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Animal Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918435/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-ii-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-arg3-1
#1
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
September 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#2
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918233/the-role-of-callous-unemotional-traits-in-mediating-the-association-between-animal-abuse-exposure-and-behavior-problems-among-children-exposed-to-intimate-partner-violence
#3
Shelby Elaine McDonald, Julia Dmitrieva, Sunny Shin, Stephanie A Hitti, Sandra A Graham-Bermann, Frank R Ascione, James Herbert Williams
Children exposed to intimate partner violence are at increased risk for concomitant exposure to maltreatment of companion animals. There is emerging evidence that childhood exposure to maltreatment of companion animals is associated with psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. However, few studies have explored developmental factors that might help to explain pathways from animal maltreatment exposure to children's maladjustment. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining relations between children's exposure to animal maltreatment, callous/unemotional traits (i...
September 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918226/chronic-central-oxytocin-infusion-impairs-sociability-in-mandarin-voles
#4
Peirong Du, Zhixiong He, Zhenlu Cai, Xin Hao, Na Dong, Wei Yuan, Wenjuan Hou, Jinfeng Yang, Rui Jia, Faodao Tai
Oxytocin (OT) has been reported to increase social contact, however some studies have related OT to reduced social contact, particularly with unfamiliar individuals. The underlying mechanisms of OT on social contact remain unclear. In this study, male mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent, was used as an animal model in which osmotic minipumps were used to intracerebroventricularly administer two continuous dosages of OT or saline for 12 consecutive days. We examined the effect of long-term OT treatment on social behavior, anxiety levels, and levels of oxytocin, vasopressin (AVP) and dopamine (DA) receptors, mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and medial amygdala (MeA)...
September 13, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918147/invited-review-effects-of-heat-stress-on-dairy-cattle-welfare
#5
Liam Polsky, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
The effects of high ambient temperatures on production animals, once thought to be limited to tropical areas, has extended into northern latitudes in response to the increasing global temperature. The number of days where the temperature-humidity index (THI) exceeds the comfort threshold (>72) is increasing in the northern United States, Canada, and Europe. Compounded by the increasing number of dairy animals and the intensification of production, heat stress has become one of the most important challenges facing the dairy industry today...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917981/intranasal-insulin-treatment-alleviates-methamphetamine-induced-anxiety-like-behavior-and-neuroinflammation
#6
Elmira Beirami, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini Tamijani, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Leila Dargahi
Insulin, as a peptide hormone, has recently gained attention for its pro-cognitive, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Most studies have indicated anxiogenic and neuroinflammatory effects of methamphetamine (MA) and other psychostimulants, even after periods of abstinence. The present study aimed to examine whether intranasal (IN) insulin treatment with high CNS bioavailability and minimal systemic side effects, can reverse the anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation induced by repeated MA administration...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917705/long-term-retention-of-ecm-hydrogel-after-implantation-into-a-sub-acute-stroke-cavity-reduces-lesion-volume
#7
Harmanvir Ghuman, Madeline Gerwig, Francesca J Nicholls, Jessie Liu, Julia Donnelly, Stephen F Badylak, Michel Modo
Salvaging or functional replacement of damaged tissue caused by stroke in the brain remains a major therapeutic challenge. In situ gelation and retention of a hydrogel bioscaffold composed of 8 mg/mL extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a robust invasion of cells within 24 hours and potentially promote a structural remodeling to replace lost tissue. Herein, we demonstrate a long-term retention of ECM hydrogel within the lesion cavity. A decrease of approximately 32% of ECM volume is observed over 12 weeks...
September 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917667/amyloid-%C3%AE-42-clearance-and-neuroprotection-mediated-by-x-box-binding-protein-1-signaling-decline-with-aging-in-the-drosophila-brain
#8
María S Marcora, Lautaro F Belfiori-Carrasco, Nadia I Bocai, Laura Morelli, Eduardo M Castaño
The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be pathogenically related to Alzheimer's disease. Yet, the effects of chronic amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) accumulation and UPR activation upon neurotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we show that neuronal Aβ42 expression in Drosophila activated the inositol-requiring protein-1/X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) UPR branch before the onset of behavioral impairment and persisted with aging. Early upregulation of hsc3/BiP, a target of XBP1 and activating transcription factor 6 pathways, was also sustained in old animals...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916503/altered-serotonergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-a-mice-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Christine Winter, Dana M Greene, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Helge Schaper, Reinhard Sohr, Abel Bult-Ito, Georg Juckel
There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916501/awakenings-in-rats-by-ultrasounds-a-new-animal-model-for-paradoxical-kinesia
#10
Luan Castro Tonelli, Markus Wöhr, Rainer Schwarting, Liana Melo-Thomas
Paradoxical kinesia refers to a sudden transient ability of akinetic patients to perform motor tasks they are otherwise unable to perform. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown due a paucity of valid animal models that faithfully reproduce paradoxical kinesia. Here, in a first experiment, we present a new method to study paradoxical kinesia by "awakening" cataleptic rats through presenting appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which are typical for social situations with positive valence, like juvenile play or sexual encounters ("rat laughter")...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916452/symbolic-dynamics-of-animal-interaction
#11
Maurizio Porfiri, Manuel Ruiz Marín
Since its introduction nearly two decades ago, transfer entropy has contributed to an improved understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in coupled dynamical systems from raw time series. In the context of animal behavior, transfer entropy might help explain the determinants of leadership in social groups and elucidate escape response to predator attacks. Despite its promise, the potential of transfer entropy in animal behavior is yet to be fully tested, and a number of technical challenges in information theory and statistics remain open...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916138/peptide-yy-induces-characteristic-meal-patterns-of-aged-mice
#12
Sachiko Mogami, Chihiro Yamada, Naoki Fujitsuka, Tomohisa Hattori
BACKGROUND & AIM: Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. METHODS: Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device...
September 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916046/inflammatory-response-and-long-term-behavioral-assessment-after-neonatal-co2-pneumothorax-study-in-a-rodent-model
#13
Alice Miranda, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, José Miguel Pêgo, Jorge Correia-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Carbon-dioxide (CO2)-pneumothorax during minimally invasive surgery induces well-known metabolic changes. However, little is known about its impact on the central nervous system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the acute impact of CO2-pneumothorax over central cytokine response and its long-term effect on animal behavior. METHODS: This is an experimental study where neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats are submitted to CO2-pneumothorax. Peripheral and central cytokine response was evaluated 24h after insufflation, and peripheral immune cell phenotyping was evaluated 24h and 4weeks post-insufflation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915788/morphogenesis-along-the-animal-vegetal-axis-fates-of-primary-quartet-micromere-daughters-in-the-gastropod-crepidula-fornicata
#14
Deirdre C Lyons, Kimberly J Perry, Jonathan Q Henry
BACKGROUND: The Spiralia are a large, morphologically diverse group of protostomes (e.g. molluscs, annelids, nemerteans) that share a homologous mode of early development called spiral cleavage. One of the most highly-conserved features of spiralian development is the contribution of the primary quartet cells, 1a-1d, to the anterior region of the embryo (including the brain, eyes, and the anterior ciliary band, called the prototroch). Yet, very few studies have analyzed the ultimate fates of primary quartet sub-lineages, or examined the morphogenetic events that take place in the anterior region of the embryo...
September 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915571/p62-plasmid-can-alleviate-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunctions
#15
Tatiana Halenova, Oleksii Savchuk, Ludmila Ostapchenko, Andrey Chursov, Nathan Fridlyand, Andrey B Komissarov, Franco Venanzi, Sergey I Kolesnikov, Albert A Sufianov, Michael Y Sherman, Vladimir L Gabai, Alexander M Shneider
A high-calorie diet (HCD) induces two mutually exacerbating effects contributing to diet-induced obesity (DIO): impaired glucose metabolism and increased food consumption. A link between the metabolic and behavioral manifestations is not well understood yet. We hypothesized that chronic inflammation induced by HCD plays a key role in linking together the two components of diet-induced pathology. Based on this hypothesis, we tested if a plasmid (DNA vaccine) encoding p62 (SQSTM1) would alleviate DIO including its metabolic and/or food consumption abnormalities...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914568/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-decrease-the-development-of-severe-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis-in-b10-riii-mice
#16
Yu Qin, Ann M Chan, Yu-Ling Chang, Anna Matynia, Nicholas A Kouris, Erin A Kimbrel, Negin Ashki, Sachin Parikh, Michael B Gorin, Robert Lanza, Ralph D Levinson, Lynn K Gordon
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of exogenously administered human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hESC-MSCs) in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in B10.RIII mice, a murine model of severe uveitis. METHODS: B10.RIII mice were immunized with an uveitogenic peptide, and intraperitoneal injections of 5 million hESC-MSCs per animal were given on the same day. Behavioral light sensitivity assays, histological evaluation, cytokine production, and regulatory T cells were analyzed at the peak of the disease...
September 15, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914358/dynamic-foraging-of-a-top-predator-in-a-seasonal-polar-marine-environment
#17
Ben G Weinstein, Ari S Friedlaender
The seasonal movement of animals at broad spatial scales provides insight into life-history, ecology and conservation. By combining high-resolution satellite-tagged data with hierarchical Bayesian movement models, we can associate spatial patterns of movement with marine animal behavior. We used a multi-state mixture model to describe humpback whale traveling and area-restricted search states as they forage along the West Antarctic Peninsula. We estimated the change in the geography, composition and characteristics of these behavioral states through time...
September 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914311/comparing-caenorhabditis-elegans-gentle-and-harsh-touch-response-behavior-using-a-multiplexed-hydraulic-microfluidic-device
#18
Patrick D McClanahan, Joyce H Xu, Christopher Fang-Yen
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the genetics and physiology of touch. Classical assays for C. elegans touch, which involve manually touching the animal with a probe and observing its response, are limited by their low throughput and qualitative nature. We developed a microfluidic device in which several dozen animals are subject to spatially localized mechanical stimuli with variable amplitude. The device contains 64 sinusoidal channels through which worms crawl, and hydraulic valves that deliver touch stimuli to the worms...
September 15, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912693/octopamine-underlies-the-counter-regulatory-response-to-a-glucose-deficit-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#19
Christina Buckemüller, Oliver Siehler, Josefine Göbel, Richard Zeumer, Anja Ölschläger, Dorothea Eisenhardt
An animal's internal state is a critical parameter required for adaptation to a given environment. An important aspect of an animal's internal state is the energy state that is adjusted to the needs of an animal by energy homeostasis. Glucose is one essential source of energy, especially for the brain. A shortage of glucose therefore triggers a complex response to restore the animal's glucose supply. This counter-regulatory response to a glucose deficit includes metabolic responses like the mobilization of glucose from internal glucose stores and behavioral responses like increased foraging and a rapid intake of food...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912155/visual-motion-discrimination-by-propagating-patterns-in-primate-cerebral-cortex
#20
Rory Townsend, Selina S Solomon, Paul R Martin, Samuel G Solomon, Pulin Gong
Visual stimuli can evoke waves of neural activity that propagate across the surface of visual cortical areas. The relevance of these waves for visual processing is unknown. Here we measured the phase and amplitude of local field potentials (LFPs) in electrode array recordings from motion-processing medial temporal area (MT) of anesthetized male marmosets. Animals viewed grating or dot-field stimuli drifting in different directions. We found that on individual trials, the direction of LFP wave propagation is sensitive to the direction of stimulus motion...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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