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Animal Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548460/internally-generated-hippocampal-sequences-as-a-vantage-point-to-probe-future-oriented-cognition
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Caleb Kemere, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Information processing in the rodent hippocampus is fundamentally shaped by internally generated sequences (IGSs), expressed during two different network states: theta sequences, which repeat and reset at the ∼8 Hz theta rhythm associated with active behavior, and punctate sharp wave-ripple (SWR) sequences associated with wakeful rest or slow-wave sleep. A potpourri of diverse functional roles has been proposed for these IGSs, resulting in a fragmented conceptual landscape. Here, we advance a unitary view of IGSs, proposing that they reflect an inferential process that samples a policy from the animal's generative model, supported by hippocampus-specific priors...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547779/the-effects-of-environmental-and-visitor-variables-on-the-behavior-of-free-ranging-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-captivity
#2
Courtney Collins, Ilse Corkery, Amy Haigh, Sean McKeown, Thomas Quirke, Ruth O'Riordan
The effect of the zoo environment on captive animals is an increasingly studied area of zoo research, with visitor effects and exhibit design recognized as two of the factors that can contribute to animal welfare in captivity. It is known that in some situations, visitors may be stressful to zoo-housed primates, and this may be compounded by environmental factors such as the weather, the time of day, and zoo husbandry routines. Exhibit design and proximity of the public are also known to influence behavioral response of primates to visitors; however, there is minimal research on free-ranging zoo animals, even though they are potentially subjected to intense interactions with visitors...
May 26, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547768/avian-brains-insights-from-development-behaviors-and-evolution
#3
REVIEW
Tadashi Nomura, Ei-Ichi Izawa
Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546309/inferential-learning-of-serial-order-of-perceptual-categories-by-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#4
Natalie Tanner, Greg Jensen, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#5
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546058/the-role-of-il-6-in-neurodevelopment-after-prenatal-stress
#6
Serena B Gumusoglu, Rebecca S Fine, Samuel J Murray, Jada L Bittle, Hanna E Stevens
Prenatal stress exposure is associated with adverse psychiatric outcomes, including autism and ADHD, as well as locomotor and social inhibition and anxiety-like behaviors in animal offspring. Similarly, maternal immune activation also contributes to psychiatric risk and aberrant offspring behavior. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are not clear. Offspring microglia and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to influence microglia, may serve as common mechanisms between prenatal stress and prenatal immune activation...
May 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545935/social-fear-learning-from-animal-models-to-human-function
#7
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Andreas Olsson
Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545524/an-unsupervised-learning-approach-for-tracking-mice-in-an-enclosed-area
#8
Jakob Unger, Mike Mansour, Marcin Kopaczka, Nina Gronloh, Marc Spehr, Dorit Merhof
BACKGROUND: In neuroscience research, mouse models are valuable tools to understand the genetic mechanisms that advance evidence-based discovery. In this context, large-scale studies emphasize the need for automated high-throughput systems providing a reproducible behavioral assessment of mutant mice with only a minimum level of manual intervention. Basic element of such systems is a robust tracking algorithm. However, common tracking algorithms are either limited by too specific model assumptions or have to be trained in an elaborate preprocessing step, which drastically limits their applicability for behavioral analysis...
May 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545371/if-rodents-could-speak-a-psycho-behavioral-perspective-on-modelling-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-in-animals-the-role-of-context
#9
De Wet Wolmarans, Dan J Stein, Brian H Harvey
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and compulsive repetition over several domains of human functioning. Animal models of OCD are important instruments that have the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the condition. However, although there is consensus that pre-clinical models are valuable to elucidate the underlying neurobiology in psychiatric disease, the current paper attempts to prompt ideas on how interpretation of animal behavior can be expanded upon to more effectively converge with the human disorder...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#10
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#11
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544318/neurologic-clinical-signs-in-cattle-with-astrovirus-associated-encephalitis
#12
R Deiss, S Selimovic-Hamza, T Seuberlich, M Meylan
BACKGROUND: Evidence of neurotropic astroviruses has been established using novel genetic methods in cattle suffering from viral encephalitis of previously unknown origin. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical signs observed in cattle with astrovirus-associated encephalitis. ANIMALS: Eight cattle (4 cows, 3 heifers, and 1 bull of 4 different breeds) admitted to the Clinic for Ruminants for neurologic disease and 1 cow investigated in the field...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544038/supplementation-with-herbal-extracts-to-promote-behavioral-and-neuroprotective-effects-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Ianara Mendonça da Costa, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Dinalva Brito de Queiroz, Eduardo Pereira de Azevedo, Amália Cinthia Meneses do Rêgo, Irami Araújo Filho, Paulo Parente, Marco Antônio Botelho, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen
Parkinson's disease (PD) consists of a neurodegenerative pathology that has received a considerable amount of attention because of its clinical manifestations. The most common treatment consists of administering the drugs levodopa and biperiden, which reduce the effectiveness of the disease and the progress of its symptoms. However, phytotherapy treatment of PD has shown great potential in retarding the loss of dopaminergic neurons and minimizing the behavioral abnormalities. The aim of this study is to systematically review the use of supplemental herbal plants with cellular protective effect and behavioral activity in in vivo and in vitro experimental models...
May 22, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543739/sound-at-the-zoo-using-animal-monitoring-sound-measurement-and-noise-reduction-in-zoo-animal-management
#14
David A Orban, Joseph Soltis, Lori Perkins, Jill D Mellen
A clear need for evidence-based animal management in zoos and aquariums has been expressed by industry leaders. Here, we show how individual animal welfare monitoring can be combined with measurement of environmental conditions to inform science-based animal management decisions. Over the last several years, Disney's Animal Kingdom® has been undergoing significant construction and exhibit renovation, warranting institution-wide animal welfare monitoring. Animal care and science staff developed a model that tracked animal keepers' daily assessments of an animal's physical health, behavior, and responses to husbandry activity; these data were matched to different external stimuli and environmental conditions, including sound levels...
May 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543541/human-schwann-cells-exhibit-long-term-cell-survival-are-not-tumorigenic-and-promote-repair-when-transplanted-into-the-contused-spinal-cord
#15
Johana Bastidas, Gagani Athauda, Gabriela De La Cruz, Wai-Man Chan, Roozbeh Golshani, Yerko Berrocal, Martha Henao, Anil Lalwani, Chikato Mannoji, Mazen Assi, P Anthony Otero, Aisha Khan, Alexander E Marcillo, Michael Norenberg, Allan D Levi, Patrick M Wood, James D Guest, W Dalton Dietrich, Mary Bartlett Bunge, Damien D Pearse
The transplantation of rodent Schwann cells (SCs) provides anatomical and functional restitution in a variety of spinal cord injury (SCI) models, supporting the recent translation of SCs to phase 1 clinical trials for human SCI. Whereas human (Hu)SCs have been examined experimentally in a complete SCI transection paradigm, to date the reported behavior of SCs when transplanted after a clinically relevant contusive SCI has been restricted to the use of rodent SCs. Here, in a xenotransplant, contusive SCI paradigm, the survival, biodistribution, proliferation and tumorgenicity as well as host responses to HuSCs, cultured according to a protocol analogous to that developed for clinical application, were investigated...
May 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543191/methadone-buprenorphine-and-naltrexone-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnant-women
#16
Tran H Tran, Brooke L Griffin, Rebecca H Stone, Kathleen M Vest, Timothy J Todd
Pregnant women with opioid use disorder can be treated with methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone to reduce opioid use and improve retention to treatment. In this review, we compare the pregnancy outcomes of methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone in clinical trials and discuss the potential behavioral and developmental effects of these agents seen in offspring in animal studies. Important clinical considerations in the management of opioid use disorder in pregnant women and their infants are also discussed...
May 24, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542494/forces-applied-during-classical-touch-assays-for-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Adam L Nekimken, Eileen A Mazzochette, Miriam B Goodman, Beth L Pruitt
For decades, Caenorhabditis elegans roundworms have been used to study the sense of touch, and this work has been facilitated by a simple behavioral assay for touch sensation. To perform this classical assay, an experimenter uses an eyebrow hair to gently touch a moving worm and observes whether or not the worm reverses direction. We used two experimental approaches to determine the manner and moment of contact between the eyebrow hair tool and freely moving animals and the forces delivered by the classical assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542485/a-link-between-thrifty-phenotype-and-maternal-care-across-two-generations-of-intercrossed-mice
#18
Bruno Sauce, Carolina P Goes, Isabela Forti, Bruno Gabriel O do Monte, Isabela M Watanabe, Joao Cunha, Andrea C Peripato
Maternal effects are causal influences from mother to offspring beyond genetic information, and have lifelong consequences for multiple traits. Previously, we reported that mice whose mothers did not nurse properly had low birth weight followed by rapid fat accumulation and disturbed development of some organs. That pattern resembles metabolic syndromes known collectively as the thrifty phenotype, which is believed to be an adaptation to a stressful environment which prepares offspring for reduced nutrient supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542414/the-intestinal-torc2-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-associative-learning-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Naoko Sakai, Hayao Ohno, Masahiro Tomioka, Yuichi Iino
Several types of associative learning are dependent upon the presence or absence of food, and are crucial for the survival of most animals. Target of rapamycin (TOR), a kinase which exists as a component of two complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), is known to act as a nutrient sensor in numerous organisms. However, the in vivo roles of TOR signaling in the nervous system remain largely unclear, partly because its multifunctionality and requirement for survival make it difficult to investigate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542295/therapeutic-benefits-of-phosphodiesterase-4b-inhibition-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Nicole M Wilson, Mark E Gurney, W Dalton Dietrich, Coleen M Atkins
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a deleterious inflammatory response that exacerbates pathology and worsens outcome. This inflammatory response is partially mediated by a reduction in cAMP and a concomitant upregulation of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) acutely after TBI. The PDE4B subfamily, specifically PDE4B2, has been found to regulate cAMP in inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages and microglia. To determine if PDE4B regulates inflammation and subsequent pathology after TBI, adult male Sprague Dawley rats received sham surgery or moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (2 ± 0...
2017: PloS One
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