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Susanne Bartel, Heike Ohlbrecht
OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the theory-practice transfer in the field of research on participation in working life (LTA). The aim was to determine what expectations are prevalent on the part of service providers, how they access scientific knowledge, how the transfer into practice takes place and what research gaps exist. At the same time, representatives of the German Statutory Pension Insurance were asked about internal structures for identifying research topics and evaluating research results as well as for knowledge transfer...
June 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Yilu Chen, Tanchu Yang, Cuifang Hao, Junzhao Zhao
BACKGROUND Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are given letrozole before a trigger injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to lower estrogen (E2) levels, but can experience ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral letrozole, prior to administration of hCG, on the outcome of IVF and development of OHSS. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective clinical review included 181 cases of women with PCOS who underwent IVF cycles with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) (IVF/ICSI-ET)...
June 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Guohua Lv, Ashutosh Kumar, Yun Huang, David Eliezer
Fibrillar α-synuclein (AS) is the major component of Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), we previously reported a structural characterization of mouse AS (mAS) fibrils and found that the secondary structure of the mAS fibrils is highly similar to a form of human AS (hAS) fibrils. Recently, a three-dimensional structure of these same hAS fibrils was determined by ssNMR and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using medium- and long-range distance restraints obtained from ssNMR spectra, we found that the single protofilament structure of mAS fibrils is also similar to that of the hAS fibrils...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Kylie M Quinn, Annette Fox, Kim L Harland, Brendan E Russ, Jasmine Li, Thi H O Nguyen, Liyen Loh, Moshe Olshanksy, Haroon Naeem, Kirill Tsyganov, Florian Wiede, Rosela Webster, Chantelle Blyth, Xavier Y X Sng, Tony Tiganis, David Powell, Peter C Doherty, Stephen J Turner, Katherine Kedzierska, Nicole L La Gruta
Age-associated decreases in primary CD8+ T cell responses occur, in part, due to direct effects on naive CD8+ T cells to reduce intrinsic functionality, but the precise nature of this defect remains undefined. Aging also causes accumulation of antigen-naive but semi-differentiated "virtual memory" (TVM ) cells, but their contribution to age-related functional decline is unclear. Here, we show that TVM cells are poorly proliferative in aged mice and humans, despite being highly proliferative in young individuals, while conventional naive T cells (TN cells) retain proliferative capacity in both aged mice and humans...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Daniel R Whiten, Dezerae Cox, Mathew H Horrocks, Christopher G Taylor, Suman De, Patrick Flagmeier, Laura Tosatto, Janet R Kumita, Heath Ecroyd, Christopher M Dobson, David Klenerman, Mark R Wilson
The aberrant aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with several human diseases, collectively termed the α-synucleinopathies, which includes Parkinson's disease. The progression of these diseases is, in part, mediated by extracellular α-synuclein oligomers that may exert effects through several mechanisms, including prion-like transfer, direct cytotoxicity, and pro-inflammatory actions. In this study, we show that two abundant extracellular chaperones, clusterin and α2 -macroglobulin, directly bind to exposed hydrophobic regions on the surface of α-synuclein oligomers...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Justin S A Perry, Emilie V Russler-Germain, You W Zhou, Whitney Purtha, Matthew L Cooper, Jaebok Choi, Mark A Schroeder, Vanessa Salazar, Takeshi Egawa, Byeong-Chel Lee, Nada A Abumrad, Brian S Kim, Mark S Anderson, John F DiPersio, Chyi-Song Hsieh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Immunity
Sudhakar Pagidi, Neena K Kalluvettukuzhy, Pakkirisamy Thilagar
The advances in boron incorporated organics has captured overwhelming interest on account of their outstanding properties and promising applications in various fields. Mostly, triarylborane compounds (TAB) are exploited as sensors of F- and CN- anions at the expense of intrinsic Lewis acidic nature of boron. New molecular probes 1 and 2 for detection of toxic thiophenols were designed by conjugating highly fluorescent borylanilines with the luminescent quencher 2,4-dinitrobenzene based sulfonamides (DNBS), wherein the electrophilicity of DNBS moiety have been modulated by fine-tuning the intrinsic Lewis acidity of boron...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Manuel Antuch Cubillas, Pierre Millet
The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is the focus of much attention by the scientific community because of the increasing energetic demands of modern society for clean and renewable energy sources. Molecular complexes of 3d-transition metals, such as cobalt, are potential alternative candidates to platinum for the HER in acidic media. Among these, cage complexes such as tris-dioximate metal clathrochelates have shown high HER catalytic properties. However, it is not clear either the catalytic activity of this molecule is due to metal-centered activation of H+, due to a low oxidation state of the metal stabilized by the surrounding organic cage, or if it is the organic cage who has a further cooperative role in bringing protons together...
June 20, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Sébastien Wielgoss, Francesca Fiegna, Olaya Rendueles, Yuen-Tsu N Yu, Gregory J Velicer
Genetically similar cells of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus cooperate at multiple social behaviours, including motility and multicellular development. Another social interaction in this species is outer-membrane exchange (OME), a behaviour of unknown primary benefit in which cells displaying closely related variants of the outer-membrane protein TraA transiently fuse and exchange membrane contents. Functionally incompatible TraA variants do not mediate OME, which led to the proposal that TraA incompatibilities determine patterns of intercellular cooperation in nature, but how this might occur remains unclear...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Isadora Antoniano-Villalobos, Emanuele Borgonovo, Sumeda Siriwardena
In probabilistic risk assessment, attention is often focused on the expected value of a risk metric. The sensitivity of this expectation to changes in the parameters of the distribution characterizing uncertainty in the inputs becomes of interest. Approaches based on differentiation encounter limitations when (i) distributional parameters are expressed in different units or (ii) the analyst wishes to transfer sensitivity insights from individual parameters to parameter groups, when alternating between different levels of a probabilistic safety assessment model...
June 20, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Laura Flatau, Markus Reitt, Gunnar Duttge, Christian Lenk, Barbara Zoll, Wolfgang Poser, Alexandra Weber, Urs Heilbronner, Marcella Rietschel, Jana Strohmaier, Rebekka Kesberg, Jonas Nagel, Thomas G Schulze
In clinical practice and in research, there is an ongoing debate on how to return incidental and secondary findings of genetic tests to patients and research participants. Previous investigations have found that most of the people most of the time are in favor of full disclosure of results. Yet, the option to reject disclosure, based on the so-called right not to know, can be valuable especially for some vulnerable subgroups of recipients. In the present study we investigated variations in informational preferences in the context of genetic testing in a large and diverse German sample...
2018: PloS One
Matthias Goldsche, G J Verbiest, Tymofiy Khodkov, Jens Sonntag, Nils von den Driesch, Dan Buca, Christoph Stampfer
We report on the fabrication and characterization of an optimized comb-drive actuator design for strain-dependent transport measurements on suspended graphene. We fabricate devices from highly p-doped silicon using deep reactive ion etching with a chromium mask. Crucially, we implement a gold layer to reduce the device resistance from ≈51.6 kΩ to ≈236 Ω at room temperature in order to allow for strain-dependent transport measurements. The graphene is integrated by mechanically transferring it directly onto the actuator using a polymethylmethacrylate membrane...
June 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Volker Müller, Nilanjan Pal Chowdhury, Mirko Basen
A decade ago, a novel mechanism to drive thermodynamically unfavorable redox reactions was discovered that is used in prokaryotes to drive endergonic electron transfer reactions by a direct coupling to an exergonic redox reaction in one soluble enzyme complex. This process is referred to as flavinbased electron bifurcation, or FBEB. An important function of FBEB is that it allows the generation of reduced low-potential ferredoxin (Fdred ) from comparably high-potential electron donors such as NADH or molecular hydrogen (H2 )...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Marusu Katada, Asuka Fujii
To explore the microhydration structures of protonated phenol, size-selective infrared spectroscopy of protonated phenol-(water)n clusters (n = 1 - 5) was performed. Protonation of phenol can occur either at the phenyl ring or the hydroxy group. The coexistence of the two isomer types separated by the high isomerization barrier was reconfirmed for bare protonated phenol. Preferential hydration of the hydroxy group initially occurs in both the two isomer types of protonated phenol. Development of the water hydrogen-bond network is localized around the hydroxy group up to n = 2...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Joseph K Swabeck, Stefan Fischer, Noah D Bronstein, A Paul Alivisatos
Semiconductor quantum dot sensitized lanthanide ions hold great promise in producing a broadly absorbing and sharply emitting luminophore, but their synthesis has proven to be difficult. We report the first synthesis of core/shell/shell InP/Lnx Y1-x F3 /ShF3 (Ln = Yb, Nd, Sh = Lu, Y) nanocrystals that exhibit a broad visible absorption coupled to a sharp near-infrared emission. Additionally, this is the first report of Nd being coupled to a quantum dot absorber. We characterize the system with a variety of electron microscopy and x-ray techniques that prove this unique structure...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tetsuya Hattori, Toru Itagaki, Hirotaka Uji, Shunsaku Kimura
Two kinds of amphiphilic polypeptides having different types of hydrophilic polypeptoids, poly(sarcosine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (ML12) and poly(N-ethyl glycine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (EL12), were self-assembled via two paths to phase-separated nanotubes. One path was via sticking ML12 nanotubes with EL12 nanotubes, and the other was a preparation from a mixture of ML12 and EL12 in solution. In either case, nanotubes showed temperature-induced phase separation along the long axis, which was observed by two methods of labeling one phase with gold nanoparticles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the components...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Udita Brahmachari, Zhanjun Guo, Sara E Konecny, Emmanuela N C Obi, Bridgette A Barry
Photosystem II oxidizes water at a Mn4 CaO5 cluster. Oxygen evolution is accompanied by proton release through a 35 Å hydrogen-bonding network to the lumen. The mechanism of this proton-transfer reaction is not known, but the reaction is dependent on chloride. Here, vibrational spectroscopy defines the functional properties of the proton-transfer network using chloride, bromide, and nitrate as perturbative agents. As assessed by peptide C═O frequencies, bromide substitution yields a spectral Stark shift because of its increase in ionic radius...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Paola Estrada, Maho Morita, Yue Hao, Eric W Schmidt, Satish Nair
Mutation at a single amino acid alters the isoprene donor specificity of prenyltransferases involved in the modification of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). While most characterized RiPP prenyltransferases carry out the regiospecific transfer of C5 dimethylallyl donor to the side chain atoms on macrocyclic acceptor substrates, the elucidation of the cyanobactin natural product piricyclamide 70005E1 identifies an O-geranyl modification on Tyr, a reaction with little prior biochemical precedence...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nicholas M Riley, Jacek W Sikora, Henrique S Seckler, Joseph B Greer, Ryan T Fellers, Richard D LeDuc, Michael S Westphall, Paul M Thomas, Neil L Kelleher, Joshua J Coon
High-throughput top-down proteomic experiments directly identify proteoforms in complex mixtures, making high quality tandem mass spectra necessary to deeply characterize proteins with many sources of variation. Collision-based dissociation methods offer expedient data acquisition, but often fail to extensively fragment proteoforms for thorough analysis. Electron-driven dissociation methods are a popular alternative approach, especially for precursor ions with high charge density. Combining infrared photo-activation concurrent with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) reactions, i...
June 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Min Zeng, Meng Huo, Yujun Feng, Jinying Yuan
ABC triblock copolymer assemblies with reversible "breathing" behaviors based on poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate]-b-poly(benzyl methacrylate)-b-poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (POEGMA-b-PBnMA-b-PDEA) are fabricated via one-pot sequential reverisble addition-fragmentation chain transfer dispersion polymerization. Using a POEGMA as the macromolecular chain transfer agent, chain extension with BnMA and DEA is conducted in ethanol, where PBnMA acts as the core-forming block, and the PDEA block endows the solvophilicity and CO2 -responsiveness...
June 20, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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