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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813467/meat-consumption-reduction-in-italian-regions-health-co-benefits-and-decreases-in-ghg-emissions
#1
Sara Farchi, Manuela De Sario, Enrica Lapucci, Marina Davoli, Paola Michelozzi
INTRODUCTION: Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813439/comparative-ecophysiology-of-a-critically-endangered-cr-ectotherm-implications-for-conservation-management
#2
Andrea F T Currylow, Angelo Mandimbihasina, Paul Gibbons, Ernest Bekarany, Craig B Stanford, Edward E Louis, Daniel E Crocker
Captive breeding is a vital conservation tool for many endangered species programs. It is often a last resort when wild animal population numbers drop to below critical minimums for natural reproduction. However, critical ecophysiological information of wild counterparts may not be well documented or understood, leading to years of minimal breeding successes. We collected endocrine and associated ecological data on a critically endangered ectotherm concurrently in the wild and in captivity over several years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813432/basic-reversal-learning-capacity-in-flies-suggests-rudiments-of-complex-cognition
#3
Brad R Foley, Paul Marjoram, Sergey V Nuzhdin
The most basic models of learning are reinforcement learning models (for instance, classical and operant conditioning) that posit a constant learning rate; however many animals change their learning rates with experience. This process is sometimes studied by reversing an existing association between cues and rewards, and measuring the rate of relearning. Augmented reversal-learning, where learning rates increase with practice, can be an important component of behavioral flexibility; and may provide insight into higher cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813172/rabbit-neutering-in-primary-care-education-insights-from-a-surgical-clinic
#4
Livia Benato, Jennifer Hammond
Involvement in canine and feline surgical neutering clinics is generally considered to be a key element of primary-care veterinary education, yet opportunities for veterinary students to develop their surgical skills with rabbit patients are uncommon. This is despite the fact that rabbits are currently estimated to be the third-most popular companion animal species and the fact that the British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) recommends that all non-breeding rabbits be neutered soon after they attain sexual maturity...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812277/milonine-an-alkaloid-of-cissampelos-sympodialis-eichl-menispermaceae-inhibits-histamine-release-of-activated-mast-cells
#5
Adriano Francisco Alves, Giciane Carvalho Vieira, Francisco Allysson A F Gadelha, Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva, Marco Aurélio Martins, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Marcia Regina Piuvezam
Milonine is an alkaloid of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. (Menispermaceae), a plant used in the northeast of Brazil to treat allergies such as asthma, rhinitis, and other conditions. Previously, several alkaloids were isolated from its roots and leaves with pharmacological properties in asthma and acute inflammation models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the milonine effect on mast cells degranulation in vivo and in vitro. Swiss mice (n = 8) were used in models of paw edema induced by carrageenan, compound 48/80, or histamine...
August 15, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812267/oxytocin-and-parental-behaviors
#6
Chihiro Yoshihara, Michael Numan, Kumi O Kuroda
The oxytocin/vasopressin ancestor molecule has been regulating reproductive and social behaviors for more than 500 million years. In all mammals, oxytocin is the hormone indispensable for milk-ejection during nursing (maternal milk provision to offspring), a process that is crucial for successful mammalian parental care. In laboratory mice, a remarkable transcriptional activation occurs during parental behavior within the anterior commissural nucleus (AC), the largest magnocellular oxytocin cell population within the medial preoptic area (although the transcriptional activation was limited to non-oxytocinergic neurons in the AC)...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812266/oxytocin-and-social-relationships-from-attachment-to-bond-disruption
#7
Oliver J Bosch, Larry J Young
Social relationships throughout life are vital for well-being and physical and mental health. A significant amount of research in animal models as well as in humans suggests that oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the development of the capacity to form social bonds, the mediation of the positive aspects of early-life nurturing on adult bonding capacity, and the maintenance of social bonding. Here, we focus on the extensive research on a socially monogamous rodent model organism, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811874/functional-roles-of-an-engineer-species-for-coastal-benthic-invertebrates-and-demersal-fish
#8
Aurélie Chaalali, Anik Brind'Amour, Stanislas F Dubois, Hervé Le Bris
Through their tissues or activities, engineer species create, modify, or maintain habitats and alter the distribution and abundance of many plants and animals. This study investigates key ecological functions performed by an engineer species that colonizes coastal ecosystems. The gregarious tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae is used as a biological model. According to previous studies, the habitat engineered by H. nirae (i.e., Haploops habitat) could provide food and natural shelter for several benthic species such as benthic diatoms belonging to the gender Navicula, the micrograzer Geitodoris planata, or the bivalve Polititapes virgineus...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811672/an-evaluation-of-the-in-vivo-safety-of-nonporous-silica-nanoparticles-ocular-topical-administration-versus-oral-administration
#9
Martha Kim, Joo-Hee Park, Hyejoong Jeong, Jinkee Hong, Woo Sung Choi, Byung-Han Lee, Choul Yong Park
Nonporous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have potential as promising carriers for ophthalmic drugs. However, the in vivo safety of ocular topical SiNPs remains unclear. This study investigated the in vivo safety of oral and ocular topical applications of 100 nm-sized SiNPs in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into the following four groups: low-dose oral administration (total 100 mg/kg of SiNPs mixed with food for one week), high-dose oral administration (total 1000 mg/kg of SiNPs mixed with food for one week), ocular topical administration (10 mg/ml concentration, one drop, applied to the right eyes four times a day for one month), or a negative control (no SiNP treatment)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810709/parallel-evolution-of-sperm-hyper-activation-ca2-channels
#10
Jacob C Cooper, Nitin Phadnis
Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810607/effects-of-low-dose-of-ethanol-on-the-senescence-score-brain-function-and-gene-expression-in-senescence-accelerated-mice-8-samp8
#11
Akiko Kimoto, Hanae Izu, Churan Fu, Sofya Suidasari, Norihisa Kato
Accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests light to moderate alcohol intake reduces risk of several chronic diseases. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of low alcohol intake in animal studies. This study investigated the effect of low ethanol dosage on senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8), an animal model of aging and neurodegenaration. Male SAMP8 mice (11 weeks old) had free access to a commercial stock diet with drinking water containing 0, 1 or 2% (v/v) ethanol for 15 weeks...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809834/quantifying-infra-slow-dynamics-of-spectral-power-and-heart-rate-in-sleeping-mice
#12
Laura M J Fernandez, Sandro Lecci, Romain Cardis, Gil Vantomme, Elidie Béard, Anita Lüthi
Three vigilance states dominate mammalian life: wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. As more neural correlates of behavior are identified in freely moving animals, this three-fold subdivision becomes too simplistic. During wakefulness, ensembles of global and local cortical activities, together with peripheral parameters such as pupillary diameter and sympathovagal balance, define various degrees of arousal. It remains unclear the extent to which sleep also forms a continuum of brain states-within which the degree of resilience to sensory stimuli and arousability, and perhaps other sleep functions, vary gradually-and how peripheral physiological states co-vary...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809097/piconewton-scale-analysis-of-ras-braf-signal-transduction-with-single-molecule-force-spectroscopy
#13
Chae-Seok Lim, Cheng Wen, Yanghui Sheng, Guangfu Wang, Zhuan Zhou, Shiqiang Wang, Huaye Zhang, Anpei Ye, J Julius Zhu
Intermolecular interactions dominate the behavior of signal transduction in various physiological and pathological cell processes, yet assessing these interactions remains a challenging task. Here, this study reports a single-molecule force spectroscopic method that enables functional delineation of two interaction sites (≈35 pN and ≈90 pN) between signaling effectors Ras and BRaf in the canonical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. This analysis reveals mutations on BRaf at Q257 and A246, two sites frequently linked to cardio-faciocutaneous syndrome, result in ≈10-30 pN alterations in RasBRaf intermolecular binding force...
August 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809019/lentiviral-mediated-transgenesis-in-songbirds
#14
Wan-Chun Liu, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Atsushi Miyanohara
Transgenesis involves the insertion of an exogenous gene into an animal's genome, which allows the identification of the expressed phenotypes in brain function or behavior. Lentiviral-mediated transgenesis offers unique transduction potency making it possible to deliver and stably integrate transgenes into a wide variety of dividing and nondividing cells. The ability to establish long-term expression of such transgenes allows their use for transgenesis which is especially useful in organisms lacking quality pluripotent stem cell lines and which is otherwise difficult to produce via traditional pronuclear microinjection, such as songbirds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808557/timing-and-pattern-of-annual-silver-eel-migration-in-two-european-watersheds-are-determined-by-similar-cues
#15
Odd Terje Sandlund, Ola H Diserud, Russell Poole, Knut Bergesen, Mary Dillane, Gerard Rogan, Caroline Durif, Eva B Thorstad, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Many animals perform long-distance migrations in order to maximize lifetime reproductive success. The European eel migrates several thousand kilometers between their feeding habitats in continental waters (fresh-, brackish, and sea water) and their spawning area in the Sargasso Sea. Eels residing in freshwaters usually initiate their spawning migration as silver eels during autumn, triggered by diverse environmental cues. We analyzed the time series of silver eel downstream migration in Burrishoole, Ireland (1971-2015), and Imsa, Norway (1975-2015), to examine factors regulating the silver eel migration from freshwater to the sea...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808423/in-search-for-pheromone-receptors-certain-members-of-the-odorant-receptor-family-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria-orthoptera-acrididae-are-co-expressed-with-snmp1
#16
Pablo Pregitzer, Xingcong Jiang, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, Heinz Breer, Jürgen Krieger, Joerg Fleischer
Under given environmental conditions, the desert locust (Schistocera gregaria) forms destructive migratory swarms of billions of animals, leading to enormous crop losses in invaded regions. Swarm formation requires massive reproduction as well as aggregation of the animals. Pheromones that are detected via the olfactory system have been reported to control both reproductive and aggregation behavior. However, the molecular basis of pheromone detection in the antennae of Schistocerca gregaria is unknown. As an initial step to disclose pheromone receptors, we sequenced the antennal transcriptome of the desert locust...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808405/catha-edulis-forsk-khat-evaluation-of-its-antidepressant-like-activity
#17
Hassan Alfaifi, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Syam Mohan, Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha, Sohier M Syame, Lamiaa A Shaala, Rashad Alsanosy
BACKGROUND: Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is traditionally used for treating various disorders. Nevertheless there are no reports of any scientific assessment of its psychopharmacological properties. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of Khat ethanolic extract using established animal models of depression and stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety healthy male albino mice were used in this study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808316/habituation-based-synaptic-plasticity-and-organismic-learning-in-a-quantum-perovskite
#18
Fan Zuo, Priyadarshini Panda, Michele Kotiuga, Jiarui Li, Mingu Kang, Claudio Mazzoli, Hua Zhou, Andi Barbour, Stuart Wilkins, Badri Narayanan, Mathew Cherukara, Zhen Zhang, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Riccardo Comin, Karin M Rabe, Kaushik Roy, Shriram Ramanathan
A central characteristic of living beings is the ability to learn from and respond to their environment leading to habit formation and decision making. This behavior, known as habituation, is universal among all forms of life with a central nervous system, and is also observed in single-cell organisms that do not possess a brain. Here, we report the discovery of habituation-based plasticity utilizing a perovskite quantum system by dynamical modulation of electron localization. Microscopic mechanisms and pathways that enable this organismic collective charge-lattice interaction are elucidated by first-principles theory, synchrotron investigations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and in situ environmental breathing studies...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807763/effects-of-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-on-neurobehavior-and-memory-change-and-bcl-2-c-fos-grin1b-and-lingo1b-gene-expression-in-male-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#19
Shukai Zheng, Caixia Liu, Yanhong Huang, Mian Bao, Yuanni Huang, Kusheng Wu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants in various environmental matrices and organisms and pose a threat to neural systems of organisms. However, though quite a few studies have explored the effect of PBDEs on neural behaviors such as learning and memory abilities in animals, their mechanisms are less known. We used the zebrafish model to evaluate neurotoxicity of PBDEs and observe changes in behavior and related gene expression. In behavioral testing, 50 zebrafish were divided into five groups treated with different concentrations of BDE-47...
August 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807678/metformin-lowers-%C3%AE-synuclein-phosphorylation-and-upregulates-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Nikita Katila, Sunil Bhurtel, Sina Shadfar, Sunil Srivastav, Sabita Neupane, Uttam Ojha, Gil-Saeng Jeong, Dong-Young Choi
In spite of the massive research for the identification of neurorestorative or neuroprotective intervention for curing Parkinson's disease (PD), there is still lack of clinically proven neuroprotective agents. Metformin, a common anti-hyperglycemic drug has been known to possess neuroprotective properties. However, specific mechanisms by which metformin protects neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of metformin in the subchronic MPTP model of PD, and explored its feasible mechanisms for neuroprotection...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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