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Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Nature
Philippe Schlenker, Emmanuel Chemla, Klaus Zuberbühler
A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
William C McGrew
Field studies done over decades of wild chimpanzees in East, Central and West Africa have yielded impressive, cumulative findings in cultural primatology. Japanese primatologists have been involved in this advance from the outset, over a wide variety of topics. Here I review the origins and development of field studies of Pan troglodytes, then assess their progress based on analogy between cultural primatology and cultural anthropology, through four stages: natural history, ethnography, ethnology, and intuition...
July 26, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
François Druelle, Peter Aerts, Gilles Berillon
The diversity of primates' positional capabilities is unique among mammals. Indeed, they exhibit a daily repertoire composed of various locomotor and postural modes that may be linked to their particular morphological pattern. Because ontogeny undergoes parallel behavioral and morphological modifications, it may be useful to investigate the biomechanical consequences of the changing body shape. We, therefore, collected accurate quantitative and longitudinal data on positional behaviors, body mass distribution patterns, activities, and environment on a sample of six infant olive baboons, Papio anubis...
June 16, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
James Anderson, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Dean Falk
Fossil and comparative primatological evidence suggest that alterations in the development of prehistoric hominin infants kindled three consecutive evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) trends that, ultimately, paved the way for the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In the earliest trend, infants' development of posture and locomotion became delayed because of anatomical changes that accompanied the prolonged evolution of bipedalism. Because modern humans have inherited these changes, our babies are much slower than other primates to reach developmental milestones such as standing, crawling, and walking...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
Jean-Baptiste Leca, Noëlle Gunst, Amanda N Pelletier, Paul L Vasey, Charmalie A D Nahallage, Kunio Watanabe, Michael A Huffman
Cultural primatology (i.e., the study of behavioral traditions in nonhuman primates as a window into the evolution of human cultural capacities) was founded in Japan by Kinji Imanishi in the early 1950s. This relatively new research area straddles different disciplines and now benefits from collaborations between Japanese and Western primatologists. In this paper, we return to the cradle of cultural primatology by revisiting our original articles on behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques...
July 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Joanna M Setchell
Sexual selection has become a major focus in evolutionary and behavioral ecology. It is also a popular research topic in primatology. I use studies of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), a classic example of extravagant armaments and ornaments in animals, to exemplify how a long-term, multidisciplinary approach that integrates field observations with laboratory methods can contribute to on-going theoretical debates in the field of sexual selection. I begin with a brief summary of the main concepts of sexual selection theory and the differences between the sexes...
January 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Brooke E Crowley, Laurie J Reitsema, Vicky M Oelze, Matt Sponheimer
Stable isotope biogeochemistry has been used to investigate foraging ecology in non-human primates for nearly 30 years. Whereas early studies focused on diet, more recently, isotopic analysis has been used to address a diversity of ecological questions ranging from niche partitioning to nutritional status to variability in life history traits. With this increasing array of applications, stable isotope analysis stands to make major contributions to our understanding of primate behavior and biology. Most notably, isotopic data provide novel insights into primate feeding behaviors that may not otherwise be detectable...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Fumihiro Kano, Satoshi Hirata, Tobias Deschner, Verena Behringer, Josep Call
Emotion is one of the central topics in animal studies and is likely to attract attention substantially in the coming years. Recent studies have developed a thermo-imaging technique to measure the facial skin temperature in the studies of emotion in humans and macaques. Here we established the procedures and techniques needed to apply the same technique to great apes. We conducted two experiments respectively in the two established research facilities in Germany and Japan. Total twelve chimpanzees were tested in three conditions in which they were presented respectively with the playback sounds (Exp...
March 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Ignacio de la Torre, Satoshi Hirata
Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology...
November 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Scott A Blumenthal, Jessica M Rothman, Kendra L Chritz, Thure E Cerling
Stable isotope analysis is a promising tool for investigating primate ecology although nuanced ecological applications remain challenging, in part due to the complex nature of isotopic variability in plant-animal systems. The aim of this study is to investigate sources of carbon and nitrogen isotopic variation at the base of primate food webs that reflect aspects of primate ecology. The majority of primates inhabit tropical forest ecosystems, which are dominated by C3 vegetation. We used stable isotope ratios in plants from Kibale National Park, Uganda, a well-studied closed-canopy tropical forest, to investigate sources of isotopic variation among C3 plants related to canopy stratification, leaf age, and plant part...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Ben Garrod, Alice M Roberts, Corinne Duhig, Debby Cox, William McGrew
Inclusion of osteological material in primatological research has a long history, and use of skeletal remains continues to be important in anatomical and anthropological research. Here we report a set of proven methods, including equipment, protocol, and procedure, which enable relatively simple acquisition of skeletal material from naturally deceased animals in field sites and sanctuaries. Such skeletal material, often with extensive accompanying life-history data, is a unique and valuable source of data for both academic and conservation-based research...
October 2015: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Boris A Lapin, Lelita A Yakovleva, Eteri K Dzhikidze, Tatiana E Gvozdik, Aslan A Agumava, Zinaida K Stasilevich, Irina G Danilova
BACKGROUND: In spring 2009 in Adler colony of the Institute of Medical Primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic E. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals). METHODS: The epidemiological analysis, bacteriological investigation, postmortem examination, histological analysis, and PCR were used to identify the infectious agent. RESULTS: Marked hemorrhagic diathesis, lethargy, dehydration, diarrhea with blood, wasting, and sometimes dystrophic changes in articular cartilages were noted...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Primatology
Samuel L Díaz-Muñoz
The influence of ecology on social behavior and mating strategies is one of the central questions in behavioral ecology and primatology. Callitrichines are New World primates that exhibit high behavioral variability, which is widely acknowledged, but not always systematically researched. Here, I examine the hypothesis that differences in the cost of infant care among genera help explain variation in reproductive traits. I present an integrative approach to generate and evaluate predictions from this hypothesis...
March 2016: American Journal of Primatology
B A Lapin, Z V Shevtsova
The results of the study of SHF and virus SHF for the last period since their discovery are summed up. It was established that the source of this infection fatal for Asian macaques are African monkeys--virus carriers. There is still a danger of the occurrence of epizootics in Primatological Centers at the importation of these monkeys for research. The importance of the obtained experimental SHF in macaques was emphasized. This model is unique, safe and adequate. It is necessary for further study of pathogenesis and evaluation of the means of pathogenetic therapy of HF dangerous to human health...
2015: Voprosy Virusologii
Charles H Southwick
This article briefly reviews the contributions of Clarence R. Carpenter in establishing the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago, the Caribbean Primate Research Center and his legacy in primatology.
January 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Thomas V Pollet, Gert Stulp, S Peter Henzi, Louise Barrett
Field data often include multiple observations taken from the same individual. In order to avoid pseudoreplication, it is commonplace to aggregate data, generating a mean score per individual, and then using these aggregated data in subsequent analyses. Aggregation, however, can generate problems of its own. Not only does it lead to a loss of information, it can also leave analyses vulnerable to the "ecological fallacy": the drawing of false inferences about individual behavior on the basis of population level ("ecological") data...
July 2015: American Journal of Primatology
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