of ALA, is commonly used for omega-3 enrichment; however, the impact of dietary flaxseed source (extracted oil vs. milled seed) on fatty acid transfer to egg yolk in laying hens is unknown. Therefore, transfer of ALA, EPA, and DHA into egg yolk from extracted flaxseed oil or milled flaxseed was evaluated in Hy-Line W-36 laying hens over an 8-week feeding period (25 to 33 wk old)...
January 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108667/effects-on-circulating-steroid-hormones-and-gene-expression-along-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-adult-japanese-quail-exposed-to-17%C3%AE-trenbolone-across-multiple-generations
#9
Natalie K Karouna-Renier, Yu Chen, Paula F P Henry, Catherine M Maddox, Daniel T Sprague
We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17ß-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured...
January 20, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108659/yamat-seq-an-efficient-method-for-high-throughput-sequencing-of-mature-transfer-rnas
#10
Megumi Shigematsu, Shozo Honda, Phillipe Loher, Aristeidis G Telonis, Isidore Rigoutsos, Yohei Kirino
Besides translation, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) play many non-canonical roles in various biological pathways and exhibit highly variable expression profiles. To unravel the emerging complexities of tRNA biology and molecular mechanisms underlying them, an efficient tRNA sequencing method is required. However, the rigid structure of tRNA has been presenting a challenge to the development of such methods. We report the development of Y-shaped Adapter-ligated MAture TRNA sequencing (YAMAT-seq), an efficient and convenient method for high-throughput sequencing of mature tRNAs...
January 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108656/functionally-interdependent-shape-switching-nanoparticles-with-controllable-properties
#11
Justin R Halman, Emily Satterwhite, Brandon Roark, Morgan Chandler, Mathias Viard, Anna Ivanina, Eckart Bindewald, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Martin Panigaj, My N Bui, Jacob S Lu, Johann Miller, Emil F Khisamutdinov, Bruce A Shapiro, Marina A Dobrovolskaia, Kirill A Afonin
We introduce a new concept that utilizes cognate nucleic acid nanoparticles which are fully complementary and functionally-interdependent to each other. In the described approach, the physical interaction between sets of designed nanoparticles initiates a rapid isothermal shape change which triggers the activation of multiple functionalities and biological pathways including transcription, energy transfer, functional aptamers and RNA interference. The individual nanoparticles are not active and have controllable kinetics of re-association and fine-tunable chemical and thermodynamic stabilities...
January 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108628/metabolic-reprogramming-by-folate-restriction-leads-to-a-less-aggressive-cancer-phenotype
#12
Zahra Ashkavand, Ciara O'Flanagan, Mirko Hennig, Xiuxia Du, Stephen D Hursting, Sergey A Krupenko
: Folate coenzymes are involved in biochemical reactions of one-carbon transfer, and deficiency of this vitamin impairs cellular proliferation, migration, and survival in many cell types. Here, the effect of folate restriction on mammary cancer was evaluated using three distinct breast cancer subtypes differing in their aggressiveness and metastatic potential: noninvasive basal-like (E-Wnt), invasive but minimally metastatic claudin-low (M-Wnt), and highly metastatic claudin-low (metM-Wnt(liver)) cell lines, each derived from the same pool of MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108597/bispecific-antibodies-and-antibody-drug-conjugates-adcs-bridging-her2-and-prolactin-receptor-improve-efficacy-of-her2-adcs
#13
Julian Andreev, Nithya Thambi, Andres E Perez Bay, Frank J Delfino, Joel H Martin, Marcus P Kelly, Jessica R Kirshner, Ashique Rafique, Arthur Kunz, Thomas Nittoli, Douglas MacDonald, Christopher Daly, William Olson, Gavin Thurston
The properties of cell surface proteins targeted by Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have not been fully exploited; of particular importance are the rate of internalization and the route of intracellular trafficking. In this study we compared the trafficking of HER2, which is the target of the clinically approved ADC ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), with that of prolactin receptor (PRLR), another potential target in breast cancer. In contrast to HER2, we found that PRLR is rapidly and constitutively internalized, and traffics efficiently to lysosomes, where it is degraded...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108572/use-of-ldl-receptor-targeting-peptide-vectors-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-cargo-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#14
Yves Molino, Marion David, Karine Varini, Françoise Jabès, Nicolas Gaudin, Aude Fortoul, Karima Bakloul, Maxime Masse, Anne Bernard, Lucile Drobecq, Pascaline Lécorché, Jamal Temsamani, Guillaume Jacquot, Michel Khrestchatisky
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the entry of many drugs into the brain and, thus, is a major obstacle in the treatment of CNS diseases. There is some evidence that the LDL receptor (LDLR) is expressed at the BBB and may participate in the transport of endogenous ligands from blood to brain, a process referred to as receptor-mediated transcytosis. We previously described a family of peptide vectors that were developed to target the LDLR. In the present study, in vitro BBB models that were derived from either wild-type and LDLR knockout animals (ldlr(-/-)) were used to validate the specific LDLR-dependent transcytosis of LDL via a nondegradative route...
January 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108561/semaphorin-3e-deficiency-exacerbates-airway-inflammation-hyperresponsiveness-and-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma
#15
Hesam Movassagh, Lianyu Shan, Ashfaque Mohammed, Andrew J Halayko, Abdelilah S Gounni
Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) plays a crucial role in axon guidance, vascular patterning, and immune regulation. Nevertheless, the role of Sema3E in asthma is still elusive. In this study, we show that genetic ablation of Sema3E in mice results in increased lung granulocytosis, airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus overproduction, collagen deposition, and Th2/Th17 inflammation. Transfer of Sema3e(-/-) bone marrow progenitor cells to irradiated wild-type (WT) recipients exacerbates airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, whereas transfer of WT bone marrow progenitor cells ameliorates asthma pathology in Sema3e(-/-) recipients...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108557/low-level-mhc-class-ii-expression-leads-to-suboptimal-th-cell-response-increased-autoaggression-and-heightened-cytokine-inducibility
#16
Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Chia Su, Mei-Ling Chang, Pi-Fang Tsai, John T Kung
The development and activation of MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted CD4(+) T cells are distinct immunological processes that are strictly MHC-II-dependent. To address their relative dependence on MHC-II, we established a novel ENU-induced mutant mouse on the C57BL/6 background, named I-A(12%), with ∼8-fold reduced I-A expression on the surface of B cells, dendritic cells, cortical thymic epithelial cells, and medullary thymic epithelial cells. I-A(100%) and I-A(12%) mice are highly similar with respect to the numbers of double-positive thymocytes, CD4(+)CD8(-) T cells, regulatory T cells, CD4(+) T cell marker expression, lifespan, and Th/regulatory T cell function...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108532/tdp-43-prions
#17
Takashi Nonaka, Masato Hasegawa
The most common neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, are all protein-misfolding diseases and are characterized by the presence of disease-specific protein aggregates in affected neuronal cells. Recent studies have shown that, like tau and α-synuclein, TAR-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) can form aggregates in vitro in a seed-dependent, self-templating, prion-like manner. Insoluble TDP-43 prepared from the brains of patients has been classified into several strains, which can be transferred from cell to cell in vitro, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms reminiscent of those by which prions spread through the nervous system...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108426/membrane-surface-area-volume-ratio-in-chronic-subdural-haematomas-critical-size-and-potential-post-operative-target
#18
Appukutty Manickam, Laurence Ag Marshman, Ross Johnston
BACKGROUND: It is unknown why some chronic subdural haematomas (CSDH) grow and require surgery, whilst others spontaneously resolve. Although a relatively small CSDH volume (V) reduction may induce resolution, V% reduction is often unreliable in predicting resolution. Whilst CSDH evolve distinctive inner and outer neo- membranes (IM and OM), the OM likely dominates the dynamic growth-resorption equilibrium. If other factors remain constant, one previous hypothesis is that resorption could fail as the surface area (SA):V ratio decreases when CSDH exceed a 'critical size'...
January 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108354/abcs-of-dna-aptamer-and-related-assay-development
#19
REVIEW
Tarun Kumar Sharma, John G Bruno, Abhijeet Dhiman
This review is intended to guide the novice in aptamer research and development to understand virtually all of the aptamer development options and currently available assay modalities. Aptamer development topics range from discussions of basic and advanced versions of Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment (SELEX) and SELEX variations involving incorporation of exotic unnatural nucleotides to expand library diversity for even greater aptamer affinity and specificity to improved next generation methods of DNA sequencing, screening and tracking aptamer development throughout the SELEX process and characterization of lead aptamer candidates...
January 17, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108345/reinstatement-after-human-feature-positive-discrimination-learning
#20
REVIEW
Mathijs Franssen, Nathalie Claes, Bram Vervliet, Tom Beckers, Dirk Hermans, Frank Baeyens
In two experiments, using an online conditioned suppression task, we investigated the possibility of reinstatement of extinguished feature-target compound presentations after sequential feature-positive discrimination training in humans. Furthermore, given a hierarchical account of Pavlovian modulation (e.g., Bonardi, 1998; Bonardi and Jennings, 2009), we predicted A-US reinstatement to be stronger than US-only reinstatement. In Experiment 1, participants learned a sequential feature-positive discrimination (X→A(+)|A(-)), which was subsequently extinguished (X→A(-))...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
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