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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927250/gut-microbiota-and-the-liver
#1
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Giuseppe G Caprio, Vittorio M Ormando, Carmela Loguercio
Nowadays liver diseases represent one of major healthy problems in the world in terms of morbidity and mortality. The high prevalence of liver pathologies represents the key point to understand the necessity to identify the pathogenetic mechanisms that support these disorders in order to nurse them. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Gut microbiota is considered both as a promoting factor and as a potential therapeutic target of a large number of liver pathologies due to the connection between intestine and liver: the gut-liver axis...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926118/chop-induced-loss-of-intestinal-epithelial-stemness-contributes-to-bile-duct-ligation-induced-cholestatic-liver-injury
#2
Runping Liu, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Zhiming Huang, Derrick Zhao, Bhagyalaxmi Sukka Ganesh, Guanhua Lai, William M Pandak, Phillip B Hylemon, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Arun J Sanyal, Huiping Zhou
Impaired intestinal barrier function promotes the progression of various liver diseases including cholestatic liver disease. The close association of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with inflammatory bowel disease highlights the importance of the gut-liver axis. It has been reported that bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis is significantly reduced in C/EBP homologous protein knock out (CHOP(-/-) ) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that BDL induces striking and acute hepatic ER stress responses after 1 day, which return to normal after 3 days...
September 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925102/continued-alcohol-misuse-in-human-cirrhosis-is-associated-with-an-impaired-gut-liver-axis
#3
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Derrick Zhao, Hajime Takei, Andrew Fagan, Phillip Hylemon, Huiping Zhou, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Oliver Fiehn, Nita Salzman, Mary Holtz, Pippa Simpson, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Runping Liu, Dae Joong Kang, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis and alcohol can independently affect the gut-liver axis with systemic inflammation. However their concurrent impact in humans is unclear. AIM: Determine the effect of continued alcohol misuse on the gut-liver axis in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Age and MELD-balanced cirrhotic patients who were currently drinking (Alc) or abstinent (NAlc), and healthy controls underwent serum and stool collection. A subset underwent upper endoscopy and colonoscopy for biopsies and duodenal fluid collection...
September 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875318/influence-of-gut-microbiota-on-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
REVIEW
Fabiana de Faria Ghetti, Daiane Gonçalves Oliveira, Juliano Machado de Oliveira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira de Castro Ferreira, Dionéia Evangelista Cesar, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the presence of steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, with or without fibrosis. The prevalence of NASH has increased with the obesity epidemic, but its etiology is multifactorial. The current studies suggest the role of gut microbiota in the development and progression of NASH. The aim is to review the studies that investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and NASH. These review also discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms and the influence of diet on the gut-liver axis...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840534/gut-liver-axis-gut-microbiota-in-shaping-hepatic-innate-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Xunyao Wu, Zhigang Tian
Gut microbiota play an essential role in shaping immune cell responses. The liver was continuously exposed to metabolic products of intestinal commensal bacterial through portal vein and alteration of gut commensal bateria was always associated with increased risk of liver inflammation and autoimmune disease. Considered as a unique immunological organ, the liver is enriched with a large number of innate immune cells. Herein, we summarize the available literature of gut microbiota in shaping the response of hepatic innate immune cells including NKT cells, NK cells, γδ T cells and Kupffer cells during health and disease...
August 22, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782199/check-your-microbiota-when-taking-the-drug
#6
EDITORIAL
Katrin Hochrath, Bernd Schnabl
In this edition of Hepatology, Yip's article entitled "The Liver-Gut Microbiota Axis Modulates Hepatotoxicity of Tacrine in the Rat" [1] elegantly uncovers the impact of the intestinal microbiota in the inter-individual variation of tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775066/the-interplay-between-iron-and-oxygen-homeostasis-with-a-particular-focus-on-the-heart
#7
Samira Lakhal-Littleton, Peter A Robbins
Iron is subject to tight homeostatic control in mammals. At the systemic level, iron homeostasis is controlled by the liver-derived hormone hepcidin acting on its target ferroportin in the gut, spleen and liver, which form the sites of iron uptake, recycling and storage, respectively. At the cellular level, iron homeostasis is dependent on the iron regulatory proteins IRP1/IRP2. Unique chemical properties of iron underpin its importance in biochemical reactions involving oxygen. As such, it is not surprising that there are reciprocal regulatory links between iron and oxygen homeostasis, operating both at the systemic and cellular levels...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765282/the-drug-transporter-oat3-slc22a8-regulates-endogenous-metabolite-flow-through-the-gut-liver-kidney-axis
#9
Kevin T Bush, Wei Wu, Christina Lun, Sanjay K Nigam
The organic anion transporters OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) have similar substrate specificity for drugs, but it is far from clear whether this holds for endogenous substrates. By analysis of more than 600 metabolites in the Oat3KO by LCMS, we demonstrate OAT3 involvement in the movement of gut microbiome-derived products, key metabolites and signaling molecules, including those flowing through the gut-liver-kidney axis. Major pathways affected included those involved in metabolism of bile acids, flavonoids, nutrients, amino acids (including tryptophan-derivatives that are uremic solutes) and lipids...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751453/maternal-modifiers-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota-metabolic-consequences
#10
REVIEW
Christopher M Mulligan, Jacob E Friedman
Transmission of metabolic diseases from mother to child is multifactorial and includes genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences. Evidence in rodents, humans and non-human primates support the scientific premise that exposure to maternal obesity or high-fat diet during pregnancy creates a long-lasting metabolic signature on the infant innate immune system and the juvenile microbiota, which predisposes the offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. In neonates, gastrointestinal microbes introduced through the mother are noted for their ability to serve as direct inducers/regulators of the infant immune system...
October 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720797/commensal-gut-microbiota-immunomodulatory-actions-in-bone-marrow-and-liver-have-catabolic-effects-on-skeletal-homeostasis-in-health
#11
Chad M Novince, Carolyn R Whittow, Johannes D Aartun, Jessica D Hathaway, Nicole Poulides, Michael B Chavez, Heidi M Steinkamp, Kaeleigh A Kirkwood, Emily Huang, Caroline Westwater, Keith L Kirkwood
Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota's osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota's immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbiota has anti-anabolic effects suppressing osteoblastogenesis and pro-catabolic effects enhancing osteoclastogenesis, which drive bone loss in health...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#12
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676707/the-gut-microbiome-and-liver-cancer-mechanisms-and-clinical-translation
#13
REVIEW
Le-Xing Yu, Robert F Schwabe
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality. HCC almost exclusively develops in patients with chronic liver disease, driven by a vicious cycle of liver injury, inflammation and regeneration that typically spans decades. Increasing evidence points towards a key role of the bacterial microbiome in promoting the progression of liver disease and the development of HCC. Here, we will review mechanisms by which the gut microbiota promotes hepatocarcinogenesis, focusing on the leaky gut, bacterial dysbiosis, microbe-associated molecular patterns and bacterial metabolites as key pathways that drive cancer-promoting liver inflammation, fibrosis and genotoxicity...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664921/metabolism-new-insights-into-the-bat-liver-gut-axis
#14
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659742/dietary-fructose-causes-defective-insulin-signalling-and-ceramide-accumulation-in-the-liver-that-can-be-reversed-by-gut-microbiota-modulation
#15
Raffaella Crescenzo, Arianna Mazzoli, Blanda Di Luccia, Francesca Bianco, Rosa Cancelliere, Luisa Cigliano, Giovanna Liverini, Loredana Baccigalupi, Susanna Iossa
Objective: The link between metabolic derangement of the gut-2013liver-visceral white adipose tissue (v-WAT) axis and gut microbiota was investigated. Methods: Rats were fed a fructose-rich diet and treated with an antibiotic mix. Inflammation was measured in portal plasma, ileum, liver, and v-WAT, while insulin signalling was analysed by measuring levels of phosphorylated kinase Akt. The function and oxidative status of hepatic mitochondria and caecal microbiota composition were also evaluated. Results: Ileal inflammation, increase in plasma transaminases, plasma peroxidised lipids, portal concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha, lipopolysaccharide, and non-esterified fatty acids, were induced by fructose and were reversed by antibiotic...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651460/-gut-liver-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-retrospective-study
#16
Anna Egresi, Ágota Kovács, Ágnes Szilvás, Anna Blázovics
INTRODUCTION: Examination of the gut-liver axis came into the spotlight worldwide. Liver enzyme elevations are commonly seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is a diagnostic challenge in everyday clinical practice. Liver and biliary diseases are common extra-intestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The assessment of routine liver function tests could be an inaccurate reflection of liver damage, so its prevalence could be underestimated...
July 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646502/the-liver-gut-microbiota-axis-modulates-hepatotoxicity-of-tacrine-in-the-rat
#17
Lian Yee Yip, Chiu Cheong Aw, Sze Han Lee, Yi Shuen Hong, Han Chen Ku, Winston Hecheng Xu, Jessalyn Mei Xuan Chan, Eleanor Jing Yi Cheong, Kern Rei Chng, Amanda Hui Qi Ng, Niranjan Nagarajan, Ratha Mahendran, Yuan Kun Lee, Edward R Browne, Eric Chun Yong Chan
The gut microbiota possesses diverse metabolic activities but its contribution towards heterogeneous toxicological responses is poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the role of the liver-gut microbiota axis in underpinning the hepatotoxicity of tacrine. We employed an integrated strategy combining pharmacokinetics, toxicology, metabonomics, genomics and metagenomics to elucidate and validate the mechanism of tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity in Lister hooded rats. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats demonstrated 3...
June 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621554/gut-microbiota-changes-and-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
Tomislav Preveden, Emidio Scarpellini, Natasa Milić, Francesco Luzza, Ludovico Abenavoli
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem with 150 million infected people worldwide. Liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to increased intestinal permeability with passage of microbial antigens into the liver through the portal circulation. The concept of 'gut-liver' axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases. Several recent studies also revealed that an altered gut microbiota can be implicated in the pathogenesis of HCV-induced chronic liver disease (CHC)...
September 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600319/microbiome-and-nafld-potential-influence-of-aerobic-fitness-and-lifestyle-modification
#19
Matthew R Panasevich, Willem T Peppler, Daniel B Oerther, David C Wright, R Scott Rector
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease with prevalence rates that are on the rise in the US and worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of liver pathologies including simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with inflammation and fibrosis. The gut microbiome has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in combating metabolic diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and NAFLD/NASH. Diet-induced obesity/Western style diet feeding causes severe microbial dysbiosis initiating a microbiome signature that promotes metabolite production that directly impacts hepatic metabolism...
June 9, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580281/glucagon-like-peptide-2-promotes-gallbladder-refilling-via-a-tgr5-independent-glp-2r-dependent-pathway
#20
Bernardo Yusta, Dianne Matthews, Grace B Flock, John R Ussher, Brigitte Lavoie, Gary M Mawe, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrients and bile acids and control metabolism via actions on structurally-related yet distinct G protein coupled receptors. GLP-1 regulates gut motility, appetite, islet function, and glucose homeostasis, whereas GLP-2 enhances intestinal nutrient absorption. GLP-1R agonists are used to treat diabetes and obesity, and a GLP-2R agonist is approved to treat short bowel syndrome. Unexpectedly, reports of gallbladder disease have been associated with the use of both GLP-1R and GLP-2R agonists and after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms remain unknown...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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