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Diapause, insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934747/untangling-longevity-dauer-and-healthspan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-insulin-igf-1-signalling
#1
Collin Yvès Ewald, Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, T Keith Blackwell
The groundbreaking discovery that lower levels of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) can induce lifespan extension was reported 24 years ago in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this organism, mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor gene daf-2 or other genes in this pathway can double lifespan. Subsequent work has revealed that reduced IIS (rIIS) extends lifespan across diverse species, possibly including humans. In C. elegans, IIS also regulates development into the diapause state known as dauer, a quiescent larval form that enables C...
September 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720705/conceptual-framework-of-the-eco-physiological-phases-of-insect-diapause-development-justified-by-transcriptomic-profiling
#2
Vladimír Koštál, Tomáš Štětina, Rodolphe Poupardin, Jaroslava Korbelová, Alexander William Bruce
Insects often overcome unfavorable seasons in a hormonally regulated state of diapause during which their activity ceases, development is arrested, metabolic rate is suppressed, and tolerance of environmental stress is bolstered. Diapausing insects pass through a stereotypic succession of eco-physiological phases termed "diapause development." The phasing is varied in the literature, and the whole concept is sometimes criticized as being too artificial. Here we present the results of transcriptional profiling using custom microarrays representing 1,042 genes in the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata Fully grown, third-instar larvae programmed for diapause by a photoperiodic (short-day) signal were assayed as they traversed the diapause developmental program...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720534/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-regulates-p-akt-levels-via-pp2a-during-diapause-entry-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#3
Hai-Yin Li, Tao Wang, Yong-Pan Yang, Shao-Lei Geng, Wei-Hua Xu
Akt, which is a key kinase in the insulin signaling pathway, plays important roles in glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration. Our previous studies indicated that low insulin levels and high p-Akt levels are present in diapause-destined individuals. Here, we show that PI3K, which is upstream of Akt, is low in diapause-destined pupal brains but high in p-Akt levels, implying that p-Akt is modified by factors other than the insulin signaling pathway. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is a key regulator in the TGF-β signaling pathway, can directly bind to and dephosphorylate Akt...
August 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515235/insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-regulates-developmental-trajectory-associated-with-diapause-in-embryos-of-the-annual-killifish-austrofundulus-limnaeus
#4
S Cody Woll, Jason E Podrabsky
Annual killifishes exhibit a number of unique life history characters including the occurrence of embryonic diapause, unique cell movements associated with dispersion and subsequent reaggregation of the embryonic blastomeres, and a short post-embryonic life span. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is known to play a role in the regulation of metabolic dormancy in a number of animals but has not been explored in annual killifishes. The abundance of IGF proteins during development, and the developmental effects of blocking IGF signaling by pharmacological inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) were explored in embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus Blocking of IGF signaling in embryos that would normally escape entrance into diapause resulted in a phenotype that was remarkably similar to embryos entering diapause...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209779/a-histone-h4-lysine-20-methyltransferase-couples-environmental-cues-to-sensory-neuron-control-of-developmental-plasticity
#5
Colin E Delaney, Albert T Chen, Jacqueline V Graniel, Kathleen J Dumas, Patrick J Hu
Animals change developmental fates in response to external cues. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, unfavorable environmental conditions induce a state of diapause known as dauer by inhibiting the conserved DAF-2 insulin-like signaling (ILS) pathway through incompletely understood mechanisms. We have previously established a role for the C. elegans dosage compensation protein DPY-21 in the control of dauer arrest and DAF-2 ILS. Here, we show that the histone H4 lysine 20 methyltransferase SET-4, which also influences dosage compensation, promotes dauer arrest in part by repressing the X-linked ins-9 gene, which encodes a new agonist insulin-like peptide (ILP) expressed specifically in the paired ASI sensory neurons that are required for dauer bypass...
April 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122825/endogenous-rnai-pathways-are-required-in-neurons-for-dauer-formation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Pallavi S Bharadwaj, Sarah E Hall
Animals can adapt to unfavorable environments through changes in physiology or behavior. In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, environmental conditions perceived early in development determine whether the animal enters either the reproductive cycle, or enters into an alternative diapause stage named dauer. Here, we show that endogenous RNAi pathways play a role in dauer formation in crowding (high pheromone), starvation, and high temperature conditions. Disruption of the Mutator proteins or the nuclear Argonaute CSR-1 result in differential dauer-deficient phenotypes that are dependent upon the experienced environmental stress...
April 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974500/starvation-induced-stress-response-is-critically-impacted-by-ceramide-levels-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Mingxue Cui, Yi Wang, Jonathon Cavaleri, Taylor Kelson, Yudong Teng, Min Han
Our understanding of the cellular mechanisms by which animals regulate their response to starvation is limited, despite the strong relevance of the problem to major human health issues. The L1 diapause of Caenorhabditis elegans, where first-stage larvae arrest in response to a food-less environment, is an excellent system to study this mechanism. We found, through genetic manipulation and lipid analysis, that biosynthesis of ceramide, particularly those with longer fatty acid side chains, critically impacts animal survival during L1 diapause...
February 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958277/a-genome-wide-screen-of-bacterial-mutants-that-enhance-dauer-formation-in-c-elegans
#8
Amit Khanna, Jitendra Kumar, Misha A Vargas, LaKisha Barrett, Subhash Katewa, Patrick Li, Tom McCloskey, Amit Sharma, Nicole Naudé, Christopher Nelson, Rachel Brem, David W Killilea, Sean D Mooney, Matthew Gill, Pankaj Kapahi
Molecular pathways involved in dauer formation, an alternate larval stage that allows Caenorhabditis elegans to survive adverse environmental conditions during development, also modulate longevity and metabolism. The decision to proceed with reproductive development or undergo diapause depends on food abundance, population density, and temperature. In recent years, the chemical identities of pheromone signals that modulate dauer entry have been characterized. However, signals derived from bacteria, the major source of nutrients for C...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932998/gene-expression-dynamics-in-major-endocrine-regulatory-pathways-along-the-transition-from-solitary-to-social-life-in-a-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris
#9
Pavel Jedlička, Ulrich R Ernst, Alena Votavová, Robert Hanus, Irena Valterová
Understanding the social evolution leading to insect eusociality requires, among other, a detailed insight into endocrine regulatory mechanisms that have been co-opted from solitary ancestors to play new roles in the complex life histories of eusocial species. Bumblebees represent well-suited models of a relatively primitive social organization standing on the mid-way to highly advanced eusociality and their queens undergo both, a solitary and a social phase, separated by winter diapause. In the present paper, we characterize the gene expression levels of major endocrine regulatory pathways across tissues, sexes, and life-stages of the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, with special emphasis on critical stages of the queen's transition from solitary to social life...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689881/the-insulin-like-proteins-dilps-2-5-determine-diapause-inducibility-in-drosophila
#10
Luca Schiesari, Gabriele Andreatta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Michael B O'Connor, Rodolfo Costa
Diapause is an actively induced dormancy that has evolved in Metazoa to resist environmental stresses. In temperate regions, many diapausing insects overwinter at low temperatures by blocking embryonic, larval or adult development. Despite its Afro-tropical origin, Drosophila melanogaster migrated to temperate regions of Asia and Europe where females overwinter as adults by arresting gonadal development (reproductive diapause) at temperatures <13°C. Recent work in D. melanogaster has implicated the developmental hormones dILPs-2 and/or dILP3, and dILP5, homologues of vertebrate insulin/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), in reproductive arrest...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432815/diversity-of-insulin-like-peptide-signaling-system-proteins-in-calanus-finmarchicus-crustacea-copepoda-possible-contributors-to-seasonal-pre-adult-diapause
#11
Andrew E Christie, Vittoria Roncalli, Petra H Lenz
Calanus finmarchicus, an abundant calanoid copepod in the North Atlantic Ocean, is both a major grazer on phytoplankton and an important forage species for invertebrate and vertebrate predators. One component of the life history of C. finmarchicus is the overwintering dormancy of sub-adults, a feature key for the annual recruitment of this species in early spring. While little is known about the control of dormancy in C. finmarchicus, one hypothesis is that it is an insect-like diapause, where the endocrine system is a key regulator...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373842/a-novel-arrangement-of-midgut-epithelium-and-hepatic-cells-implies-a-novel-regulation-of-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-long-lived-millipedes
#12
James B Nardi, Lou Ann Miller, Charles M Bee
Nutrients absorbed by the epithelial cells of the millipede midgut are channeled to a contiguous population of hepatic cells where sugars are stored as glycogen. In insects and other arthropods, however, nutrients absorbed by midgut epithelia are first passed across the epithelial basal surface to the hemolymph before storage in fat body. The inter-digitation of cellular processes at the interface of hepatic and midgut epithelial cells offers a vast surface area for exchange of nutrients. At this interface, numerous small vesicles with the dimensions of exosomes (∼30nm) may represent the mediators of nutrient exchange...
August 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312473/divergence-of-the-diapause-transcriptome-in-apple-maggot-flies-winter-regulation-and-post-winter-transcriptional-repression
#13
Peter J Meyers, Thomas H Q Powell, Kimberly K O Walden, Adam J Schieferecke, Jeffrey L Feder, Daniel A Hahn, Hugh M Robertson, Stewart H Berlocher, Gregory J Ragland
The duration of dormancy regulates seasonal timing in many organisms and may be modulated by day length and temperature. Though photoperiodic modulation has been well studied, temperature modulation of dormancy has received less attention. Here, we leverage genetic variation in diapause in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, to test whether gene expression during winter or following spring warming regulates diapause duration. We used RNAseq to compare transcript abundance during and after simulated winter between an apple-infesting population and a hawthorn-infesting population where the apple population ends pupal diapause earlier than the hawthorn-infesting population...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260305/developmental-and-cell-cycle-quiescence-is-mediated-by-the-nuclear-hormone-receptor-coregulator-din-1s-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer-larva
#14
Eileen Colella, Shaolin Li, Richard Roy
When faced with suboptimal growth conditions, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae can enter a diapause-like stage called "dauer" that is specialized for dispersal and survival. The decision to form a dauer larva is controlled by three parallel signaling pathways, whereby a compromise of TGFβ, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, or insulin/IGF-like signaling (ILS) results in dauer formation. Signals from these pathways converge on DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor that triggers the changes required to initiate dauer formation...
August 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197757/drosophila-insulin-like-peptide-1-dilp1-is-transiently-expressed-during-non-feeding-stages-and-reproductive-dormancy
#15
Yiting Liu, Sifang Liao, Jan A Veenstra, Dick R Nässel
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in animals, and is part of nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control growth, metabolism, reproduction, stress responses, and lifespan. In Drosophila, eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are known, six of which have been investigated in some detail, whereas expression and functions of DILP1 and DILP4 remain enigmatic. Here we demonstrate that dilp1/DILP1 is transiently expressed in brain insulin producing cells (IPCs) from early pupa until a few days of adult life...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053646/mechanisms-of-animal-diapause-recent-developments-from-nematodes-crustaceans-insects-and-fish
#16
REVIEW
Steven C Hand, David L Denlinger, Jason E Podrabsky, Richard Roy
Life cycle delays are beneficial for opportunistic species encountering suboptimal environments. Many animals display a programmed arrest of development (diapause) at some stage(s) of their development, and the diapause state may or may not be associated with some degree of metabolic depression. In this review, we will evaluate current advancements in our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the remarkable phenotype, as well as environmental cues that signal entry and termination of the state. The developmental stage at which diapause occurs dictates and constrains the mechanisms governing diapause...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951193/effect-of-bbx-b8-overexpression-on-development-body-weight-silk-protein-synthesis-and-egg-diapause-of-bombyx-mori
#17
Xiaojian Zheng, Yongchang Gong, Dhiraj Kumar, Fei Chen, Sulan Kuan, Zi Liang, Xiaolong Hu, Guangli Cao, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
Bombyxin (BBX) is an insulin-like peptide exists in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our previous studies on the effects of inhibiting BBX-B8 expression found that BBX-B8 is important for the development of organ, reproduction and trehalose metabolism in the silkworms. In this paper, we investigated the expression profile of the BBX-B8 gene and effect of BBX-B8 overexpression on the development, body weight, silk protein synthesis and egg diapause of B. mori to further understand BBX-B8 functions. BBX-B8 gene expression could be detected in the brains, midguts, anterior silkglands, ovaries, testes, fat bodies, hemolymph, malpighian tubules and embryos by RT-PCR, however it was mainly expressed in the brain...
August 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26838180/diapause-is-associated-with-a-change-in-the-polarity-of-secretion-of-insulin-like-peptides
#18
Yohei Matsunaga, Yoko Honda, Shuji Honda, Takashi Iwasaki, Hiroshi Qadota, Guy M Benian, Tsuyoshi Kawano
The insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of larval diapause, the long-lived growth arrest state called dauer arrest, in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this nematode, 40 insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified as putative ligands of the IIS pathway; however, it remains unknown how ILPs modulate larval diapause. Here we show that the secretory polarity of INS-35 and INS-7, which suppress larval diapause, is changed in the intestinal epithelial cells at larval diapause...
February 3, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656736/dbl-1-tgf-%C3%AE-and-daf-12-nhr-signaling-mediate-cell-nonautonomous-effects-of-daf-16-foxo-on-starvation-induced-developmental-arrest
#19
Rebecca E W Kaplan, Yutao Chen, Brad T Moore, James M Jordan, Colin S Maxwell, Adam J Schindler, L Ryan Baugh
Nutrient availability has profound influence on development. In the nematode C. elegans, nutrient availability governs post-embryonic development. L1-stage larvae remain in a state of developmental arrest after hatching until they feed. This "L1 arrest" (or "L1 diapause") is associated with increased stress resistance, supporting starvation survival. Loss of the transcription factor daf-16/FOXO, an effector of insulin/IGF signaling, results in arrest-defective and starvation-sensitive phenotypes. We show that daf-16/FOXO regulates L1 arrest cell-nonautonomously, suggesting that insulin/IGF signaling regulates at least one additional signaling pathway...
December 2015: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26435887/new-links-between-protein-n-terminal-acetylation-dauer-diapause-and-the-insulin-igf-1-signaling-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Kurt Warnhoff, Kerry Kornfeld
Protein N-terminal acetylation is a widespread posttranslational modification in eukaryotes that is catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). The biochemical activity of NATs has been characterized extensively, whereas the biological function of NATs is only beginning to be defined. Here we comment on recent progress in understanding the function of NAT activity in C. elegans based on the characterization of natc-1 by Warnhoff et al. (2014) and daf-31 by Chen et al. (2014).(1,2) natc-1 encodes an auxiliary subunit of the NatC complex and modulates stress tolerance, dauer entry, and adult lifespan...
April 2015: Worm
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