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Animal Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816008/lactuca-capensis-reverses-memory-deficits-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Paula Alexandra Postu, Jaures A K Noumedem, Oana Cioanca, Monica Hancianu, Marius Mihasan, Mitica Ciorpac, Dragos Lucian Gorgan, Brindusa Alina Petre, Lucian Hritcu
We investigated the neuropharmacological effects of the methanolic extract from Lactuca capensis Thunb. leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days on memory impairment in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model produced by direct intraventricular delivery of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42). Behavioural assays such as Y-maze and radial arm maze test were used for assessing memory performance. Aβ1-42 decreased cognitive performance in the behavioural tests which were ameliorated by pre-treatment with the methanolic extract...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815262/semantic-and-phonological-encoding-in-adults-who-stutter-silent-responses-to-pictorial-stimuli
#2
Irena Vincent
Purpose: Research on language planning in adult stuttering is relatively sparse and offers diverging arguments about a potential causative relationship between semantic and phonological encoding and fluency breakdowns. This study further investigated semantic and phonological encoding efficiency in adults who stutter (AWS) by means of silent category and phoneme identification, respectively. Method: Fifteen AWS and 15 age- and sex-matched adults who do not stutter (ANS) participated...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814807/psychological-impact-of-vehicle-exhaust-exposure-insights-from-an-animal-model
#3
Ankita Salvi, Gaurav Patki, Hesong Liu, Samina Salim
Air pollution resulting from exhaust emissions of vehicles has risen in the recent years, reportedly causing major adverse effects on the heart, lungs and the brain. Though respiratory and cardiovascular effects of these emissions are well identified, psychological and neurobiological complications of prolonged exposure to vehicle emissions remain unknown. Pro-oxidants are considered as major constituents of vehicle emissions. This is important considering causal link between oxidative stress and behavioral and cognitive impairments...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814736/emotions-alter-muscle-proprioceptive-coding-of-movements-in-humans
#4
Rochelle Ackerley, Jean-Marc Aimonetti, Edith Ribot-Ciscar
Emotions can evoke strong reactions that have profound influences, from gross changes in our internal environment to small fluctuations in facial muscles, and reveal our feelings overtly. Muscles contain proprioceptive afferents, informing us about our movements and regulating motor activities. Their firing reflects changes in muscle length, yet their sensitivity can be modified by the fusimotor system, as found in animals. In humans, the sensitivity of muscle afferents is modulated by cognitive processes, such as attention; however, it is unknown if emotional processes can modulate muscle feedback...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814638/field-repetition-and-local-mapping-in-the-hippocampus-and-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#5
Roddy M Grieves, Éléonore Duvelle, Emma R Wood, Paul Anthony Dudchenko
Hippocampal place cells support spatial cognition and are thought to form the neural substrate of a global 'cognitive map'. A widely held view is that parts of the hippocampus also underlie the ability to separate patterns, or to provide different neural codes for distinct environments. However, a number of studies have shown that in environments composed of multiple, repeating compartments, place cells and other spatially modulated neurons show the same activity in each local area. This repetition of firing fields may reflect pattern completion, and may make it difficult for animals to distinguish similar local environments...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814575/prenatal-environment-affects-embryonic-response-to-song
#6
Diane Colombelli-Négrel, Sonia Kleindorfer
Early environmental enrichment improves postnatal cognition in animals and humans. Here, we examined the effects of the prenatal acoustic environment (parental song rate) on prenatal attention in superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) embryos, the only songbird species with evidence of prenatal discrimination of maternal calls and in ovo call learning. Because both adults also sing throughout the incubation phase, we broadcast songs to embryos and measured their heart rate response in relation to parental song rate and tutor identity (familiarity, sex)...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813432/basic-reversal-learning-capacity-in-flies-suggests-rudiments-of-complex-cognition
#7
Brad R Foley, Paul Marjoram, Sergey V Nuzhdin
The most basic models of learning are reinforcement learning models (for instance, classical and operant conditioning) that posit a constant learning rate; however many animals change their learning rates with experience. This process is sometimes studied by reversing an existing association between cues and rewards, and measuring the rate of relearning. Augmented reversal-learning, where learning rates increase with practice, can be an important component of behavioral flexibility; and may provide insight into higher cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813318/gender-and-ptsd-different-pathways-to-a-similar-phenotype
#8
REVIEW
Suzanne L Pineles, Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Ann M Rasmusson
Whereas research supports the existence of a single posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) phenotype across women and men, there may be important gender differences in the pathophysiology of, or mechanisms underlying, the disorder. This paper reviews recent literature on gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and neurobiological factors, and their relations with PTSD and relevant comorbidities. Key findings and limitations from both human and animal studies are discussed. Overall, more work is needed that utilizes objective measures in addition to self-report...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811745/inhibition-of-inflammation-mediated-through-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-biochemical-pathway-can-lead-to-favorable-outcomes-in-alzheimer-disease
#9
REVIEW
Daniah Shamim, Michael Laskowski
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors have long been used as disease-modifying agents in immune disorders. Recently, research has shown a role of chronic neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and interest has been generated in the use of anti-TNF agents and TNF-modulating agents for prevention and treatment. This article extensively reviewed literature on animal studies testing these agents. The results showed a role for direct and indirect TNF-α inhibition through agents such as thalidomide, 3,6-dithiothalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, exendin-4, sodium hydrosulfide, minocycline, imipramine, and atorvastatin...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811646/pafah1b1-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-gaba-neurons-and-synaptic-e-i-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#10
Matthew T Dinday, Kelly M Girskis, Sunyoung Lee, Scott C Baraban, Robert F Hunt
Hemizygous mutations in the human gene encoding platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha (Pafah1b1), also called Lissencephaly-1, can cause classical lissencephaly, a severe malformation of cortical development. Children with this disorder suffer from deficits in neuronal migration, severe intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy and early death. While many of these features can be reproduced in Pafah1b1(+/-) mice, the impact of Pafah1b1(+/-) on the function of individual subpopulations of neurons and ultimately brain circuits is largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808914/from-pleistocene-to-holocene-the-prehistory-of-southwest-asia-in-evolutionary-context
#11
Trevor Watkins
In this paper I seek to show how cultural niche construction theory offers the potential to extend the human evolutionary story beyond the Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, towards the kind of very large-scale societies in which we live today. The study of the human past has been compartmentalised, each compartment using different analytical vocabularies, so that their accounts are written in mutually incompatible languages. In recent years social, cognitive and cultural evolutionary theories, building on a growing body of archaeological evidence, have made substantial sense of the social and cultural evolution of the genus Homo...
August 14, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807156/metabolic-factors-and-adult-neurogenesis-impacts-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-brain-repair-in-neurological-diseases
#12
Chong Gao, Jiangang Shen
Adult neurogenesis plays the important roles in animal cognitive and emotional behaviors. Abnormal proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) usually associate with the neural dysfunctions induced by different brain disorders. Therefore, targeting neurogenic factors could be a promoting strategy for neural regeneration and brain repair. Importantly, epidemiological studies suggest metabolism disorders like diabetes and obesity significantly increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric diseases...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806694/what-can-neuronal-populations-tell-us-about-cognition
#13
REVIEW
Iñigo Arandia-Romero, Ramon Nogueira, Gabriela Mochol, Rubén Moreno-Bote
Nowadays, it is possible to record the activity of hundreds of cells at the same time in behaving animals. However, these data are often treated and analyzed as if they consisted of many independently recorded neurons. How can neuronal populations be uniquely used to learn about cognition? We describe recent work that shows that populations of simultaneously recorded neurons are fundamental to understand the basis of decision-making, including processes such as ongoing deliberations and decision confidence, which generally fall outside the reach of single-cell analysis...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805764/-behavioral-phenotyping-in-rats-during-the-experimental-modeling-of-chronic-cerebral-circulation-disorder
#14
D V Kurkin, E I Morkovin, D V Verkholiak, N A Osadchenko, I N Tyurenkov, V I Petrov
AIM: To describe motor, adaptive and cognitive disorders in rats with chronic cerebral circulatory deficiency caused by partial stenosis of the common carotid arteries (CCA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study was performed on 20 white outbred male rats. This manipulation led to 40-45% and 50-60% reduction of blood flow in CCA and in the brain, respectively. Twenty days after operation, animal's condition was assessed in the following tests: open field test, rotarod performance test, marble burying test and novel object recognition...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805639/development-and-evolution-of-brain-allometry-in-wasps-vespidae-size-ecology-and-sociality
#15
REVIEW
Sean O'Donnell, Susan Bulova
We review research on brain development and brain evolution in the wasp family Vespidae. Basic vespid neuroanatomy and some aspects of functional neural circuitry are well-characterized, and genomic tools for exploring brain plasticity are being developed. Although relatively modest in terms of species richness, the Vespidae include species spanning much of the known range of animal social complexity, from solitary nesters to highly eusocial species with some of the largest known colonies and multiple reproductives...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805581/nonmotor-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#16
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are integral to the condition largely regarded as a motor syndrome. A range of NMS underpin the prodromal stage of Parkinson's and are present with variable frequency, range, and nature across the whole journey of a patient with Parkinson's from the onset of the motor disease to palliative stage. These symptoms also are key determinants of quality of life of the patient as well as the carer. Despite this, recognition management and focused treatment of NMS of PD remain poor...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#17
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803853/developmental-suppression-of-forebrain-trka-receptors-and-attentional-capacities-in-aging-rats-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh
Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons innervating the cortex regulate cognitive, specifically attentional, processes. Cholinergic atrophy and cognitive decline occur at an accelerated pace in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease; however, the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that developmental suppression of nerve growth factor signaling, mediated via tropomyosin-related kinase A (trkA) receptors, would escalate age-related attentional vulnerability...
August 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803507/what-box-a-task-for-assessing-language-lateralization-in-young-children
#19
Nicholas A Badcock, Rachael Spooner, Jessica Hofmann, Atlanta Flitton, Scott Elliott, Lisa Kurylowicz, Louise M Lavrencic, Heather M Payne, Georgina K Holt, Anneka Holden, Owen F Churches, Mark J Kohler, Hannah A D Keage
The assessment of active language lateralization in infants and toddlers is challenging. It requires an imaging tool that is unintimidating, quick to setup, and robust to movement, in addition to an engaging and cognitively simple language processing task. Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound (fTCD) offers a suitable technique and here we report on a suitable method to elicit active language production in young children. The 34-second "What Box" trial presents an animated face "searching" for an object...
August 13, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803147/ovarian-hormones-sleep-and-cognition-across-the-adult-female-lifespan-an-integrated-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Nicole J Gervais, Jessica A Mong, Agnès Lacreuse
Loss of ovarian function in women is associated with sleep disturbances and cognitive decline, which suggest a key role for estrogens and/or progestins in modulating these symptoms. The effects of ovarian hormones on sleep and cognitive processes have been studied in separate research fields that seldom intersect. However, sleep has a considerable impact on cognitive function. Given the tight connections between sleep and cognition, ovarian hormones may influence selective aspects of cognition indirectly, via the modulation of sleep...
August 9, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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