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Infant, lung

Emily Shepherd, Rehana A Salam, Philippa Middleton, Shanshan Han, Maria Makrides, Sarah McIntyre, Nadia Badawi, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that encompasses disorders of movement and posture attributed to non-progressive disturbances occurring in the developing foetal or infant brain. As there are diverse risk factors and aetiologies, no one strategy will prevent cerebral palsy. Therefore, there is a need to systematically consider all potentially relevant interventions for prevention. OBJECTIVES: PrimaryTo summarise the evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews regarding effects of neonatal interventions for preventing cerebral palsy (reducing cerebral palsy risk)...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Manami Sammori, Osamu Nomura, Hiroshi Sakakibara, Makoto Ishitate, Tatsuo Kono
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Bo Hang, Jian-Hua Mao, Antoine M Snijders
THS, the residual tobacco smoke remaining in the environment after tobacco has been smoked, represents an underestimated public health hazard. Evidence supports its widespread presence in indoor environments. Vulnerable populations are believed to include infants and children living in a smoking household exposed to THS and/or SHS and exposure has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer later in life. These and future studies will provide novel and important evidence of how early-life exposure to THS affects cancer development and other diseases, which should be useful for framing and enforcing new policies against passive smoking in the the world...
June 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Katherine H Restori, Bharat T Srinivasa, Brian J Ward, Elizabeth D Fixman
Infants are exposed to a wide range of potential pathogens in the first months of life. Although maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally protect full-term neonates from many systemic pathogens, infections at mucosal surfaces still occur with great frequency, causing significant morbidity and mortality. At least part of this elevated risk is attributable to the neonatal immune system that tends to favor T regulatory and Th2 type responses when microbes are first encountered. Early-life infection with respiratory viruses is of particular interest because such exposures can disrupt normal lung development and increase the risk of chronic respiratory conditions, such as asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chin-Tung Lau, Kenneth K Y Wong
Thoracoscopic resection is being used more commonly for the treatment of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in neonates and infants. However, in the rare case of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation with congenital absence of lung fissure, thoracoscopic lobectomy cannot be performed safely. Moreover, if the lung lesion is deep-seated and cannot be visualized on the pleural surface, wedge resection may result in residual lesion. Here, we reported our approach of thoracoscopic resection under hookwire guidance to tackle this problem...
June 14, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Zihang Lu, Rachel E Foong, Krzysztof Kowalik, Theo J Moraes, Ayanna Boyce, Aimee Dubeau, Susan Balkovec, Per Magnus Gustafsson, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Wendy Lou, Felix Ratjen, Malcolm Sears, Padmaja Subbarao
BACKGROUND: The care of infants with recurrent wheezing relies largely on clinical assessment. The lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity, is a sensitive marker of early airway disease in children with cystic fibrosis, but its utility has not been explored in infants with recurrent wheezing. OBJECTIVE: To assess ventilation inhomogeneity using LCI among infants with a history of recurrent wheezing compared with healthy controls. METHODS: This is a case-control study, including 37 infants with recurrent wheezing recruited from outpatient clinics, and 113 healthy infants from a longitudinal birth cohort, the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development study...
June 15, 2018: Thorax
Dai Kimura, Jordy Saravia, Sridhar Jaligama, Isabella McNamara, Luan D Vu, Ryan D Sullivan, Salvatore Mancarella, Dahui You, Stephania A Cormier
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been observed in up to 75% of infants with moderate to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of PH secondary to RSV bronchiolitis that mimics the disease etiology as it occurs in infants. Neonatal mice were infected with RSV at 5 days of age, and then re-infected 4 weeks later. Serum free medium was administered to age-matched mice as control...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Rabail Raza, Kumail Khandwala, Hafsa Qayyum, Muhammad Anwar Saeed, Anwar Ahmed
Crossed or "crisscross" pulmonary arteries (CPA) are a result of an anomalous origin and course of both the pulmonary arteries from the main pulmonary trunk in which the left pulmonary artery (PA) ostium usually lies directly superior and to the right PA ostium after which they cross each other and supply their respective lungs. This condition is usually associated with conotruncal malformations and genetic syndromes. We describe a case report of an infant, suspected to have Down syndrome, who was diagnosed with CPA and coarctation of aorta on computed tomography (CT) angiography...
April 13, 2018: Curēus
Laura Ellwein Fix, Joseph Khoury, Russell R Moores, Lauren Linkous, Matthew Brandes, Henry J Rozycki
Non-invasive ventilation is increasingly used for respiratory support in preterm infants, and is associated with a lower risk of chronic lung disease. However, this mode is often not successful in the extremely preterm infant in part due to their markedly increased chest wall compliance that does not provide enough structure against which the forces of inhalation can generate sufficient pressure. To address the continued challenge of studying treatments in this fragile population, we developed a nonlinear lumped-parameter respiratory system mechanics model of the extremely preterm infant that incorporates nonlinear lung and chest wall compliances and lung volume parameters tuned to this population...
2018: PloS One
Debby P Utama, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in medical technology, the incidence of preterm birth remains high. The use of antenatal corticosteroid administered transplacentally, by intramuscular injection to women at risk of preterm birth, has reduced the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome and increased the survival rates of preterm infants. However, this intervention also comes with its own risks and side effects. Animal studies and early studies in pregnant women at risk of preterm birth have reported the use of an alternative route of administration, by direct intramuscular injection of corticosteroid into the fetus under ultrasound guidance, in an attempt to minimise the side-effect profile...
June 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Xi Yang, Xiaoping Lei, Lianyu Zhang, Lingping Zhang, Wenbin Dong
OBJECTIVE: This study used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the pulmonary regional oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) of premature infants. The oxygenation state of the lung tissue was also evaluated, which provided preliminary evidence regarding the application of NIRS in oxygen therapy for premature infants. METHODS: NIRS was used to measure the pulmonary rSO2 of 26 premature infants (gestational age < 32 weeks). The correlations between pulmonary rSO2 and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 ), and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) were analyzed...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hiroyuki Tsuda, Tomomi Kotani, Tomoko Nakano, Kenji Imai, Takafumi Ushida, Akihiro Hirakawa, Fumie Kinoshita, Yuichiro Takahashi, Shigenori Iwagaki, Fumitaka Kikkawa
BACKGROUND: Whether or not the period of fetal lung maturity differs between twin and singleton pregnancies has not been clarified. We examined whether or not fetal lung maturity and fetal lung absorption are achieved earlier in twin fetuses than in singleton fetuses. METHODS: We registered 454 singleton pregnancies and 398 twin pregnancies with no congenital abnormalities affecting the respiratory function or neonatal deaths. All patients were delivered by Caesarean section without labor between 24 and 38 gestational weeks...
June 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Yume Suzuki, Yumi Kono, Takahiro Hayakawa, Hironori Shimozawa, Miyuki Matano, Yukari Yada
BACKGROUND: Although late-onset circulatory collapse (LCC) is widely recognized in Japan, its etiology and the reason for center variation in its incidence remain unclear. This study's objectives were to identify the perinatal and neonatal factors related to LCC and to estimate the factors related to the center variation in the incidence of LCC. METHODS: Extremely preterm infants born between 2008 and 2012 who were registered in the database of the Neonatal Research Network, Japan were retrospectively analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Serena de Gelidi, Nima Seifnaraghi, Andy Bardill, Andrew Tizzard, Yu Wu, Erich Sorantin, Sven Nordebo, Andreas Demosthenous, Richard H Bayford
Newborns with lung immaturity often require continuous monitoring and treatment of their lung ventilation in intensive care units, especially if born preterm. Recent studies indicate that Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is feasible in newborn&#13; infants and children, and can quantitatively identify changes in regional lung aeration and ventilation following alterations to respiratory conditions. Information on the patient-specic shape of the torso and its role in minimizing the artefacts in the&#13; reconstructed images can improve the accuracy of the clinical parameters obtained from EIT...
June 12, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar, Mark Kaschwich, Robert Ertsey, Stefanie Preuss, Carlos Milla, Sana Mujahid, Juliet Masumi, Suleman Khan, Lucia M Mokres, Lu Tian, Jasmine Mohr, Dharmesh V Hirani, Marlene Rabinovitch, Richard D Bland
RATIONALE: Mechanical ventilation with O2 -rich gas (MV-O2 ) inhibits alveologenesis and lung growth. We showed that MV-O2 increases elastase activity and apoptosis in lungs of newborn mice; elastase inhibition by elafin suppressed apoptosis and enabled lung growth. In pilot studies, MV-O2 reduced lung expression of pro-survival factors, pEGFR and Klf4. OBJECTIVES: Determine if apoptosis and lung growth arrest evoked by MV-O2 reflect disrupted pEGFR-Klf4 signaling, which elafin treatment preserves...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Luis Perez-Baena, Martí Pons-Òdena
Altough the literature data and meta-analysis reported that NIV strategies, nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (N-IPPV) and Bi-level-NCPAP (BiPAP), has a better respiratory outcome than n-CPAP in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, it is possible that the interpretation is not entirely accurate. Salvo et al. found that the incidence of NIV failure was significantly higher in the N-CPAP group versus N-SIPPV/BiPAP groups in infants with RDS. Nevertheless MAP was significantly higher in N-SIPPV group when compared to N-CPAP and BiPAP group (p < 0,05 in both) and MAP in the BiPAP group was significantly higher than N-CPAP group (p < 0,05)...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
John S Riley, Ryan M Antiel, Natalie E Rintoul, Anne M Ades, Lindsay N Waqar, Nan Lin, Lisa M Herkert, Jo Ann D'Agostino, Casey Hoffman, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake, N Scott Adzick, Holly L Hedrick
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can be safely resuscitated with a reduced starting fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) of 0.5. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study comparing 68 patients resuscitated with starting FiO2 0.5 to 45 historical controls resuscitated with starting FiO2 1.0. RESULTS: Reduced starting FiO2 had no adverse effect upon survival, duration of intubation, need for ECMO, duration of ECMO, or time to surgery...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Mark T Astoria, Leroy Thacker, Karen D Hendricks-Muñoz
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to assess the association of analgesics and sedatives on oral feeding function and need for feeding tube at discharge in the very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1,500 g) preterm infant. STUDY DESIGN:  A retrospective review of surviving inborn infants < 1,500 g and < 32 weeks' gestation ( n  = 209), discharged between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, from the neonatal intensive care unit identified exposure to analgesic and sedative medications, demographics, medical course, and nasogastric or gastrostomy tube (GT) feeding at discharge...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Prathik Bandiya, Sushma Nangia, Arvind Saili
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of surfactant lung lavage (SLL) on duration of respiratory support in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Patients and methods: Sixty term infants with MAS who had moderate to severe respiratory distress (Downes score >4) were randomized toSLL (n = 31) or no lung lavage-NLL (n = 29). Neonates in intervention group underwent lung lavage with dilute surfactant and those in control group were managed as per unit protocol...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Deborah L O'Connor, Alex Kiss, Christopher Tomlinson, Nicole Bando, Ann Bayliss, Douglas M Campbell, Alan Daneman, Jane Francis, Kirsten Kotsopoulos, Prakesh S Shah, Simone Vaz, Brock Williams, Sharon Unger
Background: Human milk-based fortifiers (HMBFs) are being adopted in neonatal care to enrich the nutrients in human milk for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants despite being costly and there being limited efficacy data. No randomized clinical trial has evaluated the use of HMBF compared with bovine milk-based fortifiers (BMBFs) in the absence of formula feeding. Objective: To determine if HMBF compared with BMBF for routine nutrient enrichment of human milk improves feeding tolerance, reduces morbidity, reduces fecal calprotectin (a measure of gut inflammation), and supports the growth of infants <1250 g...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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