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Diapause, insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689881/the-insulin-like-proteins-dilps-2-5-determine-diapause-inducibility-in-drosophila
#1
Luca Schiesari, Gabriele Andreatta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Michael B O'Connor, Rodolfo Costa
Diapause is an actively induced dormancy that has evolved in Metazoa to resist environmental stresses. In temperate regions, many diapausing insects overwinter at low temperatures by blocking embryonic, larval or adult development. Despite its Afro-tropical origin, Drosophila melanogaster migrated to temperate regions of Asia and Europe where females overwinter as adults by arresting gonadal development (reproductive diapause) at temperatures <13°C. Recent work in D. melanogaster has implicated the developmental hormones dILPs-2 and/or dILP3, and dILP5, homologues of vertebrate insulin/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), in reproductive arrest...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432815/diversity-of-insulin-like-peptide-signaling-system-proteins-in-calanus-finmarchicus-crustacea-copepoda-possible-contributors-to-seasonal-pre-adult-diapause
#2
Andrew E Christie, Vittoria Roncalli, Petra H Lenz
Calanus finmarchicus, an abundant calanoid copepod in the North Atlantic Ocean, is both a major grazer on phytoplankton and an important forage species for invertebrate and vertebrate predators. One component of the life history of C. finmarchicus is the overwintering dormancy of sub-adults, a feature key for the annual recruitment of this species in early spring. While little is known about the control of dormancy in C. finmarchicus, one hypothesis is that it is an insect-like diapause, where the endocrine system is a key regulator...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373842/a-novel-arrangement-of-midgut-epithelium-and-hepatic-cells-implies-a-novel-regulation-of-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-long-lived-millipedes
#3
James B Nardi, Lou Ann Miller, Charles M Bee
Nutrients absorbed by the epithelial cells of the millipede midgut are channeled to a contiguous population of hepatic cells where sugars are stored as glycogen. In insects and other arthropods, however, nutrients absorbed by midgut epithelia are first passed across the epithelial basal surface to the hemolymph before storage in fat body. The inter-digitation of cellular processes at the interface of hepatic and midgut epithelial cells offers a vast surface area for exchange of nutrients. At this interface, numerous small vesicles with the dimensions of exosomes (∼30nm) may represent the mediators of nutrient exchange...
August 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312473/divergence-of-the-diapause-transcriptome-in-apple-maggot-flies-winter-regulation-and-post-winter-transcriptional-repression
#4
Peter J Meyers, Thomas H Q Powell, Kimberly K O Walden, Adam J Schieferecke, Jeffrey L Feder, Daniel A Hahn, Hugh M Robertson, Stewart H Berlocher, Gregory J Ragland
The duration of dormancy regulates seasonal timing in many organisms and may be modulated by day length and temperature. Though photoperiodic modulation has been well studied, temperature modulation of dormancy has received less attention. Here, we leverage genetic variation in diapause in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, to test whether gene expression during winter or following spring warming regulates diapause duration. We used RNAseq to compare transcript abundance during and after simulated winter between an apple-infesting population and a hawthorn-infesting population where the apple population ends pupal diapause earlier than the hawthorn-infesting population...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260305/developmental-and-cell-cycle-quiescence-is-mediated-by-the-nuclear-hormone-receptor-coregulator-din-1s-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer-larva
#5
Eileen Colella, Shaolin Li, Richard Roy
When faced with suboptimal growth conditions, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae can enter a diapause-like stage called "dauer" that is specialized for dispersal and survival. The decision to form a dauer larva is controlled by three parallel signaling pathways, whereby a compromise of TGFβ, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, or insulin/IGF-like signaling (ILS) results in dauer formation. Signals from these pathways converge on DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor that triggers the changes required to initiate dauer formation...
August 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197757/drosophila-insulin-like-peptide-1-dilp1-is-transiently-expressed-during-non-feeding-stages-and-reproductive-dormancy
#6
Yiting Liu, Sifang Liao, Jan A Veenstra, Dick R Nässel
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in animals, and is part of nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control growth, metabolism, reproduction, stress responses, and lifespan. In Drosophila, eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are known, six of which have been investigated in some detail, whereas expression and functions of DILP1 and DILP4 remain enigmatic. Here we demonstrate that dilp1/DILP1 is transiently expressed in brain insulin producing cells (IPCs) from early pupa until a few days of adult life...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053646/mechanisms-of-animal-diapause-recent-developments-from-nematodes-crustaceans-insects-and-fish
#7
REVIEW
Steven C Hand, David L Denlinger, Jason E Podrabsky, Richard Roy
Life cycle delays are beneficial for opportunistic species encountering suboptimal environments. Many animals display a programmed arrest of development (diapause) at some stage(s) of their development, and the diapause state may or may not be associated with some degree of metabolic depression. In this review, we will evaluate current advancements in our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the remarkable phenotype, as well as environmental cues that signal entry and termination of the state. The developmental stage at which diapause occurs dictates and constrains the mechanisms governing diapause...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951193/effect-of-bbx-b8-overexpression-on-development-body-weight-silk-protein-synthesis-and-egg-diapause-of-bombyx-mori
#8
Xiaojian Zheng, Yongchang Gong, Dhiraj Kumar, Fei Chen, Sulan Kuan, Zi Liang, Xiaolong Hu, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
Bombyxin (BBX) is an insulin-like peptide exists in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our previous studies on the effects of inhibiting BBX-B8 expression found that BBX-B8 is important for the development of organ, reproduction and trehalose metabolism in the silkworms. In this paper, we investigated the expression profile of the BBX-B8 gene and effect of BBX-B8 overexpression on the development, body weight, silk protein synthesis and egg diapause of B. mori to further understand BBX-B8 functions. BBX-B8 gene expression could be detected in the brains, midguts, anterior silkglands, ovaries, testes, fat bodies, hemolymph, malpighian tubules and embryos by RT-PCR, however it was mainly expressed in the brain...
August 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26838180/diapause-is-associated-with-a-change-in-the-polarity-of-secretion-of-insulin-like-peptides
#9
Yohei Matsunaga, Yoko Honda, Shuji Honda, Takashi Iwasaki, Hiroshi Qadota, Guy M Benian, Tsuyoshi Kawano
The insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of larval diapause, the long-lived growth arrest state called dauer arrest, in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this nematode, 40 insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified as putative ligands of the IIS pathway; however, it remains unknown how ILPs modulate larval diapause. Here we show that the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, which suppress larval diapause, is changed in the intestinal epithelial cells at larval diapause...
February 3, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656736/dbl-1-tgf-%C3%AE-and-daf-12-nhr-signaling-mediate-cell-nonautonomous-effects-of-daf-16-foxo-on-starvation-induced-developmental-arrest
#10
Rebecca E W Kaplan, Yutao Chen, Brad T Moore, James M Jordan, Colin S Maxwell, Adam J Schindler, L Ryan Baugh
Nutrient availability has profound influence on development. In the nematode C. elegans, nutrient availability governs post-embryonic development. L1-stage larvae remain in a state of developmental arrest after hatching until they feed. This "L1 arrest" (or "L1 diapause") is associated with increased stress resistance, supporting starvation survival. Loss of the transcription factor daf-16/FOXO, an effector of insulin/IGF signaling, results in arrest-defective and starvation-sensitive phenotypes. We show that daf-16/FOXO regulates L1 arrest cell-nonautonomously, suggesting that insulin/IGF signaling regulates at least one additional signaling pathway...
December 2015: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26435887/new-links-between-protein-n-terminal-acetylation-dauer-diapause-and-the-insulin-igf-1-signaling-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Kurt Warnhoff, Kerry Kornfeld
Protein N-terminal acetylation is a widespread posttranslational modification in eukaryotes that is catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). The biochemical activity of NATs has been characterized extensively, whereas the biological function of NATs is only beginning to be defined. Here we comment on recent progress in understanding the function of NAT activity in C. elegans based on the characterization of natc-1 by Warnhoff et al. (2014) and daf-31 by Chen et al. (2014).(1,2) natc-1 encodes an auxiliary subunit of the NatC complex and modulates stress tolerance, dauer entry, and adult lifespan...
April 2015: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417012/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-mechanisms-for-the-evolution-of-insect-seasonality
#12
Crista B Wadsworth, Erik B Dopman
Rapid evolutionary change in seasonal timing can facilitate ecological speciation and resilience to climate warming. However, the molecular mechanisms behind shifts in animal seasonality are still unclear. Evolved differences in seasonality occur in the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), in which early summer emergence in E-strain adults and later summer emergence in Z-strain adults is explained by a shift in the length of the termination phase of larval diapause. Here, we sample from the developmental time course of diapause in both strains and use transcriptome sequencing to profile regulatory and amino acid changes associated with timing divergence...
November 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26092086/analysis-of-the-effect-of-the-mitochondrial-prohibitin-complex-a-context-dependent-modulator-of-longevity-on-the-c-elegans-metabolome
#13
Artur B Lourenço, Celia Muñoz-Jiménez, Mónica Venegas-Calerón, Marta Artal-Sanz
The mitochondrial prohibitin complex, composed of two proteins, PHB-1 and PHB-2, is a context-dependent modulator of longevity. Specifically, prohibitin deficiency shortens the lifespan of otherwise wild type worms, while it dramatically extends the lifespan under compromised metabolic conditions. This extremely intriguingly phenotype has been linked to alterations in mitochondrial function and in fat metabolism. However, the true function of the mitochondrial prohibitin complex remains elusive. Here, we used gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and ¹H NMR spectroscopy to gain molecular insights into the effect of prohibitin depletion on the Caenorhabditis elegans metabolome...
November 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25830239/co-chaperone-p23-regulates-c-elegans-lifespan-in-response-to-temperature
#14
Makoto Horikawa, Surojit Sural, Ao-Lin Hsu, Adam Antebi
Temperature potently modulates various physiologic processes including organismal motility, growth rate, reproduction, and ageing. In ectotherms, longevity varies inversely with temperature, with animals living shorter at higher temperatures. Thermal effects on lifespan and other processes are ascribed to passive changes in metabolic rate, but recent evidence also suggests a regulated process. Here, we demonstrate that in response to temperature, daf-41/ZC395.10, the C. elegans homolog of p23 co-chaperone/prostaglandin E synthase-3, governs entry into the long-lived dauer diapause and regulates adult lifespan...
April 2015: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25775593/identification-of-foxo-targets-that-generate-diverse-features-of-the-diapause-phenotype-in-the-mosquito-culex-pipiens
#15
Cheolho Sim, David S Kang, Sungshil Kim, Xiaodong Bai, David L Denlinger
Insulin and juvenile hormone signaling direct entry of the mosquito Culex pipiens into its overwintering adult diapause, and these two critical signaling pathways appear to do so by converging on the regulation of forkhead transcription factor (FOXO). Diapause is a complex phenotype, and FOXO emerges as a prime candidate for activating many of the diverse physiological pathways that generate the diapause phenotype. Here, we used ChIP sequencing to identify direct targets of FOXO. The nearest gene in a 10-kb region surrounding a predicted binding site was extracted for each binding site, resulting in a dataset containing genes potentially regulated by FOXO...
March 24, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25517099/dauer-independent-insulin-igf-1-signalling-implicates-collagen-remodelling-in-longevity
#16
Collin Y Ewald, Jess N Landis, Jess Porter Abate, Coleen T Murphy, T Keith Blackwell
Interventions that delay ageing mobilize mechanisms that protect and repair cellular components, but it is unknown how these interventions might slow the functional decline of extracellular matrices, which are also damaged during ageing. Reduced insulin/IGF-1 signalling (rIIS) extends lifespan across the evolutionary spectrum, and in juvenile Caenorhabditis elegans also allows the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO to induce development into dauer, a diapause that withstands harsh conditions. It has been suggested that rIIS delays C...
March 5, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25128585/ins-4-and-daf-28-function-redundantly-to-regulate-c-elegans-l1-arrest
#17
Yutao Chen, L Ryan Baugh
Caenorhabditis elegans larvae reversibly arrest development in the first larval stage in response to starvation (L1 arrest or L1 diapause). Insulin-like signaling is a critical regulator of L1 arrest. However, the C. elegans genome encodes 40 insulin-like peptides, and it is unknown which peptides participate in nutritional control of L1 development. Work in other contexts has revealed that insulin-like genes can promote development ("agonists") or developmental arrest ("antagonists"), suggesting that such agonists promote L1 development in response to feeding...
October 15, 2014: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25058511/hc-fau-a-novel-gene-regulating-diapause-in-the-nematode-parasite-haemonchus-contortus
#18
Baolong Yan, Xiaolu Guo, Qianjin Zhou, Yi Yang, Xueqiu Chen, Weiwei Sun, Aifang Du
Diapause induced in the early fourth stage of Haemonchus contortus is a strategy to adapt this nematode to hostile environmental conditions. In this study, we identified a new gene, Hc-fau, a homologue of human fau and Caenorhabditis elegans Ce-rps30. Hc-fau encodes two proteins through alternative RNA splicing, Hc-FAUA and Hc-FAUB, consisting of 130 and 107 amino acids, respectively. Hc-FAU possesses a diverged ubiquitin-like (UBiL) protein domain and a conserved ribosome protein S30 domain. The protein is ubiquitously expressed, except in the gonad...
October 1, 2014: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24671950/a-caenorhabditis-elegans-developmental-decision-requires-insulin-signaling-mediated-neuron-intestine-communication
#19
Wesley L Hung, Ying Wang, Jyothsna Chitturi, Mei Zhen
Adverse environmental conditions trigger C. elegans larvae to activate an alternative developmental program, termed dauer diapause, which renders them stress resistant. High-level insulin signaling prevents constitutive dauer formation. However, it is not fully understood how animals assess conditions to choose the optimal developmental program. Here, we show that insulin-like peptide (ILP)-mediated neuron-intestine communication plays a role in this developmental decision. Consistent with, and extending, previous findings, we show that the simultaneous removal of INS-4, INS-6 and DAF-28 leads to fully penetrant constitutive dauer formation, whereas the removal of INS-1 and INS-18 significantly inhibits constitutive dauer formation...
April 2014: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24316205/the-unfolded-protein-response-in-a-pair-of-sensory-neurons-promotes-entry-of-c-elegans-into-dauer-diapause
#20
Warakorn Kulalert, Dennis H Kim
In response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as starvation, crowding, and elevated temperature, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae enter an alternative developmental stage known as dauer, which is characterized by adaptive changes in stress resistance and metabolism. The genetic dissection of the molecular mechanisms of the C. elegans dauer developmental decision has defined evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways of organismal neuroendocrine physiology. Here, we have identified a mechanism by which a dominant mutation in a neuronal insulin gene, daf-28(sa191), causes constitutive entry into dauer diapause...
December 16, 2013: Current Biology: CB
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