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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821461/cutaneous-vaccination-with-coated-microneedles-prevents-development-of-airway-allergy
#1
Akhilesh Kumar Shakya, Chang Hyun Lee, Harvinder Singh Gill
Allergy cases are increasing worldwide. Currently allergies are treated after their appearance in patients. However, now there is effort to make a preventive vaccine against allergies. The rationale is to target patient populations that are already sensitized to allergens but have yet to develop severe forms of the allergic disease, or who are susceptible to allergy development but have not yet developed them. Subcutaneous injections and the sublingual route have been used as the primary mode of preventive vaccine delivery...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819007/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-therapy-on-lung-structure-in-growth-restricted-newborn-lambs
#2
Graeme R Polglase, Jade Barbuto, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Keith E Schulze, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Sharon D Ricardo, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress arising from suboptimal placental function contributes to a multitude of pathologies in infants compromised by fetal growth restriction (FGR). FGR infants are at high risk for respiratory dysfunction after birth and poor long-term lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress to adverse lung development and the effects of melatonin administration, a powerful anti-oxidant, on lung structure in FGR lambs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818610/surfactant-and-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-for-the-prevention-of-chronic-lung-disease-history-reality-and-new-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Hany Aly, Mohamed A Mohamed, Jen-Tien Wung
The discovery of surfactant was one of the most significant research events to occur in the history of neonatology. Certainly, surfactant saved lives for premature infants who were otherwise considered non-viable. However, the prevention of chronic lung disease did not progress and it became clear that a significant portion of the help surfactant provides to the premature lung is counteracted by mechanical ventilation. A dilemma exists over the priorities in premature management to intubate and administer surfactant or not to intubate and support these infants non-invasively with the use of continuous positive airway pressure...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816029/development-of-a-3d-tissue-lung-phantom-of-a-preterm-infant-for-optical-measurements-of-oxygen-laser-detector-position-considerations
#4
Jim Larsson, Peilang Liao, Patrik Lundin, Emilie Krite Svanberg, Johannes Swartling, Märta Lewander Xu, Joakim Bood, Stefan Andersson-Engels
There is a need for further improving the clinical care of our most vulnerable patients - preterm infants. Novel diagnostic and treatment tools facilitate such advances. Here we are evaluating a potential percutaneous optical monitoring tool to assess the oxygen and water vapor contents in the lungs of preterm babies. The aim is to prepare for further clinical studies by gaining detailed understanding of how the measured light intensity and gas absorption signal behave for different possible geometries of the light delivery and receiver...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815006/biomarkers-in-inflammometry-pediatric-asthma-utility-in-daily-clinical-practice
#5
REVIEW
Silvia Sánchez-García, Alicia Habernau Mena, Santiago Quirce
Asthma is a common disease in both high and lower income countries that starts early and persists often for life. A correct and accurate diagnosis, treatment and follow-up during childhood are essential for a better understanding of adult asthma and avoiding over- or under-treatment. Th2 inflammation in children with asthma symptoms is usually assessed by measuring with serum total IgE, blood eosinophilia and FeNO levels that may help to predict asthma, particularly in those infants and young children in whom lung function tests are difficult to perform...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813514/the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-promotes-il-8-synthesis-in-a-model-of-pediatric-airway-epithelium-via-p38-map-kinase
#6
Myra G Dela Pena-Ponce, Monica T Jimenez, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick, Lisa A Miller
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811149/three-center-feasibility-of-lung-clearance-index-in-infants-and-preschool-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-other-lung-diseases
#7
Mirjam Stahl, Simon Y Graeber, Cornelia Joachim, Sandra Barth, Isabell Ricklefs, Gesa Diekmann, Matthias V Kopp, Lutz Naehrlich, Marcus A Mall
BACKGROUND: Lung clearance index (LCI) detects early ventilation inhomogeneity and has been suggested as sensitive endpoint in multicenter intervention trials in infants and preschoolers with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the feasibility of multicenter LCI in this age group has not been determined. We, therefore, investigated the feasibility of LCI in infants and preschoolers with and without CF in a three-center setting. METHODS: Following central training, standardized SF6-MBW measurements were performed in 73 sedated children (10 controls, 49 with CF and 14 with other lung diseases), mean age 2...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808495/the-most-frequent-abca3-nonsense-mutation-p-tyr1515-y1515x-causing-lethal-neonatal-respiratory-failure-in-a-term-neonate
#8
AlNashmi AlAnazi, Ralph Epaud, Humariya Heena, Alix de Becdelievre, Abeer Mohammad Miqdad, Pascale Fanen
Defects in the surfactant biosynthesis are associated with respiratory distress syndrome, commonly occurring in premature infants due to lung immaturity. However, interstitial lung diseases have also been observed in full-term infants with mutations in the SFTPC, SFTPB, NKX2-1, or ABCA3 genes, involved in the surfactant metabolism. Herein, we report a newborn baby with neonatal respiratory distress and diffuse lung disease caused by ABCA3 mutation. The baby died at 5 weeks of age after developing pulmonary hypertension...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808223/metastasis-associated-protein-1-deficiency-results-in-compromised-pulmonary-alveolar-capillary-angiogenesis-in-mice
#9
Jun-Hui Qin, Zhen-Yu Ke, Qiang Zhou, Li Wang, Yuan Liang, Ying-Mei Wang, Tong Yang, Xing Gao, Jing Ye, Rekesh Kumar, Rui-An Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) deficiency during angiogenesis of pulmonary alveolar capillaries in mice and to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expressions of MTA1, CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and HIF-1α were analyzed in the lungs of MTA1-knockout (KO) and wild-type mice at embryonic day 18.5 and 2 months by quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry...
August 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802411/the-minipig-as-an-animal-model-to-study-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-natural-transmission
#10
Laylaa Ramos, Andres Obregon-Henao, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, Richard Bowen, Joan K Lunney, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero
In endemic countries more than 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases are in infants and children. Current animal models study TB during adulthood but animal models for infant TB are scarce. Here we propose that minipigs can be used as an animal model to study adult, adolescent and infant TB including natural transmission. In these studies, two-month old minipigs (representing infant age in humans) and six-month old minipigs (representing adolescence in humans) were infected via the aerosol route with hyper-virulent clinical strain W-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) HN878 and were monitored for 11 or 36 weeks post-challenge, respectively...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802347/using-quality-improvement-tools-to-reduce-chronic-lung-disease
#11
REVIEW
Alan Peter Picarillo, Waldemar Carlo
Rates of chronic lung disease (CLD) in very low birthweight infants have not decreased at the same pace as other neonatal morbidities over the past 20 years. Multifactorial causes of CLD make this common morbidity difficult to reduce, although there have been several successful quality improvement (QI) projects in individual neonatal intensive care units. QI projects have become a mainstay of neonatal care over the past decade, with an increasing number of publications devoted to this topic. A specific QI project for CLD must be based on best available evidence in the medical literature, expert recommendations, or based on work by previous QI initiatives...
September 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801724/pneumococcal-meningitis-and-endocarditis-in-an-infant-possible-improved-survival-with-factor-v-leiden-mutation
#12
Sitikant Mohapatra, Assaf Doulah, Elspeth Brown
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of invasive meningeal and/or lung disease are not uncommon, Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis is rare especially in healthy pediatric population. New studies have suggested a strong association between factor V leiden (FVL) mutation and favorable outcomes in critically ill children. A healthy 10 month old presented with sepsis and meningeal signs, was later confirmed to have Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and endocarditis...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801414/transformation-of-mortality-in-a-remote-australian-aboriginal-community-a-retrospective-observational-study
#13
Wendy E Hoy, Susan Anne Mott, Beverly June McLeod
OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in ages and causes of death in a remote-living Australian Aboriginal group over a recent 50-year period. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study, from 1960 to 2010, of deaths and people starting dialysis, using data from local clinic, parish, dialysis and birthweight registers. SETTING: A remote island community in the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory, where a Catholic mission was established in 1911...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800119/new-insights-contributing-to-the-development-of-effective-vaccines-and-therapies-to-reduce-the-pathology-caused-by-hrsv
#14
REVIEW
Nicolás M S Gálvez, Jorge A Soto, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) worldwide, leading to significant levels of immunocompromisation as well as morbidity and mortality in infants. Its main target of infection is the ciliated epithelium of the lungs and the host immune responses elicited is ineffective at achieving viral clearance. It is thought that the lack of effective immunity against hRSV is due in part to the activity of several viral proteins that modulate the host immune response, enhancing a Th2-like pro-inflammatory state, with the secretion of cytokines that promote the infiltration of immune cells to the lungs, with consequent damage...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798335/cd71-erythroid-suppressor-cells-impair-adaptive-immunity-against-bordetella-pertussis
#15
Afshin Namdar, Petya Koleva, Shima Shahbaz, Stacy Strom, Volker Gerdts, Shokrollah Elahi
Infant's immune system cannot control infection or respond to vaccination as efficiently as older individuals, a phenomenon that has been attributed to immunological immaturity. Recently, we challenged this notion and proposed the presence of actively immunosuppressive and physiologically enriched CD71(+) erythroid cells in neonates. Here we utilized Bordetella pertussis, a common neonatal respiratory tract pathogen, as a proof of concept to investigate the role of these cells in adaptive immunity. We observed that CD71(+) cells have distinctive immunosuppressive properties and prevent recruitment of immune cells to the mucosal site of infection...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798254/oxygen-dependent-changes-in-lung-development-do-not-affect-epithelial-infection-with-influenza-a-virus
#16
William Domm, Min Yee, Ravi S Misra, Robert Gelein, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez Sobrido, Michael A O'Reilly
Infants born prematurely often require supplemental oxygen that contributes to aberrant lung development and increased pulmonary morbidity following a respiratory viral infection. We have been using a mouse model to understand how early-life hyperoxia affects the adult lung response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Prior studies showed how neonatal hyperoxia (100% oxygen) increased sensitivity of adult mice to infection with influenza A virus (IAV (A/Hong Kong/X31) H3N2) as defined by persistent inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and mortality...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798251/lungmap-the-molecular-atlas-of-lung-development-program
#17
Maryanne E Ardini-Poleske, Robert Fred Clark, Charles Ansong, James P Carson, Richard A Corley, Gail H Deutsch, James S Hagood, Naftali Kaminski, Thomas J Mariani, Steven S Potter, Gloria S Pryhuber, David Warburton, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Scott M Palmer, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, The LungMAP Consortium
The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic crosstalk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795220/achieving-and-maintaining-lung-volume-in-the-preterm-infant-from-the-first-breath-to-the-nicu
#18
REVIEW
Gianluca Lista, Andrés Maturana, Fernando R Moya
Please check if statements under Abstract section are presented correctly.The main goal for the neonatologist is to facilitate the adaptation to extra-uterine life during initial transition, while minimizing lung injury opening and protecting the premature lung from the first breath onwards. An appropriate management from birth should lead to the achievement of an early functional residual capacity (FRC), and the following steps should aim at maintaining an adequate lung volume. To date, different strategies are available to optimize fetal-neonatal transition and promote lung recruitment...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794965/efficacy-of-lung-volume-optimization-maneuver-monitored-by-optoelectronic-pletismography-in-the-management-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#19
G Lista, I Bresesti, F Cavigioli, F Castoldi, E Lupo, A LoMauro, A Aliverti
Newborns affected by congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) need cardio-respiratory stabilization before undergoing surgical repair. Open lung strategy is a well-established approach to optimize lung volume in preterm infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), using both High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) and Conventional Mechanical Ventilation (CMV). We report a case of left CDH with severe lung hypoplasia, managed applying open lung strategy in HFOV (pre-surgery period) and in Assist-Control with Volume Guarantee (post-surgery period), guided by SpO2 changes, TcPO2 and TcPCO2 monitoring...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792962/aberrant-cgmp-signaling-persists-during-recovery-in-mice-with-oxygen-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Marta Perez, Keng Jin Lee, Herminio J Cardona, Joann M Taylor, Mary E Robbins, Gregory B Waypa, Sara K Berkelhamer, Kathryn N Farrow
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a common complication of preterm birth, is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in 25% of infants with moderate to severe BPD. Neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia for 14d develop lung disease similar to BPD, with evidence of associated PH. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway has not been well studied in BPD-associated PH. In addition, there is little data about the natural history of hyperoxia-induced PH in mice or the utility of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibition in established disease...
2017: PloS One
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