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Animal Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149630/age-related-vulnerability-of-pattern-separation-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#1
Aurélia Cès, Thibaut Burg, Karine Herbeaux, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Chantal Mathis
Aging is associated with impaired performance in behavioral pattern separation (PS) tasks based on similarities in object features and in object location. These deficits have been attributed to functional alterations in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 region. Animal studies suggested a role of adult-born DG neurons in PS performance. The present study investigated the effect of aging in C57BL/6J mice performing PS tasks based on either object features or object location. At the age of 18 months or more, performance was severely impaired in both tasks...
October 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149154/philosophical-issues-and-psychological-variables-that-influence-the-determination-of-opioid-effectiveness-a-narrative-review
#2
Daniel Michael Doleys
BACKGROUND: The prescribing of opioids in the chronic pain setting is often based on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenetics of the drug obtained during development and clinical trials. However, the effectiveness of opioids varies widely and often appears to bear no relationship to the aforementioned variables. The impact of philosophical issues and psychological factors on determining how clinically effective opioid therapy is has often been over looked. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript provides a selective review and narrative summary of the philosophical issues and psychological factors which can influence opioid effectiveness...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146941/developmental-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gaba-polarity-switch-is-disrupted-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-potential-target-for-clinical-therapeutics
#3
Hayder Amin, Federica Marinaro, Davide De Pietri Tonelli, Luca Berdondini
Individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) show cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, developmental delays in childhood and risk of developing schizophrenia and autism. Despite extensive previous studies in adult animal models, a possible embryonic root of this syndrome has not been determined. Here, in neurons from a 22q11.2 DS mouse model (Lgdel (+/-)), we found embryonic-premature alterations in the neuronal chloride cotransporters indicated by dysregulated NKCC1 and KCC2 protein expression levels...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#4
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143410/early-contributions-to-infants-mental-rotation-abilities
#5
Mihaela Constantinescu, David S Moore, Scott P Johnson, Melissa Hines
Some cognitive abilities exhibit reliable gender differences, with females outperforming males in specific aspects of verbal ability, and males showing an advantage on certain spatial tasks. Among these cognitive gender differences, differences in mental rotation are the most robust, and appear to be present even in infants. A large body of animal research suggests that gonadal hormones, particularly testosterone, during early development could contribute to this gender difference in mental rotation. Also, substantial evidence supports an influence of socialization on mental rotation performance...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142094/standardized-automated-training-of-rhesus-monkeys-for-neuroscience-research-in-their-housing-environment
#6
Michael Berger, Antonino Calapai, Valeska Stephan, Michael Niessing, Leonore Burchardt, Alexander Gail, Stefan Treue
Teaching non-human primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules, and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142061/effects-of-regulatory-bc1-rna-deletion-on-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#7
Ain Chung, Nessy Dahan, Juan Marcos Alarcon, André A Fenton
Nonprotein coding dendritic BC1 RNA regulates translation of mRNAs in neurons. We examined two lines of BC1 knockout mice and report that loss of BC1 RNA exaggerates group I mGluR-stimulated LTD of the Schaffer collateral synapse, with one of the lines showing a much more enhanced DHPG-induced LTD than the other. When the animals were given the hippocampus-synaptic plasticity-dependent active place avoidance task, learning and memory were impaired in the BC1-KO line with the more severely altered DHPG-induced LTD...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#8
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141671/inhibiting-the-microglia-activation-improves-the-spatial-memory-and-adult-neurogenesis-in-rat-hippocampus-during-48%C3%A2-h-of-sleep-deprivation
#9
Meetu Wadhwa, Amit Prabhakar, Koushik Ray, Koustav Roy, Punita Kumari, Prabhash Kumar Jha, Krishna Kishore, Sanjeev Kumar, Usha Panjwani
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to cognitive impairment. Neuroinflammation could be a significant contributing factor in the same. An increase in regional brain pro-inflammatory cytokines induces cognitive deficits, however, the magnitude of the effect under SD is not apparent. It is plausible that microglia activation could be involved in the SD-induced cognitive impairment by modulation of neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and brain-derived neuronal factor (BDNF) level...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138588/rai1-gene-mutations-mechanisms-of-smith-magenis-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Mariateresa Falco, Sonia Amabile, Fabio Acquaviva
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM #182290) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by distinctive physical features, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and a typical behavioral phenotype. SMS is caused by interstitial 17p11.2 deletions, encompassing multiple genes and including the retinoic acid-induced 1 gene (RAI1), or by mutations in RAI1 itself. About 10% of all the SMS patients, in fact, carry an RAI1 mutation responsible for the phenotype. RAI1 (OMIM *607642) is a dosage-sensitive gene expressed in many tissues and highly conserved among species...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137871/-anesthesia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-current-perceptions
#11
REVIEW
Ana Filipa Vieira da Silva Ferreira Marques, Teresa Alexandra Santos Carvalho Lapa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been speculated that the use of anesthetic agents may be a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this review is to describe and discuss pre-clinical and clinical data related to anesthesia and this disease. CONTENT: Alzheimer's disease affects about 5% of the population over 65 years old, with age being the main risk factor and being associated with a high morbidity. Current evidence questions a possible association between anesthesia, surgery, and long-term cognitive effects, including Alzheimer's disease...
November 11, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137815/local-injection-of-d-lys-3-ghrp-6-in-the-rat-amygdala-dentate-gyrus-or-ventral-tegmental-area-impairs-memory-consolidation
#12
Siamak Beheshti, Neda Aslani
It is well known that the hormone ghrelin affects learning and memory in different experimental models of learning. Though, the effect of antagonism of ghrelin receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in various regions of the brain and on different stages of learning has not been examined. In this study the effect of injection of a GHS-R1a selective antagonist (d-Lys-3-GHRP-6) into the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area was examined on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-280g were used...
November 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137685/nutrition-research-in-cognitive-impairment-dementia-with-a-focus-on-soya-and-folate
#13
Eef Hogervorst, Shelina Kassam, Atik Kridawati, Mira Soni, Xu Xin, Xiao Shifu, Tri Budi Rahardjo
Observational studies and treatment trials investigating nutrition and cognitive function, with a focus on folate and soya and dementia, were reviewed. Data suggested that effects of folic acid based interventions may only be shown before cognitive decline is evident and/or if people are folate deficient. In older people in Indonesia, Hawai'i and China, tofu, which can contain high levels of phytoestrogens, was found to increase dementia risk. This association was not mediated by a vegetarian diet, socioeconomic status, formaldehyde, thyroid function, or loss of teeth...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136391/effects-of-1-h-16-o-charged-particle-irradiation-on-short-term-memory-and-hippocampal-physiology-in-a-murine-model
#14
Frederico Kiffer, Hannah Carr, Thomas Groves, Julie E Anderson, Tyler Alexander, Jing Wang, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
Radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses a significant health risk for deep-space flight crews. GCR are unique in their extremely high-energy particles. With current spacecraft shielding technology, some of the predominant particles astronauts would be exposed to are (1)H + (16)O. Radiation has been shown to cause cognitive deficits in mice. The hippocampus plays a key role in memory and cognitive tasks; it receives information from the cortex, undergoes dendritic-dependent processing and then relays information back to the cortex...
November 14, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134446/cleaner-fish-labroides-dimidiatus-discriminate-numbers-but-fail-a-mental-number-line-test
#15
Zegni Triki, Redouan Bshary
Several species of primates, including humans, possess a spontaneous spatial mental arrangement (i.e. mental number line MNL) of increasing numbers or continuous quantities from left to right. This cognitive process has recently been documented in domestic chicken in a spatial-numerical task, opening the possibility that MNL is a cognitive capacity that has been conserved across vertebrate taxa. In this scenario, fish might possess the MNL as well. Here we investigated whether cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus show evidence for MNL in two experiments...
November 13, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133125/very-low-doses-of-muscimol-and-baclofen-ameliorate-cognitive-deficits-and-regulate-protein-expression-in-the-brain-of-a-rat-model-of-streptozocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Vladimirs Pilipenko, Karina Narbute, Ulrika Beitnere, Juris Rumaks, Jolanta Pupure, Baiba Jansone, Vija Klusa
Recent studies devoted to neuroprotection have focused on the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in regulating neuroinflammatory processes which play a key role in the neurodegenerative processes observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by inducing glial cell overactivation and impairing neurotransmission. Data on the efficacy of classical GABA-A and GABA-B receptor agonists (muscimol and baclofen, respectively) in animal models of AD are not available. Moreover, no published studies have examined the ability of optimal doses of these compounds to prevent neuroinflammation, the alterations in neurotransmission and cognitive deficits...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132915/human-recombinant-erythropoietin-reduces-sensorimotor-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rat-models-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
E E Reza-Zaldívar, S Sandoval-Avila, Y K Gutiérrez-Mercado, E Vázquez-Méndez, A A Canales-Aguirre, H Esquivel-Solís, U Gómez-Pinedo, A L Márquez-Aguirre
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can cause anaemia and neurological disorders. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is used to manage anaemia in CKD. However, there is little evidence on the effects of rHuEPO on behaviour and cognitive function in CKD. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of rHuEPO in sensorimotor and cognitive functions in a CKD model. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control and CKD, with and without rHuEPO treatment (1050 IU per kg body weight, once weekly for 4 weeks)...
November 10, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131369/photobiomodulation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#18
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131026/trpml1-participates-in-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-regulating-the-ppar%C3%AE-ampk-mtor-signalling-pathway
#19
Lu Zhang, Yu Fang, Xuan Cheng, Yajun Lian, Hongliang Xu, Zhaoshu Zeng, Hongcan Zhu
BACKGROUND: TRPML1 is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by regulating autophagy; however, the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. METHODS: We developed an APP/PS1 transgenic animal model that presents with AD. TRPML1 was also overexpressed in these mice. Protein expression levels were determined by Western blot. Morris water maze (MWM) and recognition tasks were performed to characterize cognitive ability. TUNEL assays were analysed for the detection of neuronal apoptosis...
October 31, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129800/saikosaponin-d-mediated-downregulation-of-neurogenesis-results-in-cognitive-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-akt-foxg-1-pathwayin-mice
#20
Xu Lixing, Ji Zhouye, Guo Liting, Zhang Ruyi, Qu Rong, Ma Shiping
Saikosaponin-d (SSd), one of the main constituents of the total saikosaponins extracted from Bupleurum falcatum L, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effect. Recently, SSd was proved to improve depressive symptoms although exhibit hepatotoxicity in animals, but the central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of SSd remains unclear. The present study investigated the SSd-induced impairment in hippocampal cognitive function and explored the possible mechanisms involved. After intragastric administration of SSd (4mg/kg, 8mg/kg) for 7 days, the learning and memory abilities of mice were evaluated by behavioral experiments...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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