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Gut-liver axis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785003/publisher-correction-the-gut-liver-axis-and-the-intersection-with-the-microbiome
#1
Anupriya Tripathi, Justine Debelius, David A Brenner, Michael Karin, Rohit Loomba, Bernd Schnabl, Rob Knight
In the original version of Table 1 published online, upward arrows to indicate increased translocation of PAMPs were missing from the row entitled 'Translocation' for both the column on alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This error has now been updated in the PDF and HTML version of the article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781336/advances-in-the-treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#2
Wenjun Wang, Ying Xu, Chang Jiang, Yanhang Gao
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is a costly and worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. Specific effective treatments for SAH have yet to be established. The aim of the present article is to review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment options in patients with SAH. To date, alcohol abstinence and enteral nutrition are the recommended first-line treatments. Although corticosteroids remain the preferred therapy for certain patients with a modified Maddrey discriminant function level greater than 54, they only improve short-term survival rates...
May 21, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779170/histological-improvement-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-a-prebiotic-a-pilot-clinical-trial
#3
Marc R Bomhof, Jill A Parnell, Hena R Ramay, Pam Crotty, Kevin P Rioux, Chris S Probert, Saumya Jayakumar, Maitreyi Raman, Raylene A Reimer
PURPOSE: In obesity and diabetes the liver is highly susceptible to abnormal uptake and storage of fat. In certain individuals hepatic steatosis predisposes to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disease marked by hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Although the precise pathophysiology of NASH is unknown, it is believed that the gut microbiota-liver axis influences the development of this disease. With few treatment strategies available for NASH, exploration of gut microbiota-targeted interventions is warranted...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#4
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748586/the-gut-liver-axis-and-the-intersection-with-the-microbiome
#5
REVIEW
Anupriya Tripathi, Justine Debelius, David A Brenner, Michael Karin, Rohit Loomba, Bernd Schnabl, Rob Knight
In the past decade, an exciting realization has been that diverse liver diseases - ranging from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma - fall along a spectrum. Work on the biology of the gut-liver axis has assisted in understanding the basic biology of both alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Of immense importance is the advancement in understanding the role of the microbiome, driven by high-throughput DNA sequencing and improved computational techniques that enable the complexity of the microbiome to be interrogated, together with improved experimental designs...
May 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718134/the-gut-liver-axis-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-path-towards-altering-the-natural-history-of-fibrosis-progression
#6
Eric G Meissner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#7
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687200/are-probiotics-effective-in-targeting-alcoholic-liver-diseases
#8
Meegun Hong, Dae Hee Han, Jitaek Hong, Dong Joon Kim, Ki Tae Suk
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders including steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Despite intensive research in the last two decades, there is currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for treating ALD. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut-liver axis and gut microbiome on the pathogenesis of ALD. Alcohol may induce intestinal dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability, which in turn result in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and translocation of microbial products from the gut to the liver (bacterial translocation)...
April 23, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684027/chronic-calcitriol-supplementation-improves-the-inflammatory-profiles-of-circulating-monocytes-and-the-associated-intestinal-adipose-tissue-alteration-in-a-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#9
Yen-Bo Su, Tzu-Hao Li, Chia-Chang Huang, Hung-Cheng Tsai, Shiang-Fen Huang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Vitamin D deficiency and up-regulated TNFα-related signals are reported to be involved in abnormalities including intestinal hyper-permeability, bacterial translocation, systemic/portal endotoxemia, intestinal/adipose tissue/hepatic inflammation, and hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms and effects of chronic calcitriol [1,25-(OH)2D3, hormonal form of vitamin D] on gut-adipose tissue-liver axis abnormalities using a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat model of NASH...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678931/manipulation-of-the-gut-liver-axis-by-interruption-of-bile-acid-recirculation-an-option-for-the-treatment-of-sclerosing-cholangitis
#10
Daniel Jahn, Marco Marzioni, Andreas Geier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678923/eje-prize-2018-a-gut-feeling-about-glucagon
#11
Filip Krag Knop
Hyperglucagonaemia (in the fasting as well as in the postprandial state) is considered a core pathophysiological component of diabetes and to contribute substantially to the hyperglycaemic state of diabetes. Hyperglucagonaemia is usually viewed upon as a consequence of pancreatic alpha cell insensitivity to the glucagon-suppressive effects of glucose and insulin. Since we observed that the well-known hyperglucagonaemic response to oral glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes is exchanged by normal suppression of plasma glucagon levels following isoglycaemic intravenous glucose administration in these patients, we have been focusing on the gut and gut-derived factors as potential mediators of diabetic hyperglucagonaemia...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665135/hepatocellular-carcinoma-is-associated-with-gut-microbiota-profile-and-inflammation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Sherrie Bhoori, Chiara Castelli, Lorenza Putignani, Licia Rivoltini, Federica Del Chierico, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Daniele Morelli, Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Valentina Petito, Sofia Reddel, Riccardo Calvani, Chiara Camisaschi, Anna Picca, Alessandra Tuccitto, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Pompili, Vincenzo Mazzaferro
The gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the third cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, the link between gut microbiota and hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be clarified. The aim of this study is to explore what features of the gut microbiota are associated with HCC in cirrhotic patients with NAFLD. A consecutive series of patients with NAFLD-related cirrhosis and HCC (group 1: 21 patients), NAFLD-related cirrhosis without HCC (group 2: 20 patients) and healthy controls (group 3: 20 patients) was studied for gut microbiota profile, intestinal permeability, inflammatory status and circulating mononuclear cells...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661926/disruptions-in-gut-microbial-host-co-metabolism-and-the-development-of-metabolic-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
The microbial-mammalian metabolic axis has become recognized as an important component governing the overall homeostatic balance of the mammalian host. Disruption of the state of homeostasis among the gut microbiota has been shown to be causally linked to the development of host metabolic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This disruption is often referred to as gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis leads to altered metabolic products derived from the microbiota and these in turn, typically shift the homeostatic metabolic balance of the host towards a low-grade chronic inflammation, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655855/corrigendum-to-targeting-the-gut-liver-axis-in-liver-disease-j-hepatol-67-2017-1084-1103
#14
Reiner Wiest, Agustin Albillos, Michael Trauner, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Rajiv Jalan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605066/liver-regeneration-in-the-acute-liver-failure-patient
#15
REVIEW
Keith M Wirth, Scott Kizy, Clifford J Steer
Liver regeneration after simple resection represents a unique process in which the organ returns to its original size and histologic structure. Over the past 30 years, there has been significant progress in elucidating the mechanisms associated with regeneration after loss of hepatic mass. Liver regeneration after acute liver failure shares several of these classical pathways. It differs, however, in key processes, including the role of both differentiated and stemlike cells. This article outlines these differences in addition to new molecular mechanisms, including immunomodulation, microRNAs, and the gut-liver axis...
May 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594739/the-ibd-and-psc-phenotypes-of-psc-ibd
#16
REVIEW
Amanda Ricciuto, Binita M Kamath, Anne M Griffiths
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the characteristics of IBD and PSC that occur in association, as well as their reciprocal influences on disease evolution, in adult and pediatric populations. RECENT FINDINGS: IBD co-existing with PSC is genetically and clinically distinct from IBD alone. It is frequently characterized by pancolitis, rectal sparing, and possibly backwash ileitis, as well as a threefold increased risk of colorectal dysplasia. Adults and children with colitis and PSC appear to be at increased risk of active endoscopic and histologic disease in the absence of symptoms compared to individuals without PSC...
March 28, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590191/gut-bone-axis-response-to-dietary-replacement-of-soybean-meal-with-raw-low-tannin-faba-bean-seeds-in-broiler-chickens
#17
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Renata Klebaniuk, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Agnieszka Tomczyk-Warunek, Sylwia Szymańczyk, Sylwester Kowalik, Anna Milczarek, Tomasz Blicharski, Siemowit Muszyński
It seems that faba bean (FB) seeds could be a good protein-energy component in animal feed, but the presence of anti-nutritional substances limits their use as a substitute of soybean meal. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of different concentrations of raw, low-tannin, FB seeds on the gut-bone axis in Ross 308 broilers. One-day old chickens were randomly subjected to one of the 3 dietary treatments: the control group was fed standard diet based on soybean meal and without FB seeds, and two groups were fed 8%/15% and 16%/22% of raw low-tannin FB seeds in the starter and grower, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563854/gut-microbiota-as-a-driver-of-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Ianiro, Maria Pina Dore, Claudia Simonelli, Estelle E Newton, Giovanni Cammarota
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the consequent burden of metabolic syndrome have increased in recent years. Although the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is not completely understood, it is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of the dysregulation of insulin-dependent pathways leading to insulin resistance and adipose tissue accumulation in the liver. Recently, the gut-liver axis has been proposed as a key player in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, as the passage of bacteria-derived products into the portal circulation could lead to a trigger of innate immunity, which in turn leads to liver inflammation...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531939/targeting-gut-microbiota-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-probiotics-as-a-novel-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Murphy L Y Wan, Hani El-Nezami
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver cancer, is one of the dreaded complications of chronic liver disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies have revealed that the alteration of gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the onset of chronic liver diseases, including HCC. Altered gut microbiota and endotoxemia are increasingly recognized as critical components in promoting the progression of chronic liver diseases to HCC. Probiotics have been suggested as a novel, safe and cost-effective approach to prevent or treat HCC...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519549/role-of-bile-acids-in-the-gut-liver-axis
#20
Kai Markus Schneider, Stefanie Albers, Christian Trautwein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Hepatology
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