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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232618/pediatric-medicolegal-autopsy-in-france-a-forensic-histopathological-approach
#1
Clémence Delteil, Lucile Tuchtan, Julia Torrents, Caroline Capuani, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
The aim of postmortem medicolegal examination in pediatric death is primarily to establish the circumstances and causes of death and to exclude child abuse. In France, pediatric death is systematically documented by medicolegal or medical autopsy. In case of medicolegal autopsy, the complementary examinations, requested and financed by justice, are rarely limited to a histopathological examination. However in medical autopsies other tools are available to the pathologist as toxicology, biochemistry and molecular biology...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231550/-protocol-of-miao-medical-liu-s-infant-tuina-genre-tui-wu-jing-in-western-hunan-province-for-prevention-of-asthma-recurrence
#2
Zhongzheng Li, Yuanbin Jia, Jing Guo, Xiaojun Wang, Shaomin Su, Yingying Liu, Yu Deng, Liangjing Liu, Weikun Shi, Renda Yang
The Miao medical LIU's (LIU Kaiyun) infant tuina genre in western Hunan Province is one of the most famous infant tuina genres in China. Based on physiological and pathological characteristics of infants, generation-inhibition theory of five-elements and Miao medical's promotion-inhibition theory of five-meridians, the tuina protocol of "Tui Wu Jing" was flexibly adjusted; according to different constitution types, including lung-deficiency type, spleen-deficiency type, kidney-deficiency type, qi-deficiency type, yin-deficiency type, yang-deficiency type, phlegm-wet type, phlegm-heat type, different protocols were adopted to prevent or reduce the asthma recurrence and reach the aim of regulating constitution and disease prevention...
July 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230549/a-nationwide-survey-of-incidence-rates-and-risk-factors-of-inguinal-hernia-in-preterm-children
#3
Yu-Wei Fu, Mei-Lien Pan, Yao-Jen Hsu, Tai-Wai Chin
PURPOSE: Clinical observations showed a higher incidence rate of inguinal hernia (IH) in preterm infants. In this study, we calculated the incidence rate of preterm IH from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. METHODS: From NHIRD, 92,308 subjects born in the year of 1997-2005 were randomly selected as the study cohort. The medical claims of these subjects from birth to 6th year of age were analyzed. Preterm births were defined using ICD code 765...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#4
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229093/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-review-of-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Renjithkumar Kalikkot Thekkeveedu, Milenka Cuevas Guaman, Binoy Shivanna
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of primarily premature infants that results from an imbalance between lung injury and repair in the developing lung. BPD is the most common respiratory morbidity in preterm infants, which affects nearly 10, 000 neonates each year in the United States. Over the last two decades, the incidence of BPD has largely been unchanged; however, the pathophysiology has changed with the substantial improvement in the respiratory management of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228933/pulmonary-exacerbations-and-clinical-outcomes-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-infants-and-preschool-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Jordana E Hoppe, Brandie D Wagner, Scott D Sagel, Frank J Accurso, Edith T Zemanick
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in school aged children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) lead to increased morbidity and lung function decline. However, the effect of exacerbations in young children with CF is not fully understood. We sought to characterize the frequency and clinical impact of PEx in a pilot study of infants and pre-school aged children with CF. METHODS: Thirty young children with CF [median (range) 1.5 years (0.2-4.9)] were prospectively followed for 2 years...
December 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225146/microbial-diversity-within-the-airway-microbiome-in-chronic-pediatric-lung-diseases
#7
Andrea Hahn, Stephanie Warnken, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Robert J Freishtat, Keith A Crandall
The study of the airway microbiome in children is an area of emerging research, especially in relation to the role microbial diversity may play in acute and chronic inflammation. Three such pediatric airway diseases include cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic lung disease of prematurity. In cystic fibrosis, the presence of Pseudomonas spp. is associated with decreased microbial diversity. Decreasing microbial diversity is also associated with poor lung function. In asthma, early viral infections appear to drive changes in bacterial diversity which may be associated with asthma risk...
December 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223466/long-term-pulmonary-and-cardiovascular-morbidities-of-neonatal-hyperoxia-exposure-in-mice
#8
Renuka T Menon, Amrit Kumar Shrestha, Corey L Reynolds, Roberto Barrios, Binoy Shivanna
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequently occurs in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), causing increased mortality and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction that persists into adulthood. A first step in developing better therapeutic options is identifying and characterizing an appropriate animal model. Previously, we characterized the short-term morbidities of a model in which C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to 70% O2 (hyperoxia) during the neonatal period. Here, we aimed to determine the long-term morbidities using lung morphometry, echocardiography (Echo), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221229/tracking-occult-pn2-disease-after-mediastinal-dissection-in-early-stage-lung-cancer
#9
EDITORIAL
Cristiano Benato, Sara Pilotto, Maurizio Infante, Emilio Bria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209598/inflammatory-mediators-in-tracheal-aspirates-of-preterm-infants-participating-in-a-randomized-trial-of-permissive-hypercapnia
#10
Sarah Gentner, Mandy Laube, Ulrike Uhlig, Yang Yang, Hans W Fuchs, Jens Dreyhaupt, Helmut D Hummler, Stefan Uhlig, Ulrich H Thome
Background: Ventilator-induced lung injury is considered to be a main factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Optimizing ventilator strategies may reduce respiratory morbidities in preterm infants. Permissive hypercapnia has been suggested to attenuate lung injury. We aimed to determine if a higher PCO2 target range results in less lung injury compared to the control target range and possibly reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) in tracheal aspirates (TA), which has not been addressed before...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209510/milrinone-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-a-randomized-pilot-trial-study-protocol-review-of-literature-and-survey-of-current-practices
#11
REVIEW
Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Martin Keszler, Haresh Kirpalani, Krisa Van Meurs, Patricia Chess, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Bradley Yoder, Maria V Fraga, Holly Hedrick, Kevin P Lally, Leif Nelin, Michael Cotten, Jonathan Klein, Stephanie Guilford, Ashley Williams, Aasma Chaudhary, Marie Gantz, Jenna Gabrio, Dhuly Chowdhury, Kristin Zaterka-Baxter, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins
Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is commonly associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH associated with CDH (CDH-PH) is frequently resistant to conventional pulmonary vasodilator therapy including inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) possibly due to right and left ventricular dysfunction. Milrinone is an intravenous inotrope and lusitrope with pulmonary vasodilator properties and has been shown anecdotally to improve oxygenation in PH. We developed this pilot study to determine if milrinone infusion would improve oxygenation in neonates ≥36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) with CDH...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208441/european-position-statement-on-lung-cancer-screening
#12
REVIEW
Matthijs Oudkerk, Anand Devaraj, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Thomas Henzler, Helmut Prosch, Claus P Heussel, Gorka Bastarrika, Nicola Sverzellati, Mario Mascalchi, Stefan Delorme, David R Baldwin, Matthew E Callister, Nikolaus Becker, Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Witold Rzyman, Maurizio V Infante, Ugo Pastorino, Jesper H Pedersen, Eugenio Paci, Stephen W Duffy, Harry de Koning, John K Field
Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes; that individuals who enter screening programmes should be provided with information on the benefits and harms of screening, and smoking cessation should be offered to all current smokers; that management of detected solid nodules should use semi-automatically measured volume and volume-doubling time; that national quality assurance boards should be set up to oversee technical standards; that a lung nodule management pathway should be established and incorporated into clinical practice with a tailored screening approach; that non-calcified baseline lung nodules greater than 300 mm3, and new lung nodules greater than 200 mm3, should be managed in multidisciplinary teams according to this EU position statement recommendations to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate treatment; and planning for implementation of low-dose CT screening should start throughout Europe as soon as possible...
December 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204660/association-of-age-with-risk-of-hospitalization-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-preterm-infants-with-chronic-lung-disease
#13
Almut G Winterstein, Yoonyoung Choi, H Cody Meissner
Importance: It is unknown whether the age threshold (≤24 months) for preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) to receive immunoprophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as currently recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines correctly identified infants at higher risk for hospitalization for RSV. Objective: To determine the age when the risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD becomes equivalent to the risk for healthy, 1-month-old term infants who do not qualify for immunoprophylaxis...
December 4, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204094/the-significance-of-il-1%C3%AE-3953c-t-il-6-174g-c-and-596g-a-tnf-%C3%AE-308g-a-gene-polymorphisms-and-86-bp-variable-number-tandem-repeat-polymorphism-of-il-1rn-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-infants-born-before-32-weeks-of-gestation
#14
Dawid Szpecht, Janusz Gadzinowski, Irmina Nowak, Dorothy Cygan, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Grażyna Kurzawińska, Dariusz Madajczak, Krzysztof Drews, Marta Szymankiewicz
Introduction: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that affects primarily preterm infants. Genetic factors are also taken into consideration in the pathogenesis of BPD. Genetic predispositions to higher production of inflammation mediators seem to be crucial. Material and methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between polymorphisms: interleukin-1β +3953 C>T, interleukin-6 -174 G>C and -596 G>A, tumour necrosis factor -308 G>A and interleukin-1RN VNTR 86bp and the occurrence of BPD in a population of 100 preterm infants born from singleton pregnancy, before 32+0 weeks of gestation, exposed to antenatal steroids therapy, and without congenital abnormalities...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198536/infants-with-atypical-presentations-of-alveolar-capillary-dysplasia-with-misalignment-of-the-pulmonary-veins-who-underwent-bilateral-lung-transplantation
#15
Christopher T Towe, Frances V White, R Mark Grady, Stuart C Sweet, Pirooz Eghtesady, Daniel J Wegner, Partha Sen, Przemyslaw Szafranski, Pawel Stankiewicz, Aaron Hamvas, F Sessions Cole, Jennifer A Wambach
OBJECTIVE: To describe disease course, histopathology, and outcomes for infants with atypical presentations of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) who underwent bilateral lung transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed clinical history, diagnostic studies, explant histology, genetic sequence results, and post-transplant course for 6 infants with atypical ACDMPV who underwent bilateral lung transplantation at St. Louis Children's Hospital...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197867/topical-coconut-oil-in-very-preterm-infants-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Tobias Strunk, Sameer Pupala, Julie Hibbert, Dorota Doherty, Sanjay Patole
BACKGROUND: The immature fragile skin of preterm infants represents an inadequate protective barrier. The emollient and anti-infective properties of coconut oil make it a potentially beneficial topical agent for this population. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate feasibility, safety, and the effects of topical coconut oil on skin condition in very preterm infants. METHODS: An open-label randomised controlled trial in preterm infants <30 weeks' gestation was conducted...
December 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194753/immunogenicity-of-recombinant-measles-vaccine-expressing-fusion-protein-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#17
Akihito Sawada, Kiyokazu Yunomae, Tetsuo Nakayama
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections in infants. Effective vaccines are now under investigation, but no vaccine is currently available. In our previous report, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine expressing the RSV fusion protein (MVAIK/RSV/F) was developed, and protective immunity against RSV was demonstrated in cotton rats. In this study, the immunogenicity and protective effects were investigated in three cynomolgus monkeys immunized with MVAIK/RSV/F. Neutralizing test antibodies against RSV were detected and no infectious virus was recovered after the challenge from the lungs of monkeys immunized with MVAIK/RSV/F...
November 30, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193276/review-shows-that-using-surfactant-a-number-of-times-or-as-a-vehicle-for-budesonide-may-reduce-the-risk-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#18
REVIEW
J M Hascoët, J C Picaud, I Ligi, T Blanc, P Daoud, V Zupan, F Moreau, I Guilhoto, M Rouabah, C Alexandre, E Saliba, L Storme, J Patkai, M Pomedio, I Hamon
AIM: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains the most common respiratory morbidity in immature infants. This review describes the diagnosis of BPD has evolved and summarises the therapeutic approaches that have made it possible to limit the incidence of BPD. METHOD: We reviewed the literature from the first definition of BPD by Northway in 1967 to the surfactant treatment policies that are currently in use, drawing on more than 50 papers up to 2017. RESULTS: Our review showed that improvements in neonatal survival have been associated with an increased risk of severe BPD, significant levels of long-term morbidity and the increased use of healthcare resources...
November 28, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189422/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-premature-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#19
Milenka Cuevas Guamán, Adesola C Akinkuotu, Stephanie M Cruz, Pamela A Griffiths, Stephen E Welty, Timothy C Lee, Oluyinka O Olutoye
Prematurity and low birth weight have been exclusion criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); however, these criteria are not evidence based. With advances in anticoagulation, improved technology, and surgical expertise, it is difficult to deny a potential therapy based on these criteria alone. We report the outcome of three neonates who were ineligible based on traditional criteria but were offered ECMO as a life-saving measure. We highlight the interdisciplinary nature of modern decision-making...
November 14, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189372/multifunctional-assessment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-perfusion-metabolic-correlation
#20
Lucio Calandriello, Anna Rita Larici, Lucia Leccisotti, Annemilia Del Ciello, Giuliano Sica, Amato Infante, Maria Teresa Congedo, Andrea Poscia, Alessandro Giordano, Lorenzo Bonomo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between whole-tumor CT perfusion and FDG PET/CT parameters in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with NSCLC were prospectively included. CT perfusion parameters calculated were blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time, and peak enhancement intensity. SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were evaluated for PET/CT...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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