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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927115/experiences-of-caring-for-infants-with-severe-bronchiolitis
#1
(no author information available yet)
Background Common in children under two years, bronchiolitis is usually caused by respiratory syncytial virus (Jhawar 2003). Symptoms are usually self-limiting although some children develop respiratory distress requiring hospitalisation (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 2006). Supplemental oxygen, fluid support and ventilator assistance may also be necessary. In cases of moderately severe bronchiolitis, oxygen can be delivered through a head box, but some hospitals deliver high-flow oxygen therapy with nasal prongs to treat respiratory distress...
December 8, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923248/timing-of-multiorgan-dysfunction-among-hospitalized-infants-with-fatal-fulminant-sepsis
#2
James L Wynn, Matthew S Kelly, Daniel K Benjamin, Reese H Clark, Rachel Greenberg, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith
Objective Identify the progression of specific signs of multiorgan dysfunction among infants with fatal sepsis. Study Design Cohort study of 679 infants who died within 3 days of the start of a late-onset sepsis (LOS) episode in neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We extracted clinical and laboratory data on the day of death (day 0) and the preceding 5 days (days -5 to -1). Results Median (25th percentile-75th percentile) gestational age was 25 (24-28) weeks. Compared with day -1, day 0 was characterized by an increased requirement for mechanical ventilation and higher mean fraction of inspired oxygen...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919117/noninvasive-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-in-premature-infants-postextubation
#3
Tarah T Colaizy, Gary J Kummet, Colleen M Kummet, Jonathan M Klein
Background Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) has distinct advantages when used invasively compared with conventional ventilation techniques. Evidence supporting the use of noninvasive NAVA is less robust, especially in the very low birth weight (VLBW) population. Objective To determine whether synchronized noninvasive ventilation via neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV NAVA) supports ventilation postextubation in premature infants. Methods A retrospective analysis of a cohort of twenty-four former VLBW (<1...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918754/interventions-to-improve-rates-of-successful-extubation-in-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Kristin N Ferguson, Calum T Roberts, Brett J Manley, Peter G Davis
Importance: Clinicians aim to extubate preterm infants as early as possible, to minimize the risks of mechanical ventilation. Extubation is often unsuccessful owing to lung disease or inadequate respiratory drive. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to improve rates of successful extubation in preterm infants. Data Sources: Searches were undertaken in PubMed and The Cochrane Library. Study Selection: The review was conducted using the methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
December 5, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918385/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-in-preterm-infants-with-established-or-evolving-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-on-high-intensity-mechanical-ventilatory-support-a-single-center-experience
#5
Young Hwa Jung, Han-Suk Kim, Juyoung Lee, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Jung-Hwan Choi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to report possible improvements in ventilator variables associated with a transition from synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation to neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia who required a high level of mechanical ventilatory support in a single center. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Neonatal ICU. PATIENTS: Twenty-nine preterm infants with a median gestational age of 25...
December 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918382/conventional-versus-prolonged-infusion-of-meropenem-in-neonates-with-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Islam Nour, Heba Elsayed Eldegla, Nehad Nasef, Basma Shouman, Hesham Abdel-Hady
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has been suggested to result in higher microbiologic efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of prolonged infusions versus conventional dosing of meropenem in neonates with Gram negative late onset sepsis (GN-LOS)...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915200/effects-of-prophylactic-indomethacin-on-vasopressor-dependent-hypotension-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#7
Melissa Liebowitz, Jane Koo, Andrea Wickremasinghe, Isabel Elaine Allen, Ronald I Clyman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a moderate-to-large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is responsible for vasopressor-dependent hypotension, occurring at the end of the first postnatal week. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective, double cohort controlled study of infants delivered at ≤27(+6) weeks' gestation (n = 313). From January 2004 through April 2011, all infants were treated with prophylactic indomethacin ([PINDO] epoch). From May 2011 through December 2015, no infant was treated with indomethacin until at least 8 postnatal days (conservative epoch)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914140/comparison-of-the-mortality-and-in-hospital-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-treated-with-ibuprofen-for-patent-ductus-arteriosus-with-or-without-clinical-symptoms-attributable-to-the-patent-ductus-arteriosus-at-the-time-of-ibuprofen-treatment
#8
Hani Yoo, Jin A Lee, Sohee Oh, Young Hwa Jung, Jin A Sohn, Seung Han Shin, Chang Won Choi, Ee Kyung Kim, Han Suk Kim, Beyong Il Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the mortality and in-hospital outcomes of preterm infants with < 28 weeks of gestation who received ibuprofen treatment according to the presence of clinical symptoms (any of oliguria, hypotension, or moderate to severe respiratory difficulty) attributable to hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) at the time of first ibuprofen treatment. In total, 91 infants born from April 2010 to March 2015 were included. Fourteen infants (15...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906194/a-comparison-of-7-day-versus-10-day-course-of-low-dose-dexamethasone-for-chronically-ventilated-preterm-infants
#9
A Cuna, S Govindarajan, A Oschman, H Dai, K Brophy, M Norberg, W Truog
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the effect of two different dexamethasone regimens on respiratory outcomes of ventilator-dependent preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of ventilated preterm infants <29 weeks gestational age treated with either 7-day or 10-day dexamethasone course. Primary outcome was days to successful extubation. Other outcomes included rate of successful extubation and need for repeat steroid therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-nine infants were identified; 32 (54%) received 7 days of dexamethasone and 27 (46%) received 10 days of dexamethasone...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899539/reliability-of-displayed-tidal-volume-in-healthy-and-surfactant-depleted-piglets
#10
A Cecilia Mendiondo Luedloff, Tracy L Thurman, Shirley J Holt, Shasha Bai, Mark J Heulitt, Sherry E Courtney
BACKGROUND: Volutrauma has been established as the key factor in ventilator-induced lung injury and can only be avoided if tidal volume (VT) is accurately displayed and delivered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of displayed exhaled VT in a ventilator commonly used in small infants with or without a proximal flow sensor and using 3 methods to achieve a target VT in both a healthy and lung-injured neonatal pig model. METHODS: This was a prospective animal study utilizing 8 male pigs, approximately 2...
December 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894031/artificial-placenta-analysis-of-recent-progress
#11
REVIEW
Stephen D Bird
The artificial placenta (AP) has for many decades captured the imagination of scientists and authors with popular fiction including The Matrix and Aldous Huxley's "Brave New World", depicting a human surviving ex-utero in an artificial uterine environment (AUE). For scientists this has fascinated as a way forward for extremely preterm infants (EPIs) born less than 28 weeks of gestation. Early successes with mechanical ventilation (MV) for infants born above 28 weeks of gestation meant that AP research lost momentum...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892756/use-of-high-non-invasive-respiratory-support-pressures-in-preterm-neonates-a-single-centre-experience
#12
Abdulaziz Binmanee, Salhab El Helou, Sandesh Shivananda, Christoph Fusch, Amit Mukerji
PURPOSE: To describe the incidence, indications and clinical outcomes following high pressures on non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) in preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of all neonates with BW < 1,500 g admitted from July 2012 to June 2014 and placed on high NRS, defined as mean airway pressure ≥ 10 cm H2O for at least 12 continuous hours using NCPAP and/or nasal high frequency ventilation (NIHFV). Clinical and physiological outcomes following high NRS were ascertained...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888005/a-simplified-semi-quantitative-structural-lung-disease-computed-tomography-outcome-during-quiet-breathing-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Magali Saguintaah, Yann Cabon, Rémi Gauthier, Cécile Duboibaudry, Laure Couderc, Muriel Le Bourgeois, Philippe Reix, Raphael Chiron, Ikram Taleb Arrada, Nicolas Molinari, Stefan Matecki
Chest tomography (CT) using the controlled ventilation technique (CTCV) is a sensitive method to detect features of lung cystic fibrosis (CF) disease in infants with CF. However, this technique needs sedation and is not easily applied for the clinician who may need, in the follow-up, to evaluate more precisely lung disease in infants with CF. Thus, our study aims to evaluate if CT assessment of lung disease, without the need of sedation, during quiet breathing, using a semi-quantitative scoring system, is reproducible and may discriminate infants with CF from control infants at an early stage of the lung disease...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879380/performance-of-leak-compensation-in-all-age-icu-ventilators-during-volume-targeted-neonatal-ventilation-a-lung-model-study
#14
Taiga Itagaki, Desmond J Bennett, Christopher T Chenelle, Daniel F Fisher, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: Volume-targeted ventilation is increasingly used in low birthweight infants because of the potential for reducing volutrauma and avoiding hypocapnea. However, it is not known what level of air leak is acceptable during neonatal volume-targeted ventilation when leak compensation is activated concurrently. METHODS: Four ICU ventilators (Servo-i, PB980, V500, and Avea) were compared in available invasive volume-targeted ventilation modes (pressure control continuous spontaneous ventilation [PC-CSV] and pressure control continuous mandatory ventilation [PC-CMV])...
November 22, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876355/lung-protective-ventilatory-strategies-in-intubated-preterm-neonates-with-rds
#15
REVIEW
F Reiterer, B Schwaberger, T Freidl, G Schmölzer, G Pichler, B Urlesberger
This article provides a narrative review of lung-protective ventilatory strategies (LPVS) in intubated preterm infants with RDS. A description of strategies is followed by results on short-and long-term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Strategies will include patient-triggered or synchronized ventilation, volume targeted ventilation, the technique of intubation, surfactant administration and rapid extubation to NCPAP (INSURE), the open lung concept, strategies of high-frequency ventilation, and permissive hypercapnia...
October 26, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865477/tracheostomy-among-infants-with-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-undergoing-cardiac-operations-a-multicenter-analysis
#16
Parthak Prodhan, Amit Agarwal, Nahed O ElHassan, Elijah H Bolin, Brandon Beam, Xiomara Garcia, Michael Gaies, Xinyu Tang
BACKGROUND: Less than 2.7% of infants undergoing congenital heart disease operations have difficulty weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. In such instances, clinicians may choose to perform tracheostomy. Limited literature has examined tracheostomy placement specifically in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). This study evaluated the risk factors for tracheostomy placement in infants with HLHS and examined the outcomes of these infants before their first hospital discharge...
November 16, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863530/performances-of-low-level-hospital-health-caregivers-after-a-neonatal-resuscitation-course
#17
Giuseppe De Bernardo, Desirée Sordino, Francesco Cavallin, Veronica Mardegan, Nicoletta Doglioni, Maria Luisa Tataranno, Daniele Trevisanuto
BACKGROUND: High fidelity simulation has been executed to allow the evaluation of technical and non-technical skills of health caregivers. Our objective was to assess technical and non-technical performances of low level hospitals health caregivers who attended a Neonatal Resuscitation course using high fidelity simulation in a standard-setting scenario. METHODS: Twenty-three volunteers were asked to manage a simple scenario (infant with secondary apnea) after the course...
November 18, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860324/tracheobronchial-foreign-body-removal-in-infants-who-had-very-small-airways-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#18
Seung Hoon Woo, Jung Je Park, Minsu Kwon, Jun Sun Ryu, Jin Pyeong Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a life-threatening emergency. Using a rigid bronchoscope with optical forceps is the most effective method for foreign body removal. However, occasionally for some infants these instruments could not be used, as they may be too large for their small airways. Here, they present the apnea technique with only an optical forceps for foreign body removal in infants with very small airways. METHODS: Foreign bodies were removed using only an optical forceps for infants who had very small diameter airways...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855996/impact-of-the-updated-guidance-for-palivizumab-prophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-a-single-center-experience
#19
Bavani Rajah, Pablo J Sánchez, Cristina Garcia-Maurino, Amy Leber, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias
OBJECTIVES: To determine the differences in number of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations and outcomes in infants 29(0/7)-34(6/7) weeks' gestational age (wGA) the season before (season 1 [S1]; 2013-2014) and after (season 2 [S2]; 2014-2015) implementation of the 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics revised guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis. STUDY DESIGN: Children <12 months of age hospitalized with RSV infection were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and virology reports...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853329/high-flow-nasal-cannulae-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-neonates-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-managed-with-insure-method-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Maliheh Kadivar, Ziba Mosayebi, Nosrat Razi, Shahin Nariman, Razieh Sangsari
BACKGROUND: In recent years, various noninvasive respiratory support (NRS) of ventilation has been provided more in neonates. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of HFNC with NCPAP in post-extubation of preterm infants with RDS after INSURE method (intubation, surfactant, extubation). METHODS: A total of 54 preterm infants with RDS (respiratory distress syndrome) were enrolled in this study. Using a randomized sequence, they were assigned into two groups after INSURE method...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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