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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911585/early-lung-disease-in-infants-and-pre-school-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-what-have-we-learnt-and-what-should-we-do-about-it
#1
Sarath C Ranganathan, Graham L Hall, Peter D Sly, Stephen M Stick, Tonia A Douglas
The past decade has seen significant advances in understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Pulmonary inflammation, infection and structural lung damage manifest very early in life and is prevalent among preschool children and infants, often in the absence of symptoms or signs. Early childhood represents a pivotal period amenable to intervention strategies that could delay or prevent the onset of lung damage and alter the longer term clinical trajectory for individuals with CF...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911218/aberrant-t-cell-immunity-triggered-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#2
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#3
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902984/evaluation-of-club-cell-10-kda-protein-cc10-levels-in-full-term-infants
#4
Nasim Gorji, Aprile L Pilon, Melissa E Winn, Morgan Newsome, Jonathan M Davis
BACKGROUND: The club cell 10-kDa protein (CC10) is a homeostatic protein that is produced in the lung, diffuses into the blood, and is then excreted into the urine and stool. CC10 is known to have anti-inflammatory properties and to have lower endogenous production in preterm infants. OBJECTIVES: As recombinant human CC10 (rhCC10) is being studied in preterm infants to reduce lung injury, understanding CC10 levels in term infants with normal lungs is needed to establish appropriate target dosing ranges...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901512/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alveolar-and-white-matter-developmental-failure-in-premature-infants
#5
Vadim S Ten
At birth, some organs in premature infants are not developed enough to meet challenges of the extra-uterine life. Although growth and maturation continues after premature birth, postnatal organ development may become sluggish or even arrested, leading to organ dysfunction. There is no clear mechanistic concept of this postnatal organ developmental failure in premature neonates. This review introduces a concept-forming hypothesis: Mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction is a fundamental mechanism of organs maturation failure in premature infants...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899539/reliability-of-displayed-tidal-volume-in-healthy-and-surfactant-depleted-piglets
#6
A Cecilia Mendiondo Luedloff, Tracy L Thurman, Shirley J Holt, Shasha Bai, Mark J Heulitt, Sherry E Courtney
BACKGROUND: Volutrauma has been established as the key factor in ventilator-induced lung injury and can only be avoided if tidal volume (VT) is accurately displayed and delivered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of displayed exhaled VT in a ventilator commonly used in small infants with or without a proximal flow sensor and using 3 methods to achieve a target VT in both a healthy and lung-injured neonatal pig model. METHODS: This was a prospective animal study utilizing 8 male pigs, approximately 2...
December 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898687/effects-of-chronologic-age-and-young-child-exposure-on-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-among-us-preterm-infants-born-at-32-to-35-weeks-gestation
#7
Eric A F Simões, Evan J Anderson, Xionghua Wu, Christopher S Ambrose
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease as a function of chronologic age and exposure to young children in US preterm infants. METHODS: In the RSV Respiratory Events among Preterm Infants Outcomes and Risk Tracking (REPORT) study, preterm infants born at 32-35 weeks gestational age (wGA) were enrolled from 188 US clinics and followed September-May of 2009-2010 or 2010-2011. Infants with medically-attended acute respiratory illness had nasal/pharyngeal swabs collected for viral testing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895951/persistent-tachypnea-and-alveolar-hemorrhage-in-an-infant-an-unexpected-etiology
#8
John Bishara, Angela Webb, Christina Valsamis, Claudia Halaby, Melodi Pirzada
Persistent tachypnea and failure to thrive during infancy have a broad differential diagnosis which includes pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare entity in children. DAH requires an extensive work-up as certain conditions may need chronic therapy. Cardiovascular disorders are included in the etiology of DAH. We present a case of an 8-month-old female with a moderate, restrictive patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) admitted to the hospital with respiratory distress and failure to thrive...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895172/pulmonary-dendritic-cell-subsets-shape-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-immunodominance-hierarchy-in-neonates
#9
Allison M W Malloy, Tracy J Ruckwardt, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Annie W Lau-Kilby, Barney S Graham
Young infants are generally more susceptible to viral infections and experience more severe disease than do adults. CD8(+) T cells are important for viral clearance, and although often ineffective in neonates they can be protective when adequately stimulated. Using a murine CB6F1/J hybrid model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we previously demonstrated that the CD8(+) T cell immunodominance hierarchy to two RSV-derived epitopes, K(d)M282-90 and D(b)M187-195, was determined by the age at infection...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894031/artificial-placenta-analysis-of-recent-progress
#10
REVIEW
Stephen D Bird
The artificial placenta (AP) has for many decades captured the imagination of scientists and authors with popular fiction including The Matrix and Aldous Huxley's "Brave New World", depicting a human surviving ex-utero in an artificial uterine environment (AUE). For scientists this has fascinated as a way forward for extremely preterm infants (EPIs) born less than 28 weeks of gestation. Early successes with mechanical ventilation (MV) for infants born above 28 weeks of gestation meant that AP research lost momentum...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893721/biomarkers-associated-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-mortality-in-premature-infants
#11
Jessica Balena-Borneman, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Hemant K Tiwari, Russell L Griffin, Brian Halloran, David Askenazi
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) portends lifelong organ impairment and death. Our ability to predict BPD in first days of life is limited, but could be enhance using novel biomarkers. METHODS: Using an available clinical and urine biomarker database obtained from a prospective 113 infant cohort (birth weight ≤1200 g and/or gestational age ≤31 weeks), we evaluated the independent association of 14 urine biomarkers with BPD/mortality. RESULTS: Two of the 14 urine biomarkers were independently associated with BPD/mortality after controlling for gestational age (GA), small for gestational age (SGA), and intubation status...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892756/use-of-high-non-invasive-respiratory-support-pressures-in-preterm-neonates-a-single-centre-experience
#12
Abdulaziz Binmanee, Salhab El Helou, Sandesh Shivananda, Christoph Fusch, Amit Mukerji
PURPOSE: To describe the incidence, indications and clinical outcomes following high pressures on non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) in preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of all neonates with BW < 1,500 g admitted from July 2012 to June 2014 and placed on high NRS, defined as mean airway pressure ≥ 10 cm H2O for at least 12 continuous hours using NCPAP and/or nasal high frequency ventilation (NIHFV). Clinical and physiological outcomes following high NRS were ascertained...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891060/human-metapneumovirus-in-the-preterm-neonate-current-perspectives
#13
Nathalie L Maitre, John V Williams
Premature birth (<37 weeks gestation) occurs in ~11% of all births in the US. These infants are at risk of chronic lung disease and respiratory conditions, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Respiratory viruses are important causes of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in preterm infants, leading to rehospitalization, increased health care burden, and long-term morbidity. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a paramyxovirus discovered in 2001 that is related to respiratory syncytial virus. Epidemiologic studies show that HMPV is a leading cause of ARI in children and adults worldwide...
2016: Research and Reports in Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889352/oxidized-glutathione-and-uric-acid-as-biomarkers-of-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#14
Nina Dickerhof, Rufus Turner, Irada Khalilova, Emmanuelle Fantino, Peter D Sly, Anthony J Kettle
BACKGROUND: In cystic fibrosis (CF) there is an urgent need for earlier diagnosis of pulmonary infections and inflammation using blood- and urine-based biomarkers. METHODS: Using mass spectrometry, oxidation products of glutathione and uric acid were measured in matched samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), serum and urine from 36 infants and children with CF, and related to markers of neutrophilic inflammation and infection in BAL. RESULTS: Oxidation products of glutathione (glutathione sulfonamide, GSA) and uric acid (allantoin), were elevated in BAL of children with pulmonary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) compared to those without (p<0...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888005/a-simplified-semi-quantitative-structural-lung-disease-computed-tomography-outcome-during-quiet-breathing-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Magali Saguintaah, Yann Cabon, Rémi Gauthier, Cécile Duboibaudry, Laure Couderc, Muriel Le Bourgeois, Philippe Reix, Raphael Chiron, Ikram Taleb Arrada, Nicolas Molinari, Stefan Matecki
Chest tomography (CT) using the controlled ventilation technique (CTCV) is a sensitive method to detect features of lung cystic fibrosis (CF) disease in infants with CF. However, this technique needs sedation and is not easily applied for the clinician who may need, in the follow-up, to evaluate more precisely lung disease in infants with CF. Thus, our study aims to evaluate if CT assessment of lung disease, without the need of sedation, during quiet breathing, using a semi-quantitative scoring system, is reproducible and may discriminate infants with CF from control infants at an early stage of the lung disease...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886403/rapid-test-for-lung-maturity-based-on-spectroscopy-of-gastric-aspirate-predicted-respiratory-distress-syndrome-with-high-sensitivity
#16
Henrik Verder, Christian Heiring, Howard Clark, David Sweet, Torben E Jessen, Finn Ebbesen, Lars J Björklund, Bengt Andreasson, Lars Bender, Aksel Bertelsen, Marianne Dahl, Christian Eschen, Jesper Fenger-Grøn, Stine F Hoffmann, Agnar Höskuldsson, Maria Bruusgaard-Mouritsen, Fredrik Lundberg, Anthony D Postle, Peter Schousboe, Peter Schmidt, Hristo Stanchev, Lars Sørensen
AIM: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. By the time symptoms appear it may already be too late to prevent a severe course, with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or mortality. We aimed to develop a rapid test of lung maturity for targeting surfactant supplementation. METHODS: Concentrations of the most surface-active lung phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in gastric aspirates from premature infants were measured by mass spectrometry and expressed as the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S)...
November 25, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879380/performance-of-leak-compensation-in-all-age-icu-ventilators-during-volume-targeted-neonatal-ventilation-a-lung-model-study
#17
Taiga Itagaki, Desmond J Bennett, Christopher T Chenelle, Daniel F Fisher, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: Volume-targeted ventilation is increasingly used in low birthweight infants because of the potential for reducing volutrauma and avoiding hypocapnea. However, it is not known what level of air leak is acceptable during neonatal volume-targeted ventilation when leak compensation is activated concurrently. METHODS: Four ICU ventilators (Servo-i, PB980, V500, and Avea) were compared in available invasive volume-targeted ventilation modes (pressure control continuous spontaneous ventilation [PC-CSV] and pressure control continuous mandatory ventilation [PC-CMV])...
November 22, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876675/a-phase-1-1b-study-evaluating-trametinib-plus-docetaxel-or-pemetrexed-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
David R Gandara, Natasha Leighl, Jean-Pierre Delord, Fabrice Barlesi, Jaafar Bennouna, Gerald Zalcman, Jeffrey R Infante, Karen L Reckamp, Karen Kelly, Frances A Shepherd, Julien Mazieres, Filip Janku, Olivia S Gardner, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, Yuehui Wu, Donna S Cox, Dan Schramek, Vijay Peddareddigari, Yuan Liu, Anthony M D'Amelio, George Blumenschein
PURPOSE: This 2-part study evaluated trametinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, in combination with anticancer agents. Inhibition of MEK, a downstream effector of KRAS, demonstrated preclinical synergy with chemotherapy in KRAS-mutant non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Part 1 of this study identified recommended phase 2 doses of trametinib combinations. Part 2, reported herein, evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of trametinib combinations in patients with NSCLC with and without KRAS mutations...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876355/lung-protective-ventilatory-strategies-in-intubated-preterm-neonates-with-rds
#19
REVIEW
F Reiterer, B Schwaberger, T Freidl, G Schmölzer, G Pichler, B Urlesberger
This article provides a narrative review of lung-protective ventilatory strategies (LPVS) in intubated preterm infants with RDS. A description of strategies is followed by results on short-and long-term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Strategies will include patient-triggered or synchronized ventilation, volume targeted ventilation, the technique of intubation, surfactant administration and rapid extubation to NCPAP (INSURE), the open lung concept, strategies of high-frequency ventilation, and permissive hypercapnia...
October 26, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873442/forced-deflation-pulmonary-function-test-a-novel-method-to-evaluate-lung-function-in-infants-and-young-children
#20
Rakesh K Goyal, Azada Ibrahimova, Maria L Escolar, Paul Szabolcs, Mark Vander Lugt, Randy M Windreich, Daniel J Weiner
We describe the safety and feasibility of a forced deflation pulmonary function test (dPFT) in infants and young children. Fifty-two dPFT studies were performed in 26 patients (median age, 1.4 years). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow (FEF75 ) were normal in all except one case, but respiratory system compliance (Crs) was reduced in 24% patients. There were no significant differences in pre-blood and marrow transplantation FVC, FEF75 , and Crs between those patients who did and those who did not have posttransplant pulmonary complications...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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