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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352076/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-permeability-the-yin-and-yang-in-alcohol-dependence-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Peter Stärkel, Sophie Leclercq, Philippe de Timary, Bernd Schnabl
Alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease represent a major public health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse is associated with increased intestinal permeability and alterations of the gut microbiota composition, allowing bacterial components, bacteria, and metabolites to reach the portal and the systemic circulation. These gut-derived bacterial products are recognized by immune cells circulating in the blood or residing in remote organs such as the liver leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are considered important mediators of the liver-gut-brain communication...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331880/preventive-effects-of-indole-3-carbinol-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-via-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-role-of-gut-liver-adipose-tissue-axis
#2
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331341/effects-of-the-gut-liver-axis-on-ischemia-mediated-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-in-the-mouse-liver
#3
Lorenzo A Orci, Stéphanie Lacotte, Vaihere Delaune, Florence Slits, Graziano Oldani, Vladimir Lazarevic, Carlo Rossetti, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Philippe Morel, Christian Toso
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is growing evidence that liver graft ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, but the involved mechanisms are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mesenteric congestion due to portal blood flow interruption induces endotoxin-mediated Toll-Like Receptor 4 (Tlr4) engagement, resulting in elevated liver cancer burden. We also assessed the role of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in this context. METHODS: C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to standardized models of liver I/R injury and RIPC, by occluding hepatic and femoral blood vessels...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#4
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244788/dual-modulation-of-human-hepatic-zonation-via-canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-pathways
#5
Laura McEnerney, Kara Duncan, Bo-Ram Bang, Sandra Elmasry, Meng Li, Toshio Miki, Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Yatrik M Shah, Takeshi Saito
The hepatic lobule is divided into three zones along the portal-central vein axis. Hepatocytes within each zone exhibit a distinctive gene expression profile that coordinates their metabolic compartmentalization. The zone-dependent heterogeneity of hepatocytes has been hypothesized to result from the differential degree of exposure to oxygen, nutrition and gut-derived toxins. In addition, the gradient of Wnt signaling that increases towards the central vein seen in rodent models is believed to play a critical role in shaping zonation...
December 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241453/bile-acid-is-a-significant-host-factor-shaping-the-gut-microbiome-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#6
Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). On the other hand, BAs directly regulate the gut microbiota with their strong antimicrobial activities. It remains unclear, however, how mammalian BAs cross-talk with gut microbiome and shape microbial composition in a dynamic and interactive way. RESULTS: We quantitatively profiled small molecule metabolites derived from host-microbial co-metabolism in mice, demonstrating that BAs were the most significant factor correlated with microbial alterations among all types of endogenous metabolites...
December 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229928/author-correction-lack-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-leads-to-gut-liver-axis-derangement-gut-dysbiosis-and-a-worsened-phenotype-in-a-mouse-model-of-nafld
#7
Irene Pierantonelli, Chiara Rychlicki, Laura Agostinelli, Debora Maria Giordano, Melania Gaggini, Cristina Fraumene, Chiara Saponaro, Valeria Manghina, Loris Sartini, Eleonora Mingarelli, Claudio Pinto, Emma Buzzigoli, Luciano Trozzi, Antonio Giordano, Marco Marzioni, Samuele De Minicis, Sergio Uzzau, Saverio Cinti, Amalia Gastaldelli, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229136/the-gut-liver-axis-impact-of-a-mouse-model-of-small-bowel-bacterial-overgrowth
#8
Qingqing Wang, Bin Wang, Vijay Saxena, Lili Miles, Josh Tiao, Joel E Mortensen, Jaimie D Nathan
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria impact liver diseases remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth and to determine its impact on hepatobiliary injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A jejunal self-filling blind loop (SFBL) was created in C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks after surgery, the mice were euthanized, and bacterial cultures of luminal content of the loop and extraintestinal tissues were performed...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200007/disruption-of-the-gut-liver-axis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#9
Tao Zhang, Kewei Sun, Ya Wang, Lei Huang, Ren Lang, Wei Jiang
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterized by organ failure mediated by acute decompensation of cirrhosis. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the gut-liver axis (GLS) and its association with ACLF pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms related to the alteration of the GLA and their involvement in ACLF pathogenesis and suggest some possible therapeutic options that could modulate the GLA dysfunction. This knowledge may provide information useful for the design of therapeutic strategies for gut dysbiosis and its complications in ACLF...
February 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190550/green-tea-extract-protects-against-hepatic-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-along-the-gut-liver-axis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-reducing-endotoxin-and-tlr4-myd88-signaling
#10
Jinhui Li, Geoffrey Y Sasaki, Priyankar Dey, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Allison N Labyk, Joshua D McDonald, Joshua B Kim, Richard S Bruno
Green tea extract (GTE) reduces NFκB-mediated inflammation during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We hypothesized that its anti-inflammatory activities would be mediated in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. Wild-type (WT) and loss-of-function TLR4-mutant (TLR4m) mice were fed a high-fat diet containing GTE at 0 or 2% for 8 weeks before assessing NASH, NFκB-mediated inflammation, TLR4 and its adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF, circulating endotoxin, and intestinal tight junction protein mRNA expression...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184608/role-of-pregnane-x-receptor-in-regulating-bacterial-translocation-in-chronic-liver-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Sundhar Mohandas, Balasubramaniyan Vairappan
Bacterial translocation (BT) has been impeccably implicated as a driving factor in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of chronic liver diseases (CLD). Scientific evidence accumulated over the last four decades has implied that the disease pathologies in CLD and BT are connected as a loop in the gut-liver axis and exacerbate each other. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and nuclear receptor that is expressed ubiquitously along the gut-liver-axis. PXR has been intricately associated with the regulation of various mechanisms attributed in causing BT...
November 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167556/alterations-in-gut-microbiota-associated-with-a-cafeteria-diet-and-the-physiological-consequences-in-the-host
#12
J M Del Bas, M Guirro, N Boqué, A Cereto, R Ras, A Crescenti, A Caimari, N Canela, L Arola
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota have been described as key players in the pathophysiology of obesity and different components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The cafeteria diet (CAF)-fed rat is a preclinical model that reproduces most of the alterations found in human MetS by simulating a palatable human unbalanced diet. Our objective was to assess the effects of CAF on gut microbiota and their associations with different components of MetS in Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals were fed a standard diet or CAF for 12 weeks...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159825/modulation-of-the-intestinal-bile-acid-fxr-fgf15-axis-improves-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-mice
#13
Phillipp Hartmann, Katrin Hochrath, Angela Horvath, Peng Chen, Caroline T Seebauer, Cristina Llorente, Lirui Wang, Yazen Alnouti, Derrick E Fouts, Peter Stärkel, Rohit Loomba, Sally Coulter, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Lei Ling, Stephen J Rossi, Alex M DePaoli, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, David A Brenner, Bernd Schnabl
Alcoholic liver disease is associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Functional consequences of alcohol-associated dysbiosis are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify a mechanism of how changes in the intestinal microbiota contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Metagenomic sequencing of intestinal contents demonstrated that chronic ethanol feeding in mice is associated with an overrepresentation of bacterial genomic DNA encoding choloylglycine hydrolase, which deconjugates bile acids in the intestine...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156373/mitochondria-targeted-ubiquinone-mitoq-enhances-acetaldehyde-clearance-by-reversing-alcohol-induced-posttranslational-modification-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-a-molecular-mechanism-of-protection-against-alcoholic-liver-disease
#14
Liuyi Hao, Qian Sun, Wei Zhong, Wenliang Zhang, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
Alcohol metabolism in the liver generates highly toxic acetaldehyde. Breakdown of acetaldehyde by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in the mitochondria consumes NAD(+) and generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which represents a fundamental mechanism in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). A mitochondria-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) has been shown to confer greater protection against oxidative damage in the mitochondria compared to untargeted antioxidants. The present study aimed to investigate if MitoQ could preserve mitochondrial ALDH2 activity and speed up acetaldehyde clearance, thereby protects against ALD...
November 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154964/lipotoxicity-and-the-gut-liver-axis-in-nash-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Fabio Marra, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
The pathogenesis of nanoalcoholic fatty liver disease is still incompletely understood, in particolar the mechanisms whereby a minority of patients develop a more severe phenotype characterized by hepatocellular damage, inflammation, and fibrosis. In this review we discuss two pivotal aspects of the pathogenesis of NASH. We first analyze the initial mechanisms responsible of hepatocellular damage and inflammation, which derive from the toxic effects of excess lipids. Accumulating data indicate that the total amount of triglycerides stored in hepatocytes is not the major determinant of lipotoxicity, and that specific lipid classes act as damaging agents on liver cells...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139555/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption-in-nafld-mice
#16
Weijun Wang, Jinfang Zhao, Wenfang Gui, Dan Sun, Haijiang Dai, Li Xiao, Huikuan Chu, Fan Du, Qingjing Zhu, Bernd Schnabl, Kai Huang, Ling Yang, Xiaohua Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The gut-liver axis is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Targeting the gut-liver axis and bile acid-based pharmaceuticals are potential therapies for NAFLD. The effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a candidate medicine for NAFLD, on intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammation, gut lipid transport and microbiota composition in a murine NAFLD model were analysed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: An NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107524/a-polyphenol-rich-cranberry-extract-reverses-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-independently-of-body-weight-loss
#17
Fernando F Anhê, Renato T Nachbar, Thibault V Varin, Vanessa Vilela, Stéphanie Dudonné, Geneviève Pilon, Maryse Fournier, Marc-André Lecours, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, Emile Levy, André Marette
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that polyphenol-rich extracts from various sources can prevent obesity and associated gastro-hepatic and metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. However, whether such extracts can reverse obesity-linked metabolic alterations remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a polyphenol-rich extract from cranberry (CE) to reverse obesity and associated metabolic disorders in DIO-mice. METHODS: Mice were pre-fed either a Chow or a High Fat-High Sucrose (HFHS) diet for 13 weeks to induce obesity and then treated either with CE (200 mg/kg, Chow + CE, HFHS + CE) or vehicle (Chow, HFHS) for 8 additional weeks...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096734/endocrine-adiponectin-fgf15-19-axis-in-ethanol-induced-inflammation-and-alcoholic-liver-injury
#18
Min You, Zhou Zhou, Michael Daniels, Alvin Jogasuria
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent form of liver diseases, encompassing a spectrum of progressive pathological changes from steatosis to steatohepatitis to fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcoholic steatosis/steatohepatitis is the initial stage of ALD and a major risk factor for advanced liver injuries. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted from adipocytes. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 (human homolog, FGF19) is an ileum-derived hormone. Adipocyte-derived adiponectin and gut-derived FGF15/19 regulate each other, share common signaling cascades and exert similar beneficial functions...
November 2, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089934/prebiotic-and-synbiotic-modifications-of-beta-oxidation-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-after-experimental-hypercholesterolemia-in-rat-liver
#19
Claudia C Alves, Dan L Waitzberg, Laila S de Andrade, Laís Dos Santos Aguiar, Milene B Reis, Camila C Guanabara, Odair A Júnior, Daniel A Ribeiro, Priscila Sala
Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the presence of fat in hepatocytes because of decreased β-oxidation and increased lipogenesis. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotic have modulatory effects on intestinal microbiota and may influence the gut-liver axis. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotics, and synbiotic on liver histopathology and gene expression related to β-oxidation and lipogenesis after hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Wistar male adult rats (n = 40) were submitted to hypercholesterolemic conditions (HPC) (60 days)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066857/alcoholic-liver-disease-gut-liver-axis-ppis-enterococcus-and-promotion-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#20
Katrina Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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